Sailing through rough waters

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A presentation of my MSc Business and Economics thesis. Presented for the reference group for maritime, a part of the research project "A knowledge-based Norway".

Our thesis was written around the following research question:

“What are the characteristics of the Norwegian deep sea shipping clusters that can enable the creation of global maritime knowledge hubs – A comparative study of the Oslo and Bergen shipping clusters.”

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Sailing through rough waters

  1. 1. The Master Thesis of Nicolai A. Kirkeng & Herman Ness 2010<br />Sailing through rough waters - Navigated by knowledge <br />1<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Background<br />Our study<br />Research question<br />Propositions<br />Findings<br />Recommendations<br />Future research<br />Agenda<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Background<br />The global competitive advantage of the Norwegian maritime industry<br />Norway has strong maritime cluster<br />Is it as strong in the challenge to develop into a Global Maritime Knowledge Hub?<br />Norway has two ship owner centers: <br />Oslo and Bergen<br />Background<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Limitation of our scope<br />Cluster limitations<br />Focusing on the knowledge intensive elements of the cluster. Primarily with regards to the headquarter functions of the shipping companies.<br />Global Knowledge Hub Index limitations<br />Focus on <br />Cluster attractiveness<br />Talent attractiveness<br />Ownership attractiveness<br />The linkages between the dimensions: <br />Cluster dynamics<br />Limitations<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Research question<br />Research Question<br />“What are the characteristics of the Norwegian deep sea shipping clusters that can enable the creation of global maritime knowledge hubs – A comparative study of the Oslo and Bergen shipping clusters.”<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Case study<br />Case study<br />Primary case study<br />Deep sea shipping Oslo <br />Comparative case study<br />Deep sea shipping Bergen<br />Financial & Legal services<br />Oslo<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Propositions<br />7<br />Propositions<br />Linkages<br />Cluster attractiveness<br />P4<br />P5 a b c<br />P1<br />Performance<br />Talent Attractiveness<br />P2<br />OwnershipAttractiveness<br />P3<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />
  8. 8. Propositions<br />More specialized service firms = higher performance<br />Proposition 1: Ceteris paribus, the higher the degree of dedicated professional service firms, e.g. financial, legal and brokerage services, the higher the performance of the cluster.<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Maritime financial and legal firms<br />Propositions<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Propositions<br />Competent labor and labor mobility = higher performance<br />P2a: Ceteris paribus, the higher the availability of cluster specific labor pool, the higher the performance of the cluster<br />P2b: Ceteris paribus, the higher the degree of labor mobility, the higher the performance of the cluster<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Education<br />Propositions<br />Oslo<br />Bergen<br />Deep Sea Shipping<br />Legal and financial services<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Propositions<br />Diverse ownership types and FDI = higher performance<br />P3a: Ceterisparibus, a more diverse setofownership types willincreasetheperformanceofthecluster<br />P3b: Ceterisparibus, thehigherForegin Direct Investment and thehigher Foreign Facilitation Investment Globally by clustermembers, thehighertheperformanceofthecluster<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Propositions<br />More valuable linkages = higherperformance<br />P4: Ceterisparibus, thehigherthedegreeofinternalclosurewithinthecluster and externalbrokerageoutsidethecluster, thehighertheperformanceofthecluster. <br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Suggested network characteristics<br />Propositions<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />14<br />“Shipping is a information game that is why John Fredriksen still does business in Oslo, and that’s probably how Blystad could start playing the rig-market almost a year before the rest of the world” – Oslo representative<br />”It seems that the services firms are satisfied by serving the local ship owners” – Bergen representative<br />
  15. 15. Propositions<br />Linkages moderate theeffectofthe different dimensions on performance<br />P5a: Linkages moderate the relationship between dedicated professional service firms and the performance of the cluster. Dedicated professional service firms are more beneficial for performance for clusters characterized by high degrees of linkages.<br />P5b: Linkages moderate the relationship between cluster specific competent labor pool and the performance of the cluster. Cluster specific competent labor pool is more beneficial for performance for clusters characterized by high degrees of linkages.<br />P5c: Linkages moderate the relationship between diverse ownership and the performance of the cluster. Diverse ownership is more beneficial for performance for clusters characterized by high degrees of linkages.<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Oslo distinguishitselfwiththehighestpotencialofbecomming a GKH<br />Findings<br />Mainly due to a more beneficialnetworkstructure and the mass of industries outsidetheclusterthatstrengthenthe legal and financial services<br />We have alsoseen<br />A widersetofspecialized services<br />More educatedworker pool<br />Higherdegreeof FDI, especially Foreign Facilitation Investment Globally<br />More externalbrokerage, though less internalclosure<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Findings<br />The legal and financial services are an important part ofthe maritime cluster, and has a strongimpact on theclustersperformance<br />Unstablepolicies on the national level is one ofthestrongest barriers to develop a GKH<br />Findings<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Potentials<br />Findings<br />Oslo – Maritime Services GKH<br />Bergen – Niche center<br />World class maritime sericessector<br />High world-wide market penetraction in selected segments<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Recommendations<br />Shipping companies should outsource more of their activities to benefit from a stronger and healthier specialized service sector. <br />The actors in the cluster should facilitate for more labor mobility<br />Recommendations<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Potential future research<br />Whom is dependent of whom?<br />How does it effect the maritime services industry that the Oslo ship owner community is declining?<br />Can they make it on their own?<br />Would there have been a different story 10-20 years ago?<br />Test our propositions<br />20<br />Future research<br />Nicolai Kirkeng & Herman Ness<br />
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention!Q&A<br />21<br />

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