Hi, i’m Michelle, I’m Stephanie, I’m Luke, and I’m Nicole... and i was just wondering what we were talking about today? Well, today we’re talking about Attitudes in relation to the theory of planned behaviour and prediction of leisure behaviour.
What’s an attitude? Is this an attitude?
It’s a cognition, often with some aversion or attraction (emotional valence), which reflects classification and evaluation of objects and events Attitudes are Hypothetical constructs that manifest in experience, speech, behaviour, and physiological indicators.
An attitude is basically an evaluative judgement about a stimulus object For example, whether or not you like Lady Gaga. This image doesn’t confine to common attitudes or beliefs on pandas and their use of technology, but it does agree with a common attitude that choices in music can depend on our attitudes at any one point.
OK, so how do they relate to behaviour? An attitude is basically the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behaviour in question. They can vary across person and situation Attitudes are implicated in human behavior, and have an impact on specific behaviour indirectly by influencing some of the factors implicated in behaviour. Attitudes are also a function of salient behavioral beliefs, which represent perceived outcomes/attributes of the behaviour For example, whether or not your attitude has relevance to whether you actually go see Lady Ga Ga in concert
For individuals attitudes might help predict participation in sport brand loyalty and consumer buying behaviour For managers and leisure service providers it could help with human resources improved products or services marketing and research For psychologists treatment of clinical illness occupational psychology As a futher illustration, in 2004 alone, $1.45 billion was spent on political advertising, showing influencing attitudes and cash go hand in hand. Anti-drug campaigns are another classic example. We’ve seen advertising address the many attitudes drug users have - it’s expensive, you’ll suffer later, think of your children... this one challenges the attitude that smoking is a social activity.
In a positive leisure and business case, Australia’s bid for the 2022 soccer world cup last year failed tremendously, with FIFA officials only granting us 1 vote out of 22. How would attitudes matter here? Two fold: lack of support from Australians who’d prefer cricket or rugby, and FIFA’s attitudes on Australia as a strong and capable nation. For all the money we could have made from hosting the world cup, it did not go ahead because we failed to show how Australia could market the world cup as a world class event to people around the world.
There are so many possible attitudes though! Yes, there are! You can have all sorts of different attitudes towards an activity or concept. They vary from person to person, depend upon the stimulus itself AND also on time. People change their minds about topics all the time! Tricky. Well, I’m really interested in predicting leisure behaviour for the type of business I want to run. What can all this psycho babble do to help me out?
Well, The main assumption is that attitudes are an antecedent of various leisure behaviours we may end up doing. as little is known about the antecedents of leisure behaviour, there is a need for the development and use of better methods by applying general theory and methods of psychology in an effort to improve our prediction and understanding of leisure behaviour.
When we want to relate attitudes to a domain (eg. leisure) we need an appropriate explanatory structure. This is where models combine both a central focus on attitudes, with factors that are also consistently related to behaviours in the domain in question (eg, leisure).
That sounds awesome! But what IS it?
Perceived behavioural controll is the third factor, and is basically Whether or not you believe you can perform the relevant behavior. Perceived behavioural control Depends on:Control beliefs (Individual's perceptions about whether they possess the resources or opportunities to perform the behavior). For example, I’m fit strong and healthy, so i have the resources to run. There’s also a running track down the road from my house, so i ahve the opportunity to run. Therefore, running for me should be pretty easy.
The Intention factor is the individual’s internal declaration to act. We need intention to better predict specific behavioral outcomes. General attitudes, such as the general belief that exercise is good, can funnel into specific behaviours, such as running. Similarly, specific attitudes, such as running is good, can lead you to participate in a more general form of exercise, such as tennis or swimming. However, these generalities lack the precision that is gained by specificity of intentions. This is why intention is in the model.
All of these can be used to predict Behaviour, which is the actual observable thing that you do. The behaviour in our examples is running.
Here is the model put together. Just a note to remember, is that models such as the theory of planned behaviour take the normative approach, meaning that if you find a given population of people (eg. students), the model will predict generally what MOST students will do, but it will not be accurate for every single individual.
The Theory of Planned Behavior is held to be a complete theory of behaviour. Meta-analyses have provided strong support for the predictive validity of the theory in terms of the percentage of variance explained in behaviour and intention. Basically it’s good at predicting behaviour
If the Theory of Planned Behaviour can be directly applied to leisure activities, specific activities themselves should then serve as the dependent variable that is predicted by the factors in the model. Where’s the evidence for this? Ajzen and Driver (1992) applied the theory of planned behaviour to leisure choice and looked at : Boating Beaching Running Climbing Biking (Participation in these make up the behaviour factor of the model) So specifically, they hypothesized that intention to perform activities of this kind can be predicted from attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control with respect to the activities. Also, that performance of the behaviours can be predicted from intentions and perceptions of behavioural control. Attitudes, norms, and PBC each contributed to the prediction of intention to engage in these recreational activities. This basically means, that if you were to take out any of the three previously mentioned factors (that is, norm, attitudes and perceived behavioural control) you lose a degree of accuracy in the prediction of behaviour. The hypotheses were supported:three major factors, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control, were in fact found to contribute to the prediction of intention to engage in these recreational activities. From intentions behaviour also followed in the leisure activities. In statistics speak, the prediction of behaviour showed a moderate effect size, which for psychology, is pretty good.
Moderators can cause a different effect in a relationship between 2 variables.Even though the current four predictors of behaviour in the model have evidence supporting the reliability of its predictions, there may still be other variables which effect the behavioural outcome. A way of demonstrating this are the habits that people have. For our running example, someone may run just because they’re used to doing it. They may have no idea what other people think about it. But habit doesn’t necessarily influence attitudes, norms, or perceived behavioural control, rather, it can be a pretty good predictor of behaviour by itself. As a way of illustrating the idea of a moderator, norms and perceived behavioural control were themselves considered consistent moderators. Due to their extra powers of prediction they were included in the model.
And so, as a factor like habits can be included in the model to further explain behaviour, this model is not a complete predictor of behaviour in itself; so specific behaviours cannot be reliably predicted everytime. THERE MAY BE SOME VARIATION.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour cannot perfectly predict behaviour every single time. Further research needs to be done on additional variables and the inclusion of these into the model as they may be related to other variables in the model. As research on habits has shown us, in some situations habits have excellent powers of prediction in familiar situations in addition to any predictive power of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Habits aren't rational, in the sense of actually needing to be thought about. This is the main criticism of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, as it is assumed that attitudes are rational and socially significant behaviour is intentional, reasoned, and planned. . Some minor criticisms of the model are that The majority of research on the TPB employs self-report measures, which may be biased or confounded by social desirability. Also, evidence supporting the causal aspect of the model is weak and in need of further demonstration.
So despite these criticisms the model still seems pretty good. Getting back to my idea about using prediction of leisure behaviours to help my business, basically, from what you guys have been saying, i could either: Find a market using the model by Tapping into a population where the model will already fit, and integrating a leisure service to suit. OR... . Change the market to fit the model, or in other words, Within a given population, manipulate the factors within the model (eg. encourage pro-recreational norms) to increase the likelihood that people will participate in the leisure service provided.
Also, In light of John's profound insights into the nature of facilitating/inhibiting recreation... AND Revisiting the ASSUMPTION that attitudes are an antecedent of various leisure behaviours we may end up doing... A model such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour potentially provides explanations and opportunities that can fit into existing models of recreation determinants and constraints.
If we talk about antecedents vs intervening constraints the theory of planned behaviour fits in better with antecedent constraints so ATTENTION!!! You smart business people who can integrate and apply these two models, you stand to make a lot more money than psychology students...
Attitudes and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Leisure
2106HSL Psychology of Well-being and Recreation Attitudes and theTheory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Leisure
Attitudes• A cognition/thought with some aversion or attraction (emotional valence)• Reflect classification and evaluation of stimulus• Hypothetical constructs (i.e., inferred but not objectively observable)• Manifest in experience, speech, behaviour, and physiological indicators. (Vaughn & Hogg, 2008)
An attitude is basically an evaluative judgement about astimulus object (a thing, concept, behaviour, etc.). (Maio & Haddock, 2009)
Attitudes and Behaviour• The degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behaviour in question. Attitudes can vary across person and situation. (Ajzen, 1991)• Attitudes are implicated in human behavior, and have an impact on specific behaviour indirectly by influencing some of the factors implicated in behaviour. (Ajzen, 1991)• Attitudes are a function of salient behavioral beliefs, which represent perceived outcomes/attributes of the behaviour. (Conner & Armitage, 2006) EXAMPLES: Would you see Lady Gaga in concert based onyour attitude?
Why Attitudes MatterIndividuals In 2004, $1.45 billion was • participation spent on political advertising. • brand loyalty (TNS Media Intelligence/CMR, 2004) • consumer buying behaviourManagers of Leisure• human resources• improved product/service• marketing and researchPsychologists • treatment of clinical illness • occupational psychology
Why Attitudes MatterEXAMPLE: Australias FIFA "Hours of effort wereWorld Cup 2022 bid put into ensuring • Aussie attitudes to soccer o its not cricket! Other Australia put forward a sports have priority technically excellent,• FIFAs attitudes of credible and responsible Australia bid against enormous o need to reflect value of "the world game" competition." o international relations and - PM Julia Gillard politics (Herald Sun, 2010)
Attitudes and BehaviourASSUMPTION: Attitudes are an antecedentof various leisure behaviours we may end updoing. (Ajzen & Driver, 1992). As little is known about the antecedents of leisurebehaviour, there is a need for the development and use ofbetter methods by applying general theory and methods ofpsychology in an effort to improve our prediction andunderstanding of leisure behaviour.
Domains and ModelsWhen we want to relate attitudes to a domain (eg. leisure)we need an appropriate explanatory structure.This is where models combine both a central focus onattitudes with factors that are also consistently related tobehaviour in the domain in question (eg. leisure). THUS WE BRING YOU…
The Theory of Planned BehaviourAttitudeThe individualsattitude towards a specific behaviour.Depends on: • Expectancy (belief strength) Behaviour • Value (evaluation)EXAMPLE: Running is a highly reliable method of gettingfit (expectancy). The evaluation of running is that itis an enjoyable thing to do (value)
The Theory of Planned BehaviourAttitudeNorms BehaviourAn individuals belief about how significant others view the behaviour. • Normative beliefs (how you think people important to you expect you to act) • Motivation (how willing you are to comply with these beliefs)EXAMPLE: A son thinks his mum wants him to get fit(normative beliefs) and he always does what his mummysays (motivation).
The Theory of Planned BehaviourAttitudeNorms BehaviourPerceivedBehaviouralControl Individual’s perceptions about whether they possess the resources or opportunities to perform the behaviorEXAMPLE: Im fit (resources), and theres a trackdown the road from home (opportunity).
The Theory of Planned BehaviourAttitudeNorms Intention Behaviour Internal declaration to act. General attitude --> Specific behaviour Specific attude <-- General behaviourPerceived But both poorly predict behaviourBehaviouralControl
The Theory of Planned BehaviourAttitudeNorms Intention Behaviour The actual observable thing that you do (ie. behaviour).PerceivedBehaviouralControlEXAMPLE: Right now, I am running.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour, (Ajzen, 1991)
Effectiveness of the TPB• The TPB is held to be a complete theory of behaviour.• Meta-analyses have provided strong support for the predictive validity of the theory in terms of the percentage of variance explained in behaviour and intention.• That is, its good at predicting behaviour. (Conner & Armitage, 2006).
Evidence for Leisure• Ajzen and Driver (1992) looked at: o Boating o Beaching o Running o Climbing o Biking• The three major factors (attitudes, norms, PBC) each contributed to the prediction of intention to engage in these recreational activities.• From intentions, behaviour also followed in the leisure activities.• In statistic speak, the prediction of behaviour showed a moderate effect size, which for psychology, is pretty good.
Additional FactorsSo, if this is a complete model of behaviour, adding more factors should notbetter predict behaviour (Maio & Haddock, 2009). AttitudeHabits Norms Intention Behaviour(Accounted for by) (No better predicted) Perceived Behavioural Control
Moderators (Maio & Haddock, 2009) Moderators can cause a different effect in a relationshipbetween 2 variables.EXAMPLE:HabitsAttitudesNorms Intention BehaviourPBC
ModeratorsEven though the current four predictors of behaviourin the model have been proven as reliable, there maystill be other variables which affect the behaviouraloutcome.Aside from attitudes, all the current components ofthe TPB started out as moderators beforeestablished as reliable predictors.This model is not a complete predictor of behaviour initself; specific behaviours cannot be reliablypredicted every time.THERE MAY BE SOME VARIATION!
Criticisms• Habits arent rational. (Vaughan & Hogg, 2008)• The majority of research on the TPB employs self-report measures, which may be biased or confounded by social desirability (Conner & Armitage, 2006).• Evidence supporting the causal aspect of the model is weak and in need of further demonstration (Conner & Armitage, 2006).
What do we DO with this model?• Find a market using the model ie. Tapping into a population where the model will already fit, and integrating a leisure service to suit. OR... .• Change the market to fit the model ie. Within a given population, manipulate the factors within the model (eg. encourage pro-recreational norms) to increase the likelihood that people will participate in the leisure service provided.
Recreation Determinants andConstraintsIn light of Johns profound insights into the nature offacilitating/inhibiting recreation... Revisiting our ASSUMPTION that attitudes arean antecedent of various leisure behaviours wemay end up doing... A model such as the TPBpotentially provides explanations andopportunities that can fit into existing models ofrecreation determinants and constraints.
The TPB + The Model ofRecreation Constraints Antecedent Intervening Constraints Constraints TPB • Fills out explanations • Provides predictions Recreation Recreation Preferences Participation Which means: You smart business people who can integrateand apply these two models stand to make a lot more moneythan psychology students!
References Australian World Cup Bid Dumped in First Round. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/australian-world-cup-bid-dumped-in-first-round/story-fn75ie93-1225964889778 3 December; accessed 13April 2011. Azjen. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour; Organizational Behaviour and Human DecisionProcesses, (50), 179-211. Azjen & Driver. (1992). Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to leisure choice.Journal of Leisure Research, (24)3, 207-224. Conner, M., & Armitage, C.J. (2006). Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: A review andavenues for further research. Journal of Applied Psychology, (28)15, 1429-1464. Maio, G., & Haddock, G. (2009). The Psychology of Attitudes and Attitude Change. London:SAGE Publications. U.S. Political Advertising Spending Reaches $1.45 Billion. http://www.tnsmi-cmr.com/news/2004/110104.html — 1 November; accessed 13 April 2011. Vaughan, G., & Hogg, M. (2008). Introduction to Social Psychology (5th Ed.). New South Wales:Pearson Education Australia. V