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Lorentzschool, Leiden, 2008Primary school for 900 pupils, a playroom with after-school group, a gymnasium, 39housing units...
look onto a new piazza which forms the focal point for the neighbourhood. This widerarchitectural remit helps to maintain ...
Nicholas Socrates 4123875European Design and Building Cultures - SPRING 2011THE ARCHITECTURAL BIOGRAPHYName: Anne Frank Pr...
It has a central hall space, which has become the focus of the community with an auditoriumarrangement of steps - which en...
Herman Herzburgers Architectural Philosophy“The opportunity to see and be seen”.It is about ʻlookingʼ and ʻbeing looked at...
Wouterje Pieterse Primary School, Leiden, 1990In the design for the Wouterje Perterse primary school, two strips of four c...
Nicholas Socrates 2011 – 4123875                                         TU DELLFT – Making Architecture – AR1MA050School ...
accommodation in the new larger school clusters.Todays primary schools, which emerged after the introduction of the Primar...
All kinds of variants of primary schools were built all over the Netherlands in the postwarperiod, which had more than one...
theoretical education, with the more or less complete integration of classrooms, generalareas and a library. This new educ...
Herman Herzburger Lecture Notes 2011Structuralism.What sort of profession is architecture?There are many architects trying...
immensely satisfying, because people coming together for celebration is positive anduplifting and contrasts our collective...
Gaudiʼs park Guell has curved wall-like benches, made with colorful ceramic. Thedeep looping curves of these benches gives...
When Herman was working in TU Delftʼs old BK building, he was not aware, for 10years, that his friend and college was also...
Architecture is a “Base”.::We should make conditions more than solutions“The richness of poorness” or “economy of means”Cr...
Dutch Schools Analysis
Dutch Schools Analysis
Dutch Schools Analysis
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Dutch Schools Analysis

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Dutch Schools Analysis

Case studies;

Lorentz School
Wouterje Pieterse Primary School
Anne Frank Primary School

Research on the Dutch education system and the philosophy of Herman Herzburger.

Published in: Education, Business
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Dutch Schools Analysis

  1. 1. Lorentzschool, Leiden, 2008Primary school for 900 pupils, a playroom with after-school group, a gymnasium, 39housing units.Project Facts• Location: Leiden• Country: The Netherlands• Year of Completion: 2008• Client: Gemeente Leiden Dienst Bouw & Wonen en Bureau Openbaar Onderwijs.• Architect: Atelier PRO Website• Size: 4,700m2• Pupils: 900 [mixed]• Construction Sum:€5,187,000 [2008]• School building Programme/ Initiative: N/ADesign duo: Leon Thier, Sechmet Bötger and Constanze Knüpling / Mart ButerProject engineer: Eelko BemenerProject co-operators: Susan Jansen, Marjon Main, Tim Kapfer, Miriam Castello,David van Erk, David Schilleman, Jorge del Castillo de StefaniNomination BNA Building of the year 2009OverviewCreating a primary school for 900 pupils aged 3-11 without making it feel daunting isa difficult design challenge. An added complication in this instance was the need todesign a school that also has an appropriate massing for the urban area in which theschool is located. Lorentzschool overcomes these problems with a solid butapproachable building. The external brick walls of the building are broken down to amore child-like scale through the careful manipulation of window openings, offering avisual connection between inside and out. Inside the building, classrooms aregrouped in houses and pupils move up through the school as they grow older.Circulation spaces are cleverly articulated to include meeting spaces, an ICT suiteand informal music areas. The aim is to have a legible plan for children to navigatethrough, but at the same time provide events round every corner so that children arealso encouraged to explore.ThemesIntegrated flexibility for space and learningEach year group of the school have their own floor, within which a series of houseshave been organised, each with its own identity. Children are encouraged to explorethe school building in the knowledge that they have the security of their own base toreturn to.A series of event spaces have been created along the main circulation routes aroundthe school, transforming corridors into more useable and enjoyable spaces. Theground to first floor stairs are used to as a meeting and congregation area, whichthen leads up to a flexible ICT space and several group meeting spaces along itslength. Each space forms part of a route up through the building, augmented bywindows looking on to the internal courtyard and roof lights flooding the space withnatural light.Integrated social and physical contextLorentz School was designed as part of a wider urban regeneration project whichincluded the creation of an apartment block by the same architects. Both projects
  2. 2. look onto a new piazza which forms the focal point for the neighbourhood. This widerarchitectural remit helps to maintain a continuity of vision and the neighbourhood asa whole benefits from an architecturally coherent strategic design.Innovative solutions to specific areas or smaller spacesThe organisation of toilets is quite unique in that two cubicles are paired-up with handbasin in between. These units then line one side of the corridor and are associatedwith a particular classroom. This approach helps to reduce journeys by children toand from the classroom, and reduces the anxiety of using larger centralised toiletfacilities.Responses to developing integrated ICTAn ICT suite is cleverly integrated with an open access library and staircase. Theinherent versatility accommodates group teaching and individual work for formallessons and at break times. The book shelf units help to soak up the changes of leveland turn into workstations for the tier above. Using steps to make the tiered spaceenables easy supervision, particularly from the top of the stairs, where a teachercould see all computer screens. Conversely, a teacher standing at the front may notbe able to see all pupils as faces may be hidden behind the computer monitors.::DesignTo approach this primary school, centrally positioned in the block and oriented to allsides, is a finely-scaled, vibrant experience. The youngest children, the juniors, havethree scattered points of entry to their domain of four classrooms, from where theycan explore the rest of the school. The middle and senior schoolchildren each havetheir own yard which leads them through the heart of the school to their separatefloors.Each age group has its own story where it can develop its talents. Houses divide thestories into spaces that are finely scaled and easy to read. Vertical connections viastairs and wells encourage interaction between all age groups.
At the heart of theschool, accessible to all the groups, are the main hall and documentation centredraped with terraces, with stairs and landings enfolding the gym hall and stitching allfloors together. For the monthly stage performances this multi-purpose space can betransformed into a festive hall with a foyer, seating and stage.Lorentz School and HousingThis new school for 900 pupils and two residential buildings together containing 39apartments stand on the site of the former Lorentz School. Together they assemblearound existing high-grade green space, which informs the character of the newpublic plaza between school and housing. This green space closes ranks with that onVan Vollenhovenkade. Taking an all-round feeling as its principal theme, the designsecures orientation, recognition and a subtleness of scale for pupils and residentsalike.HousingThe corners of the block are taken up by two apartment buildings of three stories,with a fourth story accentuating the public plaza. Surrounded by high-profilesculptural facades with accents at the corners, the two buildings make approachingthe school yard a spirited affair. Each resident reaches their home across their ownfinely-scaled patio. Living rooms span the corner so that every dwelling has a view ofthe green squares and streets.
  3. 3. Nicholas Socrates 4123875European Design and Building Cultures - SPRING 2011THE ARCHITECTURAL BIOGRAPHYName: Anne Frank Primary SchoolSite: Papendrecht, The NetherlandsArchitect: Herman HerzburgerDate: 1993-1996Client: Papendrecht City CouncilCosts: UnkonwnSize: Total: 2700 m2;Teaching Areas: 480m2 (including lavatory and store and quiet room)Hall: 96m2Typical Classroom: 50m2 (x8)Nursery Play space: 70m2Central Hall: 88m2 (triple height volume, which includes vertical circulation)Teaching Areas: 480m2 (including lavatory and store and quiet room)MaterialsA steel frame with rendered concrete walls and a combination of flat asphalt and pitched-curved zinc-clad roofsSituationThe site occupies a flat corner on the edge of a modernist housing development in a largely residentialneighborhood.BackgroundThe school was built alongside the development of various housing projects, situated in a largelyresidential neighbourhood. The school was built to meet the demands and wishes of proximately for alocal school.ProgramA local authority primary schoolDesigned as a part of a larger housing schemeFor children aged 4 - 12 (8 years)8 teaching spaces: 28 children in each (= 224 children)Architectural SolutionsA typical Herman Herzburger formHertzbergers primary structure for learning environments was to create a school that represented thecommunity at large to enhance socialization.Hertzberger was also influenced by the ideas of Willem Dudok, who believed that school design shouldreflect schools as "a place of joy".Organised vertically (as apposed to normal school configurations)Therefore it is economical and spatially it adopts a clustered house toe configuration.
  4. 4. It has a central hall space, which has become the focus of the community with an auditoriumarrangement of steps - which encourages the pupils to linger and socialise and mix across the ageranges.As well as this - the circulation stairs and galleries criss-cross the large volume enabling a relationship tothe whole school (not just in the class bases) even for the younger children.What makes the schools configuration particularly effective is its flexibility - enabled by openable screenwalls - linking the classroom spaces at eh ground floor to the hall.The ground floor opens up to be a transparent, open volume - merging with the outdoor environment -the surrounding gardens.Flexibility related to future change is a key component in Hertzbergers design,This is a surprising transformation from the cellular nature of the normal closed school arrangement.The orientation of each classroom is carefully choreographed to optimize the sun exposure with largelyglazed walls on the north facing side facing the playroom+ with shaded corner windows openings to the south and west.StructureA steel frame with rendered concrete walls and a combination of flat asphalt and pitched-curved zinc-clad roofsFaçadeThe architecture evokes the language of its surrounding housing blocks, which are of Corbusianaesthetics - of white rendered walls with horizontal ribbon windows.Yet here the form is different enough both in terms of scale and shape - therefore announcing its statusas a public building.Specific InformationThere is a surprising lack of security - with access provided from 3 directionsThis factor is not overcome because of its naturally existing open, contained internal volume, thereforethere are many eyes watching, controlling the space against the possibility of intruders.Views from the playground show the marriage between the form and its use.The staircase and balconies beneath the great industrial roof form a safe enclosed public space.It can be interpreted in 2 ways;1. of clear uncompromising technology - space ship like.2. On the other hand it is a home away from home - an intimate friendly place.Each element of the program is expressed, with the great curved roofs - looping over the top of theinternal hall.Herman Herzburger’s Anne Frank school is a beautifully clear, open and rational buildingIt synthesizes small-scale domestic forms with larger scale institutional volumes to create s hybridschool of great sophistication.
  5. 5. Herman Herzburgers Architectural Philosophy“The opportunity to see and be seen”.It is about ʻlookingʼ and ʻbeing looked atʼ.The building should become a sort of theatre.And a feeling of being inspired by others, who are working their.For Herman’s design of the NHL University he described the spaces he was creating as; “Officelandscapes” with articulated parts and areas where people can work freely.“We should make conditions more than solutions.”The role of the architect is to create the conditions for people to be aware of each other, and to getin contact with one another.This is not necessarily for “meeting” (meeting people) – “that is sentimental”It is about seeing people. When you see someone – it is not yet a meeting – it could become ameeting, but it is just that you are aware of each other, and that you are not completely distant.BibliographyDUDEK, M. Architecture of Schools: the new learning environments. Architectural Press. 2000.Indesem 2011. BK City, TU Delft. Herman Herzburger Lecture. Collegerama. Recorded Lectures.PhotographsDUDEK, M. Architecture of Schools: the new learning environments. Architectural Press. 2000.
  6. 6. Wouterje Pieterse Primary School, Leiden, 1990In the design for the Wouterje Perterse primary school, two strips of four classroomseach are stacked and set at a slight angle to one another like a folding ruler.This results in all kinds of particular spaces in the area in between, suck as a playcorner next to a preschool classroom on the ground floor, or a free, open area forhandicrafts and documentation on the first floor. The intermit area functions as acorridor and at the same time accommodates activities outside the classrooms.The relation between group areas and communal ones is inverted from one floor toanother. Therefore while the group areas on the ground floor are on the side facingthe street, those on the first floor look out onto a green playing field that the school isallowed to use.The Leiden Local Authority asked architect Sabien de Kleijn to design this schoolprecisely because she had never designed a school before.The principal received an honourable mention in the School Architecture Prize for1994. The jury praised the attractive spaces and the poetic design, as evidence, forinstance, in the reticent use of colour in the interior, which was mainly done in greyand white.At the same time the jury noted that there was an apparently dominant concept whichprevented full justice being done to the integration of the architecture and theeducational vision.The further fate of the school was mainly determined by shortage of space as a resultof the fact that the neighbourhood is a green spur of the Leidse Hout has a growingnumber of children. This was one of the reasons to close off the open documentationarea with a wall to avoid disturbance. In spite of the bright colours of the toys andbags of the children, extra colour has been applied to some of the walls.By now a plan for an extension of this location has been approved, based on adesign by the Barth firm of architects from Rotterdam.This extension on the playing field at the rear is connected with the present school bya glass corridor.The ground plan in the form of a diamond enables another of the schools demands tobe met: classrooms which differ in size.In the future the existing school will be devoted to preschool education, while the newbuilding will be used for the higher classes.So in the end the architectural concept and the educational vision do meet.!
  7. 7. Nicholas Socrates 2011 – 4123875 TU DELLFT – Making Architecture – AR1MA050School Education in The NetherlandsLaws providing for universal compulsory education were adopted in the late 19thcentury. In 1900 six-year compulsory primary education was established for childrenbetween the ages of six and 12. Seven years of schooling became mandatory in 1933,and eight years of compulsory free education (from the ages of seven to 15) wasinstituted in 1950. The first stage of the educational system is the kindergarten. In 1971kindergartens, most of them private, had an enrollment of about 492,000 childrenbetween three and six years of age.Primary education lasts for six years. Secondary instruction is given in six-yearGymnasiums and atheneums.In order to be admitted to a secondary general school, a pupil must have studied aforeign language as an elective for two years at a primary school and must have passedcompetitive entrance examinations.Vocational training is provided by lower and intermediate secondary specialized schoolswith courses of study ranging from a few months to five years.In 1970–71 primary schools had an enrollment of about 1.5 million pupils, and secondaryschools enrolled more than 1.2 million, of whom some 604,000 were in general schoolsand more than 500,000 attended specialized schools.::Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. Theindoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it isunclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment.::It was customary to cluster schools in green zones in post war urban development.The restored classrooms and the new schools were initially a symbol of the proudnational reconstruction, the building activities soon became a response to the populationgrowth and increase of scale.The number of school pupils dramatically increased in this period.The expansion of education was connected with the democratization of education - thegrowing participation of children from working-class backgrounds in secondary andhigher education.Starting in the 1960s, when the worst classroom crisis was over, changes in theeducational system and new social ideas led to new buildings.The introduction of the Secondary Education Act known as the Mammoth Act in 1968was followed by the combination of secondary education facilities and their
  8. 8. accommodation in the new larger school clusters.Todays primary schools, which emerged after the introduction of the Primary EducationAct in 1990, are the result of the merger of kindergartens and primary schools.Teaching also changed between 1950 and 1990. Almost the entire educational field wascharacterised by a shift from the transfer of information to broad education, generaldevelopment, self-reliance, and learning how to learn.School came to teach skills, norms and values as well as knowledge and teachersintroduced different teaching methods besides classroom lessons, such as working ontasks in small groups or individual study and project education.Teaching that went beyond the division into classes meant more mixing of different agegroups.Architects designed schools with new ground plans to cater for these new trends. Theyresponded to the spatial consequences of a shift in education from which placed theemphasis on the teacher or the study material, to an emphasis on the pupils themselves.Primary education puts great emphasis on experience orientated learning, preparatoryvocational secondary schools puts emphasis on teaching in a learning environment whatis rich in context, while secondary vocational education emphasises the development ofthe pupils competences.The New School for Primary Education; a study written in 1953 for innovative primaryeducation states; "The application of all kinds of forms of working on ones own isintended to teach children to learn to work autonomously and on their own responsibility.This desire for more autonomy and responsibility presupposes a greater measure offreedom for the pupils than was allowed in the past, both physically and mentally. Thereis no need to point out that children must know that this freedom is tied to the demandsand norms laid down by the classroom and school community. The absence of this orderand internalised discipline would lead to disorderly behaviour."This shows that the new educational objective is not supposed to end in lawlessnessand asocial behaviour.::When it came to the building of new primary schools, architects responded to the newteaching methods and educational objectives.Essential conditions for a freer use of the space and the presence of ventilation frommore than one side and the admittance of daylight, which were applied on an enormousscale after the 2nd World War.The building Decree of 1924 stated that light must enter the classroom from the left inprimary schools so that compulsory right hand writing would not be hindered byshadows.In classroom teaching, the wall with the blackboard and the position of the teacher had adecisive effect on how the benches were arranged. Departures from the arrangement bywhich pupils sit in straight rows behind one another and look in the same direction sooncreated problems.
  9. 9. All kinds of variants of primary schools were built all over the Netherlands in the postwarperiod, which had more than one wall with a window and enabled different ways ofworking.Fixed school benches were replaced by loose table and chairs.The application of the new teaching methods in these classrooms coincided withchanging views about school hygiene. The choice of windows in two or more sides of theclassroom was also intended to improve the indoor climate by making use of crossventilation, UV rays and skin effects. This information came from the building of open airschools.After the Second World War spatial elements derived from open air schools becamecommon place, such as low windows, schools without corridors, outdoor teaching areas,spacious locations, and daylight from more than one side.Research on the effects of open air schools education indicated that the increased lightand ventilation not only improved the health of the pupils but also raised their learningperformance.Spatial interventions created an entirely different atmosphere in which the spatialcharacteristics that had an influence on teaching underwent more than a functionalseparation.An environment which can promote learning, stimulate pupils to work by themselves, oroffer them opportunities for concentration. It could also promote differentiated forms ofsocial behaviour, such as working together or working on ones own.::In secondary education, technical schools adopted teaching methods with working onones own. Many schools were built because trained workers were needed for theaccelerated postwar industrialisation. In postwar period the building for technicaleducation were often divided up into blocks, wings or pavilions with separate areas fortheory, workshops and a gym. These components of a school require specific rooms thatare difficult to combine with one another.Pupils learnt metal work or woodwork in the practical buildings with work benches,usually long halls containing long rows of lathes, or desks where they carried outexercises. In earlier post war periods these were all identical, precisely prescribed tasks.In the course of time the endless filing exercises came to be replaced by more freeexercises. Working in groups in which the planning and division of labour stimulate theinitiative of the pupils was introduced.::While the individual group work places were still fairly separated from one another in the1950s, by the 1980s it had become common for pupils to use a work corner, corridor orhall for educational purposes - which led to the spatial design and configuration ofdifferent kinds of work places with flexible use of rooms in school clusters::At the end of the 1990s the so-called Study House was created for secondary
  10. 10. theoretical education, with the more or less complete integration of classrooms, generalareas and a library. This new educational form often had to be fitted in somehow intoexisting buildings.Although, now these vocational - Study House schools are on their way out, it haschanged learning environments for the better. It has proved to be a positive stepforwards towards a new type of pre-university school with learning domains defined bothin organisational terms and in terms of type of classroom.The modernisation of teaching methods may still be seen as controversial today. Forexample in the mid 2005 the new learning was given very negative coverage in thenews as a type of education in which anything goes.The picture became clear as it emerged from the primary schools, based on the principlethat every child is already wise, in which pupils are apparently allowed to run wild andact around as long as they like.It has now become clear that increased autonomy is not suitable for every pupil and thatabove all those pupils who lag behind are in danger of not receiving adequate support.::Besides the system built schools, which continued to be constructed in large numbersdown to he late 1960s; Architects also developed buildings that were more suited to theurban context; Pavilion schools and patio schools on one level were highly appropriate inthat respect because orientation, access and entrance were not determined beforehand.With outdoor spaces which can be used separately by different age categories.Primary schools and housing developments emerged together in the 1980s closelyconnected to the process of urban renewal. In older neighbourhoods it was much morechallenging to integrate schools into the existing urban fabric, therefore, where land wasmore scarce the architects of schools stacked their functions vertically.::In special needs schools a tendency can be detected for the replacement of the growingspecialisation and differentiation by combination and integration in the 1990s. Thepreference for the distribution of pupils with special needs among several types ofschools was replaced by the Back to School Together Again policy. A sort of rucksackis made available to the children with which they can buy care, so that these specialneeds children can prepare themselves for independent life in schools for regulareducation.The building of special needs schools in remote isolated locations is being abandonedas he schools return to the city. With joint premises and school yards offer opportunitiesfor children with special needs, to therefore build up friendships with their peers inregular education. The playground open to the public or not is justly enjoying a revival asa social catalyst.
  11. 11. Herman Herzburger Lecture Notes 2011Structuralism.What sort of profession is architecture?There are many architects trying to be clever, ʻdifferentʼ, famous, rich etc.This is the wrong way. Only busy with themselves and their own identity.What we are doing now is too much nonsense.Let us rethink what architecture could be.What is architecture as a profession for?What are we doing?::Use our materials and talent in a more economic way.Be careful of waste and be careful of indulgence.Reference: BIG Mountain Dwellings – it is a fantastic design – but “half the world isstarving!”Stepped housing in New Mexico is a contribution to the communal life of the people.The “Mountain Dwellings” offer no contribution at all, apart from to the spoilt richpeople who can afford to live there. It is “an absolutely unimportant house”.::Norman Fosterʼs Hong Kong Shanghaii Bank.It was the most expensive building – it still may be. Lots of Aluminum.But at least it has a public street / a walkway underneath it – it gives something backto the people.It is an exaggerated building, but ʻI like itʼ. You can walk in it and look up and see,though the glass screen above, all the rich people who work there.Many people use this public ground floor space as shelter and for large gatheringalso.The ground level consists solely of 2 large industrial escalators – not a grantstaircase.Foster is an architect for the rich, but at least he has some idea about what should bedone. An idea about public space.::Against social media, but Herman is very interested in the reality of the street andpeople.It is always about people (“and not about ants”) – not about looking as an architectfrom a great distance.::Buildings next to streets is the wrong juxtaposition.Actually, the insides of a building can be a street, just as a street can be a building.For example: public space – On special occasions;Muslims using an entire street for worship, a street is used as a church orcongregation for example for the USA Presidential election, or Royal wedding.But be careful, because the people become “ants” again.The street is very important, even if it was only for the occasion national celebration,eg. Queens Day.The people when they are all together in a large scale, for example on Queens Dayor Liberation Day, feel a great sense of collective togetherness, and for many this is
  12. 12. immensely satisfying, because people coming together for celebration is positive anduplifting and contrasts our collective notion of togetherness, which is (or was) aboutbeing together in times of war.::Corbusierʼs Unite: “the roof is fantastic” – exclusively concrete (+water) and not evenany greenery.Itʼs a sculpture. A sculpture where people can be.Corbusier as an architect actually thought about ʻdesignʼ, thought about his roof top,the privacy of it, even design the concrete chairs / benches on the roof in a veryparticular way: deep enough for relaxation and with a high enough back for totalprivacy.He though about “primary human behavour”He was not thinking – how can I make a fantastic design?::In Italy there are sitting situation everywhere: plazas, outside churches, buildings,etc, and even happy accidents; like the base of an ancient column to sit on.Architecture should be molded so it can contain people, to attract people and keepthem attracted.Though, it is not necessarily about sitting. It is about how architecture is molded tothe human behavour.This view is the complete opposite to the architecture treating people as “ants”(distant architecture).We need to be near-by architects.::
  13. 13. Gaudiʼs park Guell has curved wall-like benches, made with colorful ceramic. Thedeep looping curves of these benches gives the public the opportunity to sit andgroups and interact with one another.At the end of these looping benches, they open out to give us the possibility to sit andlook out on the splendid view over Barcelona.It is public architectural interventions, like this one, which gives us the social startingpoint, which is so crucial in architecture.::How can we get people to participate in architecture?We can have meetings with clients and understand what they are looking for, but thisis too easy and normally architectures with their hidden agendas of design just dowhat they want anyway, but how do you create an architecture which is also invitingpeople to do something themselves.This is what the aim of structuralism should be.“The performance next to the competence.” We make the competence so it can beperformed in, at, or on by the people.::Schools 1. The classroom / closet 2. Being together. eg. a bar in the centre (like in the AA). It is about communication and peopleThe role of the architect is to create the conditions for people to be aware of eachother, and to get in contact with one another.This is not nesicarily for “meeting” (meeting people) – “that is sentimental”It is about seeing people.. When you see someone – it is not yet a meeting – it couldbecome a meeting, but it is just that you are aware of each other, and that you arenot completely distant.::“Split Levels Building”Secondary school Montassori (college Oost) Amsterdam.
  14. 14. When Herman was working in TU Delftʼs old BK building, he was not aware, for 10years, that his friend and college was also working on the floor directly below him.Floors – “they separate completely different worlds”. They “slice” worlds.The fire department wants us to slice off our floors.“Our biggest enemies is the fire department.”How can we over come the fire department?For the Secondary school Montassori (college Oost) Amsterdam, Herman put thegalleries on the inside parameter of the building, so they could also be used as fireescapes, consequently they could make the entire building open.::The importance of stairs and the design of them in a certain way where you canreally see each other. For example with the use of glass balustrades and rails, so it ispossible to look up and down and see other people.::“The opportunity to see and be seen”.NHL University Leeuwarden 2004“Office landscapes” with articulated parts and areas where people can work freely.It is about ʻlookingʼ and ʻbeing looked atʼ.The building should become a sort of theatre.And a feeling of being inspired by others, who are working their.Similar to BK City.::“Architecture should lose more ground and do more for life and the back-drop of thecity”.Do not make buildings as big sculptures.Architecture is not art. Architecture is architecture.Architecture makes conditions for being together and for being alone and everythingin between.
  15. 15. Architecture is a “Base”.::We should make conditions more than solutions“The richness of poorness” or “economy of means”Create something which is eternal.Without capital. Without ornament::It is far better to do something which makes sense in the social world – part of thesociety.Try and contribute – try to keep society together.ʻBetter the societyʼ – this is “an understatement” – things are falling apart today.“Use your talent and your energy to do something for the world”!

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