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  1. 1. Universitatea de Vest din Timişoara Facultatea de Matematică şi InformaticăObject Oriented Programming Lect. Dr. Daniel POP
  2. 2. “Getting around” New things will be thought both in courses and in labs; don’t miss them; they all matter for the final exam! In the ‘Further Reading’ sections – what’s in bold is mandatory, the rest being optional reading Feedback is always welcome; there’s no stupid question!; don’t be afraid to interrupt! Attendance to courses and labs: according to faculty’s rules Final examination: practical + written tests (to be further refined) Contact information: – Email: – Web: II Object-Oriented Programming 2
  3. 3. Scope and objectivesScope Develop the knowledge and skills for building small/medium-sized object-oriented programsObjectives To learn object-oriented concepts To know C++ language syntax To build console applications using C++ language (GUI, database access and other additional libraries are not in the scope of this course and will be covered by further courses) Introduction to object-oriented analysis and designProgramming II Object-Oriented Programming 3
  4. 4. Course Outline• Programming techniques and object-oriented history• Abstract data types• Object-oriented concepts: classes and objects• Operator overloading• Class relationships• Inheritance. Multiple inheritance. Class hierarchies• Exception handling• Generic programming. Template class & functions. Standard Template Library (STL)• Object-oriented analysis and design. UML. Design patternsProgramming II Object-Oriented Programming 4
  5. 5. Course #1 Agenda• The Road To Object-Oriented Programming and Beyond• Object-oriented Programming and C++ HistoryProgramming II Object-Oriented Programming 5
  6. 6. The Road to OOP and Beyond Unstructured programming Procedural programming Modular programming Data abstraction Object-oriented programming Generic programmingProgramming II Object-Oriented Programming 6
  7. 7. Unstructured Programming Simple / small application consisting of one main program Program = sequence of commands (statements) which modify global data Drawback: unmanageable as program gets bigger; a lot of copy/paste-ed code Example: in Assembler, C, Pascal etc. test.c // data void main(int argc, char* argv[]) { // local data // statements }Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 7
  8. 8. Procedural Programming Based on the notion of procedure (function) Decide which procedures you want; use the best algorithms you can find. Drawback: handling different the data structures and the algorithms operating on data Example: programs written using C, Pascal, Fortran, Algol test.c double sqrt(double arg1) { void f(double arg1, sometype arg2) { …. …. …. sqrt(arg1); } …. } void main(int argc, char* argv[]) { // local data f(10, data1); // statements sqrt(14.6); }Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 8
  9. 9. Modular Programming Program size grows  Organizing data Decide which modules you want; partition the program so that data is hidden in modules. (data hiding principle) Drawback: only one state per module + each module exists only once in one program user-defined types doesn’t behave the same way as built-in types Example: programs written in C, Modula-2 stack.h stack.c // declaration of the interface of module #include "stack.h" char pop(); // ‘‘static’’ means local to this file/module void push(char); static char v[stack_size]; const stack_size = 100; static char* p = v; // the stack is initially empty main.c char pop() { #include "stack.h" // check for underflow and pop void some_function() { } push(’c’); char c = pop(); void push(char c) { if (c != ’c’) error("impossible"); // check for overflow and push } }Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 9
  10. 10. Data Abstraction (I) Based on user-defined types that behave the same way as built-in types (Abstract Data Types) Decide which types you want; provide a full set of operations for each type. Drawback:no way of adapting an ADT to new uses except by modifying its definition (need for “type fields” that distinguish between various instantiations) Example: programs written using Ada, C++, Clu, Java complex.h main.c class complex { double re, im; void f() { public: int ia = 2,ib = 1/a; complex(double r, double i) { re=r; im=i; } complex a = 2.3; complex(double r) { re=r; im=0; } // float->complex conversion complex b = 1/a; friend complex operator+(complex, complex); complex c = a+b*complex(1,2.3); friend complex operator-(complex, complex); // binary minus friend complex operator-(complex); // unary minus c = -(a/b)+2; // ... } };Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 10
  11. 11. Data Abstraction (II) Drawback:no way of adapting an ADT to new uses except by modifying its definition (need for “type fields” that distinguish between various instantiations) shape.cpp void shape::draw() { Example: switch (k) { shape.h case circle: // draw a circle enum kind { circle, triangle, square }; break; class shape { case triangle: // draw a triangle point center; break; color col; kind k; case square: // draw a square // representation of shape break; public: point where() { return center; } default: // unknown shape void move(point to) { center = to; draw(); } } void draw(); } };Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 11
  12. 12. Object-Oriented Programming World of interacting objects, each one managing its own state Decide which classes you want; provide a full set of operations for each class; make commonality explicit by using inheritance. Example: programs written using Simula, C++, Java, Eiffel, Smalltalk etc. shape.h rectangle.h class shape { class rectangle : public shape { point center; double width, height; color col; // representation of rectangle // representation of shape public: public: void draw() { point where() { return center; } // draw the rectangle void move(point to) { center = to; draw(); } } virtual void draw(); }; };Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 12
  13. 13. Generic Programming Express algorithms independently of representation details Decide which algorithms you want; parameterize them so that they work for a variety of suitable types and data structures. Example: programs written using C++, Java (≥ 1.5) stack.h file.cpp template<class T> class stack { void f() { T* v; stack<char> schar; int max_size, top; stack<complex> scomplex; Public: stack<list<int>> slistint; stack(int s); ~stack(); schar.push(‘c’); void push(T v); if(schar.pop()!=‘c’) throw Impossible(); T pop(); scomplex.push(complex(3, 2)); }; }Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 13
  14. 14. Object-Oriented Programming1. What is Object-Oriented Programming?2. Short history of OOP3. What is C++?4. Short history of C++Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 14
  15. 15. Definitions (I)• DEFINITION [Object Oriented Programming] A language or technique isobject-oriented if and only if it directly supports [Stroustrup, 1995]:[1] Abstraction – providing some form of classes and objects[2] Inheritance – providing the ability to build new abstractions out of existingones[3] Runtime polymorphism – providing some form of runtime binding.• This definition includes all major languages commonly referred to asobject-oriented: Ada95, Beta, C++, Java, CLOS, Eiffel, Simula, Smalltalk,and many other languages fit this definition. Classical programminglanguages without classes, such as C, Fortran4, and Pascal, are excluded.Languages that lack direct support for inheritance or runtime binding, suchas Ada88 and ML are also excluded.Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 15
  16. 16. Definitions (II)• DEFINITION A typical dictionary definition reads: object: a visible or tangible thing ofrelative stable form; a thing that may be apprehended intellectually; a thing to whichthought or action is directed [The Random House College Dictionary, 1975]• DEFINITION [Object] Samplings from the OO literature include:[1] An object has identity, state and behavior ([Booch, 1990]).[2] An object is a unit of structural and behavioral modularity that has properties ([Buhr,1998]).[3] An object as a conceptual entity that: is identifiable, has features that span a localstate space, has operations that can change the status of the system locally, while alsoinducing operations in peer objects. ([de Champeaux, 1993])• Not easy to think “object-oriented”; shift from structural thinking; using classes,methods and attributes is not OO!Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 16
  17. 17. A Short History of Object-Oriented Programming Simula 67 – the first OO programming language; extension of ALGOL60 Smalltalk – conceived by Alan Kay (Smalltalk-72, Smalltalk-80); dynamically typed; Strongtalk (1993) – Smalltalk + type system mid 80’s – many languages added support for OO: Objective C, C++, Object Pascal, Modula 3, Oberon, Objective CAML, CLOS. Eiffel – Bertrand Meyer (1988) – Pascal-like syntax, design-by-contract Other “exotic” OO languages: Sather, Trellis/Owl, Emerald, Beta (evolution of Simula), Self Java – James Gosling (1995); Java 1.5 (2004) – support for generic programming (Theoretical) extensions to Java: e.g. GJ (1998)[Bruce, 2002]Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 17
  18. 18. What is C++?• DEFINITION 1: C++ is a general-purpose programming language with abias towards systems programming that supports efficient low-levelcomputation, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and genericprogramming. [Stroustrup, 1999]• DEFINITION 2: C++ is a statically-typed general-purpose languagerelying on classes and virtual functions to support object-orientedprogramming, templates to support generic programming, and providinglow-level facilities [Stroustrup, 1996]to support detailed systems programming.Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 18
  19. 19. C++ Design IdeasC++ was designed to support a range of good and useful styles. Whether they were object-oriented, and in which sense of the word, was either irrelevant or a minor concern [Stroustrup, 1995]: [1] Abstraction – the ability to represent concepts directly in a program and hide incidental details behind well-defined interfaces – is the key to every flexible and comprehensible system of any significant size. [2] Encapsulation – the ability to provide guarantees that an abstraction is used only according to its specification – is crucial to defend abstractions against corruption. [3] Polymorphism – the ability to provide the same interface to objects with differing implementations – is crucial to simplify code using abstractions. [4] Inheritance – the ability to compose new abstractions from existing one – is one of the most powerful ways of constructing useful abstractions. [5] Genericity – the ability to parameterize types and functions by types and values – is essential for expressing type-safe containers and a powerful tool for expressing general algorithms. [6] Coexistence with other languages and systems – essential for functioning in real-world execution environments. [7] Runtime compactness and speed – essential for classical systems programming. [8] Static type safety – an integral property of languages of the family to which C++ belongs and valuable both for guaranteeing properties of a design and for providing runtime and space efficiency.Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 19
  20. 20. A Short History of C++ 1979 – 1983 C with Classes: Bjarne Stroustrup (AT&T Bell Labs) ports concepts (e.g. classes, inheritance) from Simula67 to C 1982 – 1985 From C with Classes to C++: the first commercial release and the printing of the book that defined C++ in October 1985 1985 – 1988 Release 2.0: Evolutions from the first release 1987 – today The Explosion in Interest and Use: growth of C++ tools and library industry. 1988 – today Standardization: formal ISO and ANSI standardization. 1994 : Standard Template Library 1998 : International C++ standard[Stroustrup 1992, Stroustrup 1997]Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 20
  21. 21. Further ReadingProgramming Techniques• [Stroustrup, 1997] Bjarne Stroustrup – The C++ Programming Language 3rd Edition, Addison Wesley, 1997 [Chapter 2]• [Mueller, 1996] Peter Müller – Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Using C++, Globewide Network Academy (GNA), 1996 [Chapter 2]• [Stroustrup, 1991] Bjarne Stroustrup - What is Object-Oriented Programming? (1991 revised version). Proc. 1st European Software Festival. February, 1991• [Stroustrup, 1999] Bjarne Stroustrup - An Overview of the C++ Programming Language in “The Handbook of ObjectTechnology” (Editor: Saba Zamir). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton. 1999. ISBN 0-8493-3135-8.Short History of Object-Oriented Programming and C++• [Bruce, 2002] Kim B. Bruce – Foundations of Object-Oriented Languages, MIT Press, 2002 [Page 113-116]• [Stroustrup, 1992] Bjarne Stroustrup - A History of C++: 1979−1 991• [Stroustrup, 1995] Bjarne Stroustrup - Why C++ is not just an Object-Oriented Programming Language, AT&T BellLaboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey; Invited talk given at OOPSLA’95, Austin, Texas.• [Stroustrup, 1996] Bjarne Stroustrup – A Brief Look at C++. IEEE AI Expert, Intelligent Systems and their Applications, pp 13-15. February 1996• [de Champeaux, 1993] Dennis de Champeaux, Douglas Lea, and Penelope Faure - Object-Oriented SystemDevelopment, Addison Wesley,1993• [Booch, 1990] G. Booch. Object Oriented Design with Applications. Benjamin/Cummings, 1990.• [Buhr, 1998] R. Buhr. Machine charts for visual prototyping in system design. Technical Report 88-2, CarltonUniversity, August 1988. Programming II Object-Oriented Programming 21