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Slum Upgrading Agra, India 2012


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Slum Upgrading in Kachpura, Agra.
Reuse of abandoned railways parts for the construction of a pedestrian bridge.
Mass housing, water purification, irrigation and integrate agriculture for self sustainable living.
Everything in this project is built from reused material.

Published in: Design, Technology
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Slum Upgrading Agra, India 2012

  2. 2. SITE SURVEYS PHASE 3: THE BRIDGE 4. Land survey 74. Danger crossing the tracks 8. Water survey 75. Research: 15,000 deaths per year crossing the railway tracks in India 10. Cultural survey 76. Danger crossing the tracks on-site 13. Site impressions 77. Initial concept sketches for the bridge 14. Material survey 80. Research: Gandi & The Railways 16. Making the site model 81. Quantity survey: reusing the abandoned railway elements for the bridge construction 18. Nala direction 82. Initial structural diagrams for the bridge 19. Land use 83. Bridge construction sequence 20. Landmark buildings on site: key 84. Reconnecting two communities 22. Generic railway workers housing blocks 85. Proposed figure ground 23. On-site Hindu temple 86. Renders showing the bridges continuation of the existing access 24. Abandoned & built over old well 87. Plan showing the bridges continuation of the existing access 25. Old / abandoned railway office 88. Bridge renders & sections 26. New water tower 90. The market side 27. Old water tower 91. Examples of existing bridges within a walkable proximity to the site 28. New railway office 92. Bridge renders 29. Meeting with the railway control officer 95. Making the bridge model 96. Stair access to the bridge 97. Bridge plan 98. Bridge isometric MASTERPLAN 99. Reused construction elements 101. Bridge assembly details 32. Initial masterplan sketches 106. Bridge renders 34. Proposed masterplan 44. Phasing PHASE 4: UNDER THE BRIDGE MARKET & CONTAINER WALL PHASE 1: DEWAT 48. Location 110. Location 49. Philosophy 111. Phase 4 proposal synopsis 50. Precedents 112. Shipping containers in site proximity 51. DEWAT Proposal 113. Research: Health issues & the lack of affordable hospitals in the area 52. DEWAT and irrigation proposal 114. Case Study: Smile on Wheels Mobile medical clinic, Mumbai 53. Research: Agriculture in India 115. 3D cutout through the proposed plugin medical clinic container unit 116. Research: Health in India (UNICEF) & Smile on Wheels Mobile medical clinic 117. Proposed Under the Bridge market renders & sections 120. Research: Doc-in-a-Box Micro-Franchising model 121. Research: Health situation in Agra PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING 56. Location 57. Existing building 58. Phase 2 proposal synopsis 59. Sections & elevations 64. Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting 65. Climate diagrams: Solar shading 66. 1:1 prototype of the bamboo and sari silk shading wall & window element 68. Research: Nutrition in India 69. Ground floor restaurant / cafe proposal 70. Research: Education in India 71. Slum school proposalContents
  3. 3. PHASE 5: UN-ZONED TRADING ROUTE / ROOF EXTENSION PHASE 6-7 (b): VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER 126. Location 176. Location 127. Phase 5 project synopsis 177. Phase 6-7 (b) project synopsis 128. Sections & renders 178. Plans, sections & elevations 132. Research: To zone of not to zone 180. Wireframe models 133. Trading route market render 182. Assembly details 134. Research: Why official planning does not work in hyper dense areas 184. Detailed plan 135. Trading route market render 185. 3D assembly details PHASE 6-8 (a): THE GRID. AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCKS PROJECT SUMMARY 138. Proposed masterplan 188. Proposed masterplan 139. Masterplan renders: Areas of density, enclaves, streets & squares. Case study: Residence Buffalo, Fernand Poullion 194. Phasing 140. Shipping containers in site proximity 197. Proposal summary 141. Research: Modifications shipping containers 142. Making the 1:100 Housing block model 143. 1:1 prototype for the bamboo and sari silk shading wall and window invention 144. Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units 146. Wireframe model and mid-site section 147. Sections & elevations 152. Pour Flush Toilet (composting latrine) plan 153. Pour Flush Toilet (composting latrine) section 154. Affordable Housing / Container block elevations with shading wall and windows installed 158. Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting 159. Climate diagrams: Solar shading 161. 3D cutout through water tanks & toilet area 162. Isometric housing block & elevations 163. Isometric building elements 164. Assembly details 168. 3D assemblage drawings 170. Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units 171. Render: Proposed idea 172. Research: Indias agriculture & composting process 173. Render: Proposed ideaContents
  4. 4. On location land survey, drawn on our first day on site. Here we had to map a part of the slum which was not present on any map before (centre). This preliminary survey shows signs of looking into nala flow direction, land use and locating areas of neglect. All of which were further realised on later surveys in the following days on site.on-site land survey 4
  5. 5. The Map shows the flow and direction of the nalas (external drains), polluted swamps, areas of neglect and the flow of people (the routes they take and where they cross the railway tracks).on-site land survey 5
  6. 6. On location sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other side.on-site land survey. Section: slum settlement blocks - market 6
  7. 7. Sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other survey. Section: slum settlement blocks - market 7
  8. 8. On location section through a polluted stagnant swamp.Several nalas flow into thispolluted pond. It is the result ofapproxamately 40 homes waste-water. This neglected area has alsofallen into a spiral decline as it nowis also used as a small dumpingground. The pond is likely to existat a very low point of the site, sotherefore the water , due to gravityis not able to flow anywhere;creating a stagnant pond ofpolluted water. It may be possiblethat this pond has been man madeas a flood relief zone, in times ofmonsoon. When on site we sawsome children throw a live tortoseinto the polluted pond. For sure thetortose would die from this. Thispolluted area is an important areato clean and regenerate. polluted lake 8
  9. 9. On location drawings showing sections through a nala (an external drain, which was flooding on a regular basis and was causing dangerous situation for the locals. This polluted ‘pond’ is the result of an overflowed nala. Many nalas from the site flow this way and this particular nala overflows because it is a bottle neck and uncapable of retaining all the dirty water. As well as the dirty water overflowing the area becomes a spiral of decline as much rubbish is then consequently dumped here. Luckily this overflow is naturally made better than I first thought as the naurally growing plants filter the dirty water. This nala in times of flood will not work as a filter and the dirty water will spread, polluting the surrounding area.polluted pond 9
  10. 10. Personal Experience with her husband and a crutch as This was quite disturbing, and he when we all , at the same moment, support. The lady sat down at the was very loud. I told him ‘no’ and looked over at once, and there was Several events, over the 10 days we same bench as us and she was in I continued to measure on my a girl of probably one and a half were on site, took me back to the great pain. We asked her husband own, which isn’t that easy for long to two years of age standing in a reality of what it could be like to what was wrong and it was either distance measuring. The boy went large puddle of very dirty sewage live in this area in this way. her hip or her leg, which was away. water, and then we witnessed her broken. She was in a lot of pain and One minute later he was back. bending down and drinking the On our first day as we were moving made it hurt even more. This time holding his little sister water using her hands to scoop departing the site with 30 Someone from our group asked, of maybe only 6 months of age. the it up to her mouth. She was children following us, asking for ‘Are you going to a hospital?’ but He continued demanding and standing there alone she was photo’s and pens and shaking for sure the answer was no. demanding, but I was busy thirsty and she did not know not to our hands continuously - we were measuring. I finally looked up and drink it. She must of drank at least overwhelmed: it was our first The second experience, which he was actually asking for money half a dozen handfuls of this brown day and unaccustomed to it - we happened on site was when I whilst showing me his little sisters water. We did not see this girl again thought it was time to leave as was on my own. A boy was really wrist, which had a severe open for our remaining 6 days on site. For the intensity grew stronger and insisting me to give him some wound on it. The baby’s wound sure she got very ill from this. louder. The children stopped money, I replied by saying that was the size of a packet ten of following us as we moved away money was not a good idea and cigarettes. It looked very bad, not There is no first aid or medical from the area in which they lived that he should continue to help me that recent, and it was not being centre anywhere close to the site. in and we all said good-bye. At this measure the water-tower, which treated in any way. Because hospitals are costly and far point we all decided to sit down he did, but was quite persistent away to travel, especially when not on an old bench and rest, slightly asking me for money several times The third experience was the most well, locals who get ill or women discombobulated from our first every twenty seconds or so, whilst sobering of all. Just as our fourth who are pregnant deal with what days experience. At this point of holding the end of the tape. After day on site was coming to an end they have by themselves, this stillness we saw a man walking a few minutes of this he got very our auto-rickshaw driver was there may result in extended illness, very slowly holding on to his wife annoyed at me, stopped helping and waiting for us and we were continued disease or unnecessary who had a single crutch, which was with the measuring and started all heading towards the ‘tuc-tuc’ death. too big. She was hobbling along demanding money quite seriously. car to go to home to the hotel, Waterborne Diseases Waterborne diseases are caused is attributable to unsafe water pollution. In many areas, the are without toilets. Even though by pathogenic microorganisms supply, sanitation and hygiene, problem is exacerbated by falling toilets are built in about 3 million which are directly transmitted and is mostly concentrated in levels of groundwater, mainly households every year, the annual when contaminated fresh water children in developing countries. caused by increasing extraction rate of increase has been a low 1 is consumed. Contaminated fresh per cent in the past decade. for irrigation. water, used in the preparation Several million more suffer from In some parts of the country, of food, can be the source of multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and fluoride in foodborne disease through and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major consumption of the same of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. microorganisms. According to intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also affects the World Health Organization, infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls’ school attendance. Of India’s diarrheal disease accounts for an and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper estimated 4.1% of the total DALY are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six global burden of disease and is Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children responsible for the deaths of 1.8 drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to million people every year. It was main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. estimated that 88% of that burden million households in the country increasing levels of groundwaterCultural Survey: Personal experience & india health research 10
  11. 11. Introduction - North Group Our site in India is situated, north of the Taj Mahal, across The blocks are mirrored; they face each other, therefore all the river Yamuna, somewhat separated from main-land living and life takes place on the facing sides, but this leaves Agra. The site is adjacent to, but set back from the railway a dead space at the backs of the blocks, either swamped by lines, relatively close to a the Yamuna Bridge railway dirty water or used as storage for railway material, however station. one back-to-back zone is actually used very regularly; it being the most direct path to get from the open space The railway tracks are not too busy. One train, either full common ground (therefore the slum settlements) to the of passengers or cargo of industrial goods or building continuing path which crosses the railway tracks; to get to materials comes or goes once every hour or so; more times the other side; a journey made by many twice daily coming than not just passing by without stopping. and going from work or school or visiting the near-by market. With a busy market on one side of the railway tracks, and a collection of slum settlements on the other; the two sides During our meeting with a superior railway controller in are separated. The slums, somewhat isolated from main- his, raised 6 metres first-floor railway control centre, over land Agra; exist as ‘Edge-Lands’ and they have a rural / looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site said that urban-rural feel to them. these blocks will be demolished in 3 years times; to be replaced by a nation-wide training centre or institute for As soon as we crossed the railway lines, from our site, to the railway company. Many residents of the area said the the side of the market, we noticed a sudden change in the same. These centres or institutes are large in size and are infrastructure; where everything is paved, the sewers are usually uncompromising in urban design strategy and concreted and they are working very well; the quality of awareness; whether this will actually go ahead or not, living is evidently higher on the market side, where the especially in India, is uncertain. proximity to the centre of Agra (across the near-by Yamuna bridge) is much more accessible. The market sells most The two end blocks, of the seven, are more known to be things and has a general industrial feel to it; selling all types demolished, as they are both completely abandoned of building materials with various factories and workshops and dilapidated. More locals know this, but whether or in the area; here, business is relatively booming. not all 11 blocks will be knocked down to make room for a training centre, is unclear. Maybe one of our projects of Our site (on the other side) is a large open space (owned by regeneration or transformation, if shown in time and, to the the railway company) and has 11 generic, low rise housing right people in India, will persuade the railway company blocks, 7 of an identical type; handed and mirrored parallel to save these housing units, hopefully they will see our to each other adjacent to the battered road parallel yet projects and realise the necessity and the potentials of set back from the railway tracks - the other 4 blocks are our site; these housing blocks and the open space, as the of another type, existing at the back of the site in a similar common ground for the 3 surrounding slum settlements. way. These blocks are over 60 years old, built during Hopefully in our proposals we will communicate the need the English rule in India, before 1945. They were built and the importance of our site, not only to remain but, for for railway workers and still today are occupied by only the greater good of the local people, to be regenerated railway maintenance low-pay employees, which over the and transformed and will make them put their railway years, these buildings have become generally run-down, training centre somewhere else. some seriously dilapidated, the majority of which are abandoned, only occupied by approximately 15%.North of Kachpura site intorduction 11
  12. 12. The community of slum residents we got to know 12
  13. 13. Photos taken from the 1st floor external gallery of the new railway control office: Overlooking the the site; the tracks and the Blocks. Photos taken in front of the Blocks looking towards the railway tracks. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image. Photos taken behind the Blocks, looking at them from the side. Still looking towards the railway. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image; looking through two back-to-back Blocks, which is the regualr path used to exit or enter the large open space to or from the montage photographs 13
  14. 14. material survey: measuring the elements 14
  15. 15. CONCRETE SLEEPER = The foundations for the container homes & the banks for the nala’s channel. WOODEN SLEEPER = Decking for bridge, ramp and decking for external galleries. RAILWAY TRACK = Column for bridge and other constructions on site. Use four tracks back to back - in pairs I-BEAMS = Beams for bridge, external galleries and other construction on site. OHE PYLON 1 = Posts for the banisters of stairs and the saftey banister of the bridge.. OHE PYLON 2 = Beams for bridge and other construction on site and use for the cantilever of the bridge. CONCRETE SEWER PIPE = Temporary accommodation, septic tank, possible large columns and idea for recycling unit. On location, there was & Scarce Resources’, so an abundance of ‘railway therefore whatever materials material’ lying around not which are readily avaliable being used. Sleepers, railway must be utilized in the project. tracks, OHE’s, I-beams, There were thousands of etc, etc. I measured these materials all over the place on materials with the intention the site, so not only is it wise to to build with them. utilize them, they are already The theme of the project is part of the site’s aesthetic. ‘Architecture of Rapid Changematerial survey: measuring the elements 15
  16. 16. Contour Thickness : 1mm +4 +3 +2 +1 0 1 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm 2 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm 3 Story buildings Thickness : 3mmMAKING THE MODEL 16
  17. 17. 104.500 103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000 95.500 98.000 98.000 99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500 100.000 100.000 99.500 100.500 100.000 100.000 101.000 100.000 100.500 99.500 100.000 101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 105.000 104.000 104.500 103.500 103.500 103.000 102.000 102.500 100.000 101.500 101.000 100.500 100.000MAKING THE MODEL 17