Article Source: Dervarics, C. (2008). Approved hea bill offers more aid for low-income students. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, (25),14 Retrieve from Academic Search Complete (EBSCO) on April 1, 2010.
Equity with Technology Karen Blevins, Lisa McCoy, Tammy Ramos, Nicola RitterThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute to the authors.
Navigation Equity Issue Equity Laws Click on any of the tabs to the left Present to go directly to that topic. Concerns Scenario References
Equity Factor in Technology Equity Issue Equity Laws ―Failure to provide adequate technological resources for all translates into failure to provide quality Present education, creating an ever greater divide between Concerns affluent and poor school districts‖ (Mason and Dodds, 2005). Scenario References
Equity Factor in Technology Equity Issue The Facts Equity Laws The issue of equity, which focuses on the disparities among, ―age, gender, ethnicity, race, and Present geographic location…‖ (Gorski, 2001) is a vital Concerns aspect of technology that needs to be addressed as its use expands. Scenario Trends show that while access to technology has References increased over the years, the amazing advantage it has created for some users has been offset by the availability, usability, and bias issues it has created for others.
Equity Factor in Technology Equity Issue The Main Concerns Equity Laws • Access • Gender gap Present • Age Disparities Concerns Scenario References
Facing the Facts… Larry Irving, a former U.S. assistant secretary of commerce reminds individuals, ―Think how powerful the Internet is. Then remind yourself that fewer than 2% of people are actually connected. The power of the Web increases exponentially with every person who goes online. Imagine what we’re missing.‖ (Yoder, 2001)
Equity| Relevant Laws Equity Issue •Federal legislation addresses digital equity through a variety of funded programs. Equity Laws Section 2 •State and local entities have the opportunity Present Concerns to apply for grants under federal legislation. Scenario •These entities use the funding to create programs that address digital equity issues References specific to their communities.
Relevant Laws Telecommunications Act of 1996Section 524 offers qualifying schools, school districts, and libraries with lowSES and urban or rural status discounted telecommunication services.The E-Rate program is funded by a Universal Service fee charged totelecommunication companies. This fee supplements the discounted rates oftelecommunication services offered to those that qualify.As of March 16, 2010, the FCC plans to remove the cap of $2.25 billionannually. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO
Relevant Laws Telecommunications Act Section 706 requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to conduct regular inquiries to see that advanced telecommunications are becoming accessible.
Relevant LawsNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001Title II, Part D, Section 2401 establishes the Enhancing Education ThroughTechnology program.The Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) program providesfunding to state education agencies for the implementation and retention ofeffective technologies to improve student achievement.One of three goals of the EET program address closing the digital divide. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO
Relevant Laws EETT Program Goal 2(A) To assist every student in crossing the digital divide by ensuring that every student is technologically literate by the time the student finishes the eighth grade, regardless of the students race, ethnicity, gender, family income, geographic location, or disability.
Relevant Laws Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008Provides new federal grants to address the digital divide atminority-serving colleges and universities institutions. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO
Relevant Laws American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009Provides $650 million in additional funding to the EnhancingEducation through Technology (Ed Tech) Program CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO
Equity| Present Concerns Paul C. Gorski, in his 2009 Urban Education article, Equity Issue Insisting on Digital Equity, poses these questions as addressing a realistic look at current digital equity: Equity Laws 1. Who has the easiest, most consistent access to these resources? Present Present Concerns Concerns 2. How are educators using technology differently with different populations of students? Scenario 3. Who stand to gain the most – economically, politically, and so on – from the growing urgency to technologies References schools and classrooms? 4. What are the equity and social justice implications of this educational technology craze/
Access Traditionally defined as proximity to technology, reports of a population’s ―access‖ to technologyhas not considered the way the technology is used, capabilities of the system, obsolescence of hardware, ability to purchase software, or other relevant issues for effective comparison.
Access Minorities, people earning low incomes, individuals with minimal education, and children of single-parent households –particularly those who live in rural areas or inner cities –are among those with the most limited access to information resources (Gorski, 2001).
Equity| Present ConcernsEquity Issue Gender Gap Equity Laws A main concern in Present schools is the gender Concerns gap that exists in the use of computer Scenario technology. References
The Gender GapResearch shows that populations viewedboys as being more apt to working withcomputers and technology as compared togirls, resulting in altered views towardscomputers and technology in general.Therefore attitudes towards technologyare affected due to differences inexposure.
Studies have shown that as ofGender 2000, females compromise the Bias majority of the online population, however this is misleading in reference to a perceived equity in technology as it is not supported by the number of women pursuing and finding success in computer2009) (Gorski, related fields.
School Inequities Traditionally recognized school inequities affect the area of technology as well as other areas: 1. Obsolete or irrelevant technology 2. Limited access to use of technology by both teachers and students 3. Teachers who are not trained effectively or consistently in the appropriate use of technology to meeting instructional goals 4. Use of computers for entertainment or rote practice rather than a tool for growth and advancement.
School Inequities (Uzunboylu and Tuncay, 2010)
Age accounts for the highest gap in access Age and productive use of the internet. TheDisparities need to address this issue is likely to continue as advancements in technology are increasing exponentially, meaning that even today’s technology may be obsolete (Uzunboylu and Tuncay, 2008) tomorrow.
Individuals with Disabilities Another area of present concern centers around the availability and training of technology applications for individuals with disabilities. Lack of accommodations and accessibility for disabled individuals and the general conception that technology is not essential for this population group. ―…a study by the International Center for Disability Resources on the Internet shows that a majority of people living without disabilities assume that people with disabilities have no reason to access the Internet.‖ (Kearns, 2001)
Stereotypical Representations For both culturally diverse groups and women, the representations of their respective groups on the internet continues to be stereotypical or non-existent. Women Culturally Diverse Video games produce images of Often minorities are not women that are highly sexualized. represented Educational software favors a Minorities find no connection to traditional view of girls and tends the applications on the internet to feature more male figures. Pornography is rampant on the Lack of multi-lingual internet representation does not encourage minority use
Global Implications Consider the world and the future. The (click below)Implications Of Inequity Are Global
Bridging the Gap According to the Mason and Dodds (2005), ― As technologies continue to advance and provide enhanced resources for learning and research, critical questions arise: •Will these technologies be available to all schools? •Will they enable schools to close or at least narrow the digital divide?
What needs to be done?―Computer technology is the cutting-edge—and seductive –instructional resource for 21st century education, yet its optimalapplications for instructional education have yet to bedetermined.‖ (American Association of University Women,1999) Numerous equity factors, including gender bias, accessibility, and gender gaps, need to be addressed in order for technology to be viewed by younger generations as a wave of the future and a wonderful resource for education and instruction, among other areas.
Equity |Scenario Wayside Intermediate School, a school whose culturally diverse population includes 25% free and reduced lunch, has increased their Equity Issue focus and funding for technology as part of a district initiative. Teachers are receiving additional training in the use of technology for enhancement of instruction and every student is now required to Equity Laws participate in a technology class as one of their ―specials‖ classes. Administrators are also encouraging teachers to increase the use of technology in their instructional practices. Present In creating his lessons, 5th grade teacher Justin Thyme has developed a Concerns research project for his students that includes finding internet sources, using a citing service (NoodleTools), and developing a PowerPoint. His Scenario Scenario class includes a range of abilities including a group of five students who receive Special Education services and three students identified as Gifted and Talented. Students will have access to the computer lab twice a week and the assignment will require additional outside work as well. References What possible issues of equity might Wayside Intermediate School need to address?
Equity |References Equity Issue Mason, C. and Dodds, R. (2005). Bridge the Digital Divide for Educational Equity. The Educational Digest, 84, 57-59. Equity Laws Nordquist, S. (2008, May 30). The digital divide [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube database. Present Concerns Uzunboylu, H., & Tuncay, N. (2010). Divergence of digital world of teachers. Journal of Educational Technology & Scenario Society, 13(1), 186-194. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database References References Yoder, M.B. (2001). The digital divide: The problem and its implication. Learning and Leading with Technology, 28, 10-13.