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How Does Infection Occur?


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In this lesson, students learn through observation that infection is caused by microorganisms found all around us. They will then demonstrate how infection can be spread throughout a population and will determine various factors that can affect the rate at which a disease spreads.

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How Does Infection Occur?

  1. 1. How Does Infection Occur?
  2. 2. CA Standards <ul><li>Know and understand medical terminology to interpret, transcribe, and communicate information and observations necessary for workers in the health care industry. (Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standard 2.5)  </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance and requirements of using sterile techniques in a laboratory. (Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standard A4.4)  </li></ul><ul><li>Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection. (Science Grades 9-12, Biology/Life Sciences Standard 10a)  </li></ul><ul><li>Students know the role of antibodies in the body’s response to in </li></ul><ul><li>fection. (Science Grades 9-12, Biology/Life Sciences Standard 10b)  </li></ul><ul><li>Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases. (Science Grades 9-12, Biology/Life Sciences Standard 10c)  </li></ul><ul><li>Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body’s primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections. (Science Grades 9-12, Biology/Life Sciences Standard 10d)  </li></ul><ul><li>Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression. (Algebra I Standard 17.0) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Students will: </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and compare microorganisms found on fomites </li></ul><ul><li>Identify different types of pathogens, types of diseases, and types of body defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate the spread of an infection throughout a population </li></ul><ul><li>Determine factors that affect the rate of spread of a disease </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Does Infection Occur? <ul><li>Microorganisms are small, living organisms not visible to the naked eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A DISEASE results if the invading </li></ul><ul><li>pathogen causes the host to get sick. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Pathogens <ul><li>There are different </li></ul><ul><li>types of pathogens – </li></ul><ul><li>they include: </li></ul><ul><li>FUNGI </li></ul><ul><li>BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>VIRUSES </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOZOANS </li></ul><ul><li>PRIONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacteria
  8. 8. Bacteria <ul><li>Single-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Live in a variety of environments </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1% cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>Usually killed by antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of diseases caused by bacteria include pneumonias, strep throat, tuberculosis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Viruses
  10. 10. Viruses <ul><li>Smallest of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Nonliving </li></ul><ul><li>Can only reproduce by invading a host cell </li></ul><ul><li>NOT cured by antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of diseases caused by viruses include chicken pox, colds, influenza, small pox, HIV </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Disease <ul><li>Endogenous = the </li></ul><ul><li>disease begins WITHIN </li></ul><ul><li>the body </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumors </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Disease <ul><li>Exogenous = the disease </li></ul><ul><li>begins OUTSIDE the body </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogenic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature extremes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Disease <ul><li>Nosocomial = diseases </li></ul><ul><li>acquired by an </li></ul><ul><li>individual in a health </li></ul><ul><li>care facility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually present in the facility and transmitted by health care workers to the patient </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Disease <ul><li>Opportunistic = disease </li></ul><ul><li>that occurs when the </li></ul><ul><li>body’s defenses are </li></ul><ul><li>weak </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Mucous membrane: </li></ul><ul><li>lines the respiratory, </li></ul><ul><li>digestive, and </li></ul><ul><li>reproductive tracts; traps microorganisms to prevent them from invading </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Cilia: tiny hairlike </li></ul><ul><li>structures that line the </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory tract to move </li></ul><ul><li>pathogens out of the </li></ul><ul><li>body </li></ul>
  17. 17. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Coughing and sneezing removes microorganisms from the respiratory tract. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Hydrochloric acid: </li></ul><ul><li>destroys pathogens in </li></ul><ul><li>the stomach </li></ul>
  19. 19. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Tears in the eye: </li></ul><ul><li>contain chemicals that </li></ul><ul><li>kill bacteria </li></ul>
  20. 20. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Fever: kills pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>by heat </li></ul>
  21. 21. Common Body Defenses <ul><li>Immune response: body </li></ul><ul><li>produces white blood </li></ul><ul><li>cells and antibodies to fight pathogens </li></ul>