Child Undernutrition


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  • Hi, I’m Nicole Townsend and today I am going to speak to you about child malnutrition
  • According to Richard Guerrant the global mortality rate among children ages 5 and younger is between 9 million and 11 million each year. And over half of these deaths are caused by malnutrition Almost 20% of the yearly deaths are from diarrhea, this is because while having diarrhea children lose all their nutrients making it hard for them to grow and develop.
  • Deficiencies are also a major factor in child malnutrition. Vitiamin A and Zinc deficiencies are responsible for 9% of yearly deaths. Vitamin A deficiency is very common in developing countries. One of the first signs of Vitamin A deficiency is night blindness, and if the child continues to be low on vitamin A he or she may eventually go completely blind. Vitamin A deficiency also lowers the ability to fight infections and these infections could cause death. When a child is low on Zinc this can cause them to loose great amounts of weight, and even develop diarrhea. It also affects the growth and development of the body. Iron and Iodine deficiencies are only responsible for .2% of yearly deaths, and even though this number is small, it is still a contributing factor. Iron Deficiencies can slow down infant motor functions causing them to learn at slower speeds. And also impairs the ability to do physical activities because the child may get tired quicker. Iodine deficiency results in developmental delays and affects the thyroid hormones in the child’s body. These combined plus other deficiencies are responsible for nearly 35% of yearly deaths in children.
  • The first few years in a child’s life are the most important years to the child’s development. If the child is malnourished before it is born the birth weight is already very low. This causes the child to have a hard time breathing because they are too week to use their lungs. Low birth weight is also related to cancers because the children cannot fight off diseases and illnesses. Also low birthweight is a major contributor to mental illness in developing countries because the child is so malnourished that it cannot develop the brain that is needed to grow and learn. Babies who have low birth weight are more likely to die within the first year than an average sized child. According to Joctan height-for-age at 2 years old is the best predictor of human capital. And that under nutrition is associated with lower human capital.
  • A few long term effects of child malnutrition are Immune function, blood lipids and osteoporosis. With a low immune function it allows the child to have more health problems because it cannot fight off bacteria and diseases. Low blood lipids make it hard to gain weight and become nourished, it also may lead to low blood lipids for the rest of the child’s life, affecting them for the future. Osteoporosis is when bones weaken and blood tissue thins. This can make it easy for the child to break bones and because they are malnourished they may not be able to heal those bones correctly.
  • Child malnutrition leads to permanent impairment and may affect future generations. The child with permanent impairment may have brain damage and become mentally retarded because they could not develop. Also many women who were malnourished as a child produce less estrogen. Future generations may be affected by this because if the child grows up with developmental problems or malnourishment the rest of their lives, they may give birth to an underweight child or not know how to take care of the child.
  • A major contributor to child malnourishment is the environment. Biofuels are taking the food that could feed the mouths of these hungry children and using it to fuel cars. Also agriculture is a problem. If the land gets over used it will lose its nourishments and they will not be able to farm on that land anymore.
  • A major ethic that connects to this is “rights”. Everyone has the right to eat and be healthy. Children cannot support themselves so we shouldn’t expect them to have to try to. Utilitarianism is the greatest good for the greatest number. Instead of using food for biofuels to get cars around America we should take that food and give it to countries that need it. We have enough food to help others and that is the greatest good for all.
  • Child Undernutrition

    1. 1. Child Malnutrition The Effects of Child malnutrition in the developing world. By: Nicole Townsend
    2. 2. Malnutrition and Death <ul><li>Global mortality among children ages 5 and under around 9.7-10.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>53% related to malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>18% from diarrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs weight and height gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerrant, Richard L., Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development., Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 66, Issue 9, p 487-505, Sept. 2008. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Deficiencies <ul><li>Vitamin A and Zinc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for 9% deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iron and Iodine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for 0.2% deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These and other deficiencies account for 35% child deaths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerrant, Richard L., Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development., Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 66, Issue 9, p 487-505, Sept. 2008. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Early Childhood <ul><li>Birth weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies more likely to die within first year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictor of human capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joctan, A national shame. Economist, Vol. 392, Issue 8646, p 33-34 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Long-Term Effects <ul><li>Immune Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low immune system allows for more health problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low blood lipids for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to gain weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones weaken and blood tissue thins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joctan, A national shame. Economist, Vol. 392, Issue 8646, p 33-34 </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Leads to… <ul><li>Permanent impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects for life and children may be affected also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joctan, A national shame. Economist, Vol. 392, Issue 8646, p 33-34 </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Environmental <ul><li>Biofuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More food and corn gets put towards new biofuels than towards feeding the hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land gets used up and cannot farm anymore </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Ethics <ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone has the right to eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children cannot support themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Greatest good for greatest number” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the food so the number of people not starving rises </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The End