I grosbois teacher_ed_sig_wkshp_lyonv25


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I grosbois teacher_ed_sig_wkshp_lyonv25

  1. 1. European workshop on teacher education in CALL: towards a research agenda Muriel Grosbois [email_address] http://muriel.grosbois.free.fr Research Lab : DILTEC, université Paris 3
  2. 2. CMC-based projects and L2 learning in a teacher training context
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Research context </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology & data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainee teachers, IUFM Paris Sorbonne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PGCE students, King’s College, London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language 2 & ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Jones & Coffey, 2006; Grosbois, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. RedNose 2
  6. 7. <ul><li>Theoretical perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;[...] en règle générale, si l’on vise une certaine efficacité dans les apprentissages, la communication gagnera à être encadrée par des projets. [...] On considèrera ici que la caractéristique la plus intéressante du projet est sa capacité à faire sortir des murs de l’institution, à mettre bien sûr en relation les apprenants entre eux (ce que la tâche fait également), mais en outre à amener à communiquer avec l’extérieur en vue de la réalisation d’un but bien précis.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Mangenot (1998 : 138) </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Cooperation, collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Pour induire l’apprentissage, la collaboration mise autant sur la réalisation de la tâche par l’apprenant que par le groupe, contrairement à la coopération qui propose à l’apprenant de s’acquitter d’une sous-tâche permettant au groupe de réaliser la tâche. &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henri & Lundgren-Cayrol (2001 : 36) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  &quot;[…] limited amount of potential acquisition in collaborative activities if </li></ul><ul><li> tasks are too loosely designed. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li> Narcy-Combes J.-P. (2010 : chapter 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Situated learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Situated learning. A critical element in fostering learning is to have students carry out meaningful tasks and solve meaningful problems in an environment that reflects their own personal interests as well as the multiple purposes to which their knowledge will be put in the future. &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collins, Brown & Newman (1989 : 48) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theoretical perspective </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The project may contribute to the development of L2 oral production for the French trainee teachers involved. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><ul><li>Task-based evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre- and post-tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic and pragmatic criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methodology </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Ellis (2003 : 303-304) </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 1: (a) Articulate the test rationale. </li></ul><ul><li> (b) Identify a set of theoretical principles to guide the test development. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 2: Establish what resources there are and what constraints exist. [...] </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3: Undertake a needs analysis to establish what target language use (TLU) tasks need to be sampled. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 4: Draw up a set of test specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 5: Select and train an initial team of raters if an external rating system is to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 6: Trial the test. [...] </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 7: Analyse the data obtained from trialling the test and revise the test specifications and the test itself. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 8: Select and carry out final training with a team of raters if these are required. The test is then ready for implementation. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Getting to know each other </li></ul><ul><li>During the year, you will have the opportunity to team up with your French classmates as well as with English partners. Together, you will create a multimedia resource to help French primary school children learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, you will be given twenty minutes to interview each other to find out how well you could pair on the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some topics you could discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>- type of studies/professional background; </li></ul><ul><li>- favourite subjects: (music, drawing...); </li></ul><ul><li>- level in English (strong points, weak points); </li></ul><ul><li>- communication with native speakers of English; </li></ul><ul><li>- work habits/availability; </li></ul><ul><li>- work experience with children; </li></ul><ul><li>- computer equipment and use; </li></ul><ul><li>- views on teamwork versus individual work; </li></ul><ul><li>- experience of working on a project. </li></ul><ul><li>You may ask as many questions as you like. Feel free to follow the order you want and to gather any other information that you think might be useful. </li></ul><ul><li>One of you shall start the interview, obtain all the necessary information, and then be interviewed in turn. Or, if you prefer, you can alternate the questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>You can rephrase your questions and ask your partner for extra explanations if necessary. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Children and computers </li></ul><ul><li>Children click with computers earlier. We interviewed Tom Johnson, author of a report on children and new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>- What’s the main difference between adults and children regarding new technologies? </li></ul><ul><li>- Well for example, when they acquire a new mobile phone, children start playing with it immediately, learning on the way. In contrast most adults will pour over the instructions even before turning the phone on. </li></ul><ul><li>- How about computing? At what age is a child able to use a computer? </li></ul><ul><li>- Amazingly enough, the age for computing is now two to four years. While adults struggle to relate a new technology to some experience they already know, children accept developments for what they are. </li></ul><ul><li>- Are the children aware of the effects of computers on their lives? </li></ul><ul><li>- Absolutely. They think they spend less time outdoors and they have friends who are addicted to computer games. Some even have bedrooms looking like mini media centres. </li></ul><ul><li>- Daily life is constantly changing far faster than ever before. How far is school concerned? </li></ul><ul><li>- At school too technology is having a huge impact. Wired classrooms could mean the end of the blackboard and chalk. In many schools introducing the Internet has increased the children’s motivation. They interact more and discuss things more. </li></ul><ul><li>- So it echoes government surveys that show a link between investment in computing and improved classroom performance. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Final interview </li></ul><ul><li>Our English class has come to an end. You will now be given twenty minutes to interview each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some topics you could discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>- project presentation; </li></ul><ul><li>- introducing your English partner(s); </li></ul><ul><li>- e-mails received from your e-pals; </li></ul><ul><li>- placement experience; </li></ul><ul><li>- teaching English to primary school children in France; </li></ul><ul><li>- teaching in a primary school in England; </li></ul><ul><li>- use of computers for children to learn English; </li></ul><ul><li>- use of computers for adults to learn English; </li></ul><ul><li>- teamwork/partnership. </li></ul><ul><li>You may ask as many questions as you like. Feel free to follow the order you want. </li></ul><ul><li>One of you shall start the interview, obtain all the necessary information, and then be interviewed in turn. Or, if you prefer, you can alternate the questioning. </li></ul><ul><li>You can rephrase your questions and ask your partner for extra explanations if necessary. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Volunteer work in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Our guest today is Tara Tweedy, eighteen, who works for the British voluntary youth service and is going to tell us about her experience as a volunteer in Africa last summer. </li></ul><ul><li>- Tara, what did your voluntary action consist of? </li></ul><ul><li>- I spent two weeks in Kenya as a voluntary teacher in a primary school with a group of ten other young people from my town. </li></ul><ul><li>- Had you ever taught before? </li></ul><ul><li>- Actually no, it was my first teaching experience. But I was quite used to dealing with kids and had already taken part in many place schemes at our local volunteer bureau. </li></ul><ul><li>- So you didn’t find it too difficult to teach. English isn’t those kids’ native language. </li></ul><ul><li>- I must say it was a little difficult at first; but as we teachers felt terribly nervous... so we tended to speak much too fast; but the kids were so nice that we eventually relaxed and it went remarkably well. </li></ul><ul><li>- What did you actually do with them? </li></ul><ul><li>- We’d worked very hard to prepare lessons: comprehension, verbs, but we also focused on non-academic activities like portrait drawings and puppet making. We also organised mini Olympics and games. </li></ul><ul><li>- But surely you needed books, paper, pens and things like that? </li></ul><ul><li>- Yes, but we knew that the school couldn’t afford what we needed. So the equipment was donated by schools in my town, Sutton. </li></ul><ul><li>- What’s your favourite memory of those two weeks? </li></ul><ul><li>- Oh I’ve got lots. I especially remember the tree planting ceremony that the school organised just before we left. I still can’t believe that there are eleven trees in a schoolyard in Kenya planted in honour of us. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Linguistic criteria (part 1)
  16. 18. Linguistic criteria (part 2)
  17. 19. Pragmatic criteria
  18. 20. Evolution of L2 oral production
  19. 21. <ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Interlanguage development is a gradual process through which learners become aware of linguistic form, gain partial and fragile knowledge, and ultimately gain mastery through repeated exposure and practice. &quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapelle (2003 : 119-120) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results vs representations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to you, did the course contribute to the development of your oral production in English? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. French trainee teachers = L2 learners French trainer + English students = L2 teachers <ul><li>CMC exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging roles </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Multimedia resource development </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging roles </li></ul>French & English trainee teachers + trainers = development team
  22. 24. +1 Quantity +2 Nominal group +3 Phonology +3 Verbal group +3 Syntax +5 Interaction +5 Efficiency +6 Questioning +7 Gathering information +9 Lexical criterion Progress Criteria
  23. 25. <ul><li>Effect of nativisation </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of nativisation: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; In all the settings where the learner already has a language when he begins to acquire another, the linguistic features of his earlier-acquired language(s) are relevant to the outcome of his acquisition of the additional language. […] The input in all these settings is perceived and processed to a large extent in terms of existing (or simultaneously acquired) languages the learner knows and uses. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Andersen (1983 : 20) </li></ul>
  24. 26. 1879 1364 N° of items borrowed from source 138 275 137 N° of items borrowed from source and mispronounced Difference Written source Oral source Students’ oral productions
  25. 27. 100 100 N° of items borrowed from source 4,59% 14,63% 10,04% % of items borrowed from source and mispronounced Difference Written source Oral source Students’ oral productions
  26. 28. Erroneous pronunciation Items
  27. 29. <ul><li>Master’s degree (2010) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link with native speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of distance & written input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective problem-solving tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual and real mobility (oral input) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; […] a new type of language teaching that is somewhat modified by distance, technology and multimodality &quot; . Guichon, ReCALL (2009 : 181) . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Muriel Grosbois [email_address] http://muriel.grosbois.free.fr