Field research and interaction design: course #2


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Second deck of slides from the Field Research and Interaction Design, a Master course at the Geneva University of Art and Design, in the Media Design program taught in 2009-2010.

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Field research and interaction design: course #2

  1. 1. Course #2: preparing research studies nicolas nova | liftlab Head, Geneva | October, 29th 2009 Thursday, October 29, 2009
  2. 2. Article presentation Thursday, October 29, 2009
  3. 3. Research plan 1. Question: Which research question are to be asked? (see course 1 for example) 2. Data collection technique: Which data will answer those questions? 3. Sampling: Where, and from whom, those data can be obtained? 4. In what form the data will be collected 5. How, by whom, and to whom results will be disseminated Adapted from to “Designing and conducting ethnographic research” by LeCompte and Shensul Thursday, October 29, 2009
  4. 4. What do I Why do I What kind of Whom do I Where can I Timelines for need to need to know data will contact for answer the find the data? acquisition know? this? access? question? Adapted from to “Designing and conducting ethnographic research” by LeCompte and Shensul Thursday, October 29, 2009
  5. 5. Sampling? the practice concerned with the selection of case (people, activity, group, situation) intended to yield some knowledge in quantitative research, sampling is about selecting (randomly) a sufficiently large amount of cases within a given mother population, in qualitative research, there are different approaches... Thursday, October 29, 2009
  6. 6. Sampling strategies in qualitative research different approaches depending on: 1. logistics: - can I get permission to study a group? a budget to pay participants? - do I have the resources? time? how far away is the group? - will the participant accept? talk to me? 2. research question - what do I need to know? - how to bound or operationally define the group? - the goal: representative or selective See examples afterwards adapted from Miles & Huberman (1994) Thursday, October 29, 2009
  7. 7. Type of sampling Main usage in design Get a representative sample of the Random (pick-up participants randomly) population Homogeneous (select participants that Provide better focus and safer conclusions corresponds to the same criteria) Maximal variation (select highly different participants according to one or more Give better scope to the research results criteria) Based on your theory (depends on your Test an hypothesis, test your design questions, hypotheses) questions Extreme cases (pick-up only weird and Test the boundaries of a model or seek deviant cases) new possibilities Typical (choose people who are Find what is average, typical or “normal” representative of a population) Thursday, October 29, 2009
  8. 8. Type of sampling Main usage in design In-depth study to know specific details Intense (find only one unique case) about the question According to a dimension or criteria Study a particular phenomena Snow ball / Opportunistic (select people Explore new angles and re-adjust the based on information collected during research questions research) According to reputation (choose participant based on recommendation by Explore more deeply experts) Make comparisons between groups / test Comparative method hypotheses Thursday, October 29, 2009
  9. 9. Research and data quality Reliability: the degree of consistency for the same object by different observers, by the same observer at different moments, by the same observer with (moderately) different tools Internal validity: can you justify your interpretations? can you state your biases? External validity: can you generalize (other people, other contexts)? Thursday, October 29, 2009
  10. 10. Paradigm: the set of practices that define a scientific discipline... and your orientation (e.g relativist-positivist spectrum) Approach: a set of methods to study situations with different goals (e.g. controlled experiments, field studies) Thursday, October 29, 2009
  11. 11. From Jarvinen, P. (2001). How to select an appropriate research method in ergonomic studies? Thursday, October 29, 2009
  12. 12. Conceptual/theoretical frameworks: provide an overview of a phenomenon, help to formulate questions , list dimensions of a situation and enable to structure the analysis in design research, frameworks are less employed than in other domains two examples though Thursday, October 29, 2009
  13. 13. activity theory (Y.Engeström) Tools Subject Object Outcome Rules Community Division of labor Thursday, October 29, 2009
  14. 14. grounded theory (strauss and corbin) Inductive approach, from the ground-up as it begins with a research situation with no specific theory at first. Within that situation, your task as researcher is to understand what is happening there. Your task is to identify categories (roughly equivalent to themes or variables) and their properties (in effect their sub-categories). ➡ We will adopt this perspective and aim at uncovering “thick descriptions” and “informed opinions” which are relevant for design purposes Thursday, October 29, 2009
  15. 15. The description dimension we are looking for: Who What Where When How “Why”? not so much (we’ll get to that later) The answers to these question will be obtained through different research techniques: observations, photographic investigations, interviews, etc. Each of the upcoming course will address a specific technique Thursday, October 29, 2009
  16. 16. Project discussion Thursday, October 29, 2009
  17. 17. Menu for next courses ➡ Course’s blog: ➡ Next course will be about observation and photographic investigation Thursday, October 29, 2009
  18. 18. Assignement ➡ Each student will have to read a research paper and present it to the class: • 10 minutes, no slides • Outline: summary + why is it relevant for design + personal opinion • For next course:“Where’s the phone? A study of Mobile Phone Location in Public Spaces by Ichikawa, F., Chipchase J., & Grignani R. ( ➡ Project: • Define your research question based on the table presented on Slide 4 • Define your sampling strategy, justify your choice • Prepare a 5 minutes presentations with 2 slides: one for the research question table, one for the sampling strategy, we will discuss the results in class at the next course Thursday, October 29, 2009
  19. 19. Let’s discuss your research question Thursday, October 29, 2009
  20. 20. thanks Thursday, October 29, 2009