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Peer to peer Networks


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What is P2P networks, history, architecture, advantages and weaknesses, Legal issues, Security and Privacy issues, Economic issues, Applications of use and Future developments (April, 2010).

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Peer to peer Networks

  1. 1. Università degli Studi di Trento Facoltà di EconomiaCorso di Laurea Specialistica in Net-Economy Corso di Telecomunicazioni Nicola Cerami
  2. 2. Index  What is P2P and  Security and History Privacy issues  Architecture of  Economic issues P2P systems  Applications of  Advantages and use weaknesses of  Future P2P Networks developments  Legal issues18/04/2010 2
  3. 3. What is Peer-to-Peer-1 Is any distribuited network architecture composed of partecipants that make a portion of their resources, such as:  Processing power  Disk storage  Network bandwith Directly available to other network partecipants18/04/2010 3
  4. 4. What is Peer-to-Peer-2  Each Peer (usually workstation) has equivalent capabilities and responsabilities  Peer are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client- server model18/04/2010 4
  5. 5. What is Peer-to-Peer-318/04/2010 5
  6. 6. What is Peer-to-Peer-418/04/2010 6
  7. 7. History  1999: first software dedicated to P2P is Napster (Fanning)  Spread broadband and ADSL Flat increasingly accessible  A growing success  Today, huge numer of P2P Systems18/04/2010 7
  8. 8. Architecture of P2P systems 1. Centralized architecture 2. Distributed architecture, or pure 3. Mixed or hybrid architecture18/04/2010 8
  9. 9. Centralized Networks  Using on the one hand central server(s) or bootstrapping mechanisms (e.g. eDonkey network).  Central Server:  Makes communicating between peers  Controls the interaction between clients  Contains no data18/04/2010 9
  10. 10. Distributed Architecture There is no central server managing the network  Peers act as equals, merging the roles of clients and server  Many access points  P2P systems for file sharing using this architecture often  You must install software P2P (e.g Gnutella protocol, Freenet protocol)18/04/2010 10
  11. 11. Hybrid P2P Networks Mix of centralized architecture and decentralized architecture Distribute their clients into two groups:  Clients nodes  Overlay nodes Tipically, each client is able to act according to the momentary need of the network and can become part of the respective overlay network used to coordinate the P2P structure (e.g. Gnutella protocol).18/04/2010 11
  12. 12. Advantages and weaknesses of P2P Networks Advantages Weaknesses  All clients provide  Not guarantee the resources (Bandwidth, quality of service Storage space,  It is not easy to Computing power) retrieve information of  Ease of administration interest  Not require major  Reliability Data infrastructure  Security  Extreme tolerance in  Legal issues the event of failure18/04/2010 12
  13. 13. Legal issues-1  The legal framework of reference is appointed to regulate the c.d. copyright  Italian law:  Act 22 Aprile 1941, n. 633 amended several times  Dilemma law not legal P2P systems  Art. 171: “anyone who is punisched does not qualify, for any purpose and in any form”  Limit of the law illegal file sharing18/04/2010 13
  14. 14. Legal issues-2 European level  Directive 2001/29/CE of the European Parlament and Council (May 2001)  Telecom package approved by the European Parlament (Nov 2009)  Sarkozy’s Doctrine  United States  Copyright: Title 17 of the Unites States Code  Violations  Federal crimes  Exceptions  educational and scientific18/04/2010 purposes 14
  15. 15. Security issues  Fundamental use of antivirus, firewall, cleaning log files and removal of infectious agents (virus, spyware, trojan, malware).  Attacks that a client can be, for example:  Using file sharing systems  Sharing an area of your disk  It allows free access to certain ports on your computer18/04/2010 15
  16. 16. Privacy issues  Protecting sensitive data (personal, business) throught the adoption of:  A network of anonymous  Install SW such as PeerGuardian  Encryption and obfuscation protocol  A proxy for connection of the client’s real IP mask  ect..18/04/2010 16
  17. 17. Economic issues -1  New ways to access resources SW and HW  Strongly dependent on the market that produces use-value  A study commissioned by the Dutch goverment(2009): “P2P Systems are good for the economy”18/04/2010 17
  18. 18. Economic issues -2  New ethnic workers (knowledge workers)  Used to solve management problems, improve communication between companies but also within the same  Greater sharing of know-how  Faster data trasmission than traditional networks (client-server)  Less server overload18/04/2010 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 18
  19. 19. Applications of use Often used for file sharing:  More Applications: Napster, Gnutella, FastTrack, BitTorrent, Direct Connect, eDonkey, Kademila, etc.  Also widely used on mobile technology: SymTorrent, Direct Connect Torrent, MobileDC, etc.  Sharing computational power:  HW mainly shared resources for problem solving or complex calculations  Examples: SETI@Home, GIMPS,18/04/2010, FightAIDS@Home. 19
  20. 20. Future developments -1Use innovative P2P  P2P TV  For the diffusion of high data streams generated in real time  Using trasmission bandwidth of individual users  Not require server performance  Requires that individual users are provided with high bandwidth connections in both reception and trasmission (saturation bandwidth provided by the18/04/2010 server) 20
  21. 21. Future developments -2  The Server serves as the index, synchronizes the various users sharing the bandwidth and provides the data flow and initial users share  So, although in practice a server, after supplying the initial data flow and have put in communication the various users, the server is not interested in the communication becomes totally P2P systems  Large companies are experimenting with the possibility of offering paid content18/04/2010 21
  22. 22. Future developments -3 Limits on the dissemination P2PTV Systems are:  Technical problems (diffusion asymmetrical Internet lines, ADSL)  Reliability problems  Legal issues18/04/2010 22
  23. 23. Future developments -4 Simulator epidemic protocols  University of Bologna is experimenting with new P2P applications simulator edpidemic protocols for the study of issues of scale and dynamism that characterize the moderm information systems18/04/2010 23
  24. 24. Future developments -5  There protocols are able to put in communication between their various terminals. Such protocols are characterized by large scale and high dynamics.  The simulator is built from components that enable rapid prototyping of communication protocols by combining different data blocks18/04/2010 24
  25. 25. Future developments -6 Using P2P Networks for mobile technologies  System devised by TerraNet AB (Swedish company)  Allows:  Local phone calls and send messages (2-20 km)  Make calls to anyone with Internet access TerraNet  VoIP calls free long distance18/04/2010 25
  26. 26. Future developments -7  TerraNet integrated with technology every type of mobile device becomes a wireless communication  It works via P2P wireless network (mesh network) and no need for base stations, antenna installations or infrastructure18/04/2010 26
  27. 27. Future developments -8 Benefits Weaknesses  For areas of the world  Phone companies where you make obviously do not like expensive trasmission the idea infrastructure (Africa,  Political issues South America, etc)  Elimination communications costs  Greater privacy18/04/2010 27
  28. 28. Conclusions -1 Network congestion and bandwidth throlling  Phenomenon increasingly attributed to P2P systems  Many provider have chosen to use the bandwidth throlling:  System that cuts the available bandwidth, especially when using P2P systems  Often the users knows nothing!  For example Fastweb, Vodafone (mobile), Alice e Tiscali18/04/2010  Less opposed P2P systems  Libero e Tele2 28
  29. 29. Conclusions -2  But the new version of uTorrent apparently meets the needs of the ISP.  uTorrent :  Limiting network congestion, thus helping Internet Provider  The concept consists of a uTP: magnification Bittorrent protocol  uTP allow clients to automatically find any blocks of the network (rule bandwidth requirements and improves the connections)18/04/2010 29
  30. 30. Conclusions -3  Version of uTorrent with uTP is still in beta (Nov, 2009) but already is showing positive results  Good thing for us users  Providers would no longer decide on the bandwidth limitation!18/04/2010 30
  31. 31. Web Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ta.asp 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. =9&id=18&Itemid=5118/04/2010 31
  32. 32. Bibliography  G. Pascuzzi, Il diritto dell’era digitale. Tecnologie informatiche e regole privatistiche, II edizione, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2006  Shapiro e Varian, Information Rules. A strategic Guide to the Network Economy. I edizione, Etas, Novembre 1999.  Slide Corso Telecomunicazioni (dott. Zorat)  Slide Corso Diritto Privato dell’Informatica (dott. Caso)18/04/2010 32