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Overview of Korean media


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slide presentation by Ki Hyun about Korean media

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Overview of Korean media

  1. 1. Overview of the Press in South Korea Foundations of European Communication Studies 5916291 Ki Hyun Kim
  2. 2. Hallin & Mancini's Three media systems The ‘Liberal model’ : USA, Britain, Canada, Ireland - Strong development of the newspaper press, journalistic professionalism - Very limited political parallelism - Weak government intervention - The market plays a strong role The ‘Polarized Pluralistic Model’ : Italy, Spain, Greece, Portugal, France - Late and incomplete development of the press - Weak professionalization - Strong elements of political parallelism - A strong role of the state The ‘Democratic Corporatist Model’ : Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland - Political systems are consensual - Pluralism is organized and moderate - Professionalization of journalism is high - The state is involved in economic matters
  3. 3. Early History of Press Market Korea’s first modern newspaper : The Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newsp -aper), established in 1896 Japanese Colonial Rule (1910-1945) The Chosun Ilbo and the Dong-A Ilbo inaugurated in 1920
  4. 4. Under Military Dictatorship 1. Seung Man Lee’s government (1948-1960)  Outlawed leftist newspapers  Closed moderate newspapers  Arrested reporters and publishers 2. Chung Hee Park’s government (1964-1972)  Closed all but fifteen of Seoul's 64 daily newspapers  Using its own radio and news agencies to promote its official line  The Press Ethics Commission Law 3. Doo Hwan Chun’s government (1980-1988)  Independent news agencies were absorbed into a single state-run agency  Numerous provincial newspapers were closed  Two independent broadcasting companies were absorbed into the state-run KBS
  5. 5. Liberalization in politics [Registered Daily Newspapers] ★ June 29, 1987 Liberalization in politics - The government officially abandoned the authoritarianism - Truly free press and liberalization in politics
  6. 6. After the Democratisation - Capital controls the media - The age of keen competition - Concentrated ownership - Commercialisation and Sensationalisation
  7. 7. Daily Circulations National dailies: Selected local dailies: Name Circulations Name Circulations Chosun Ilbo 2,450,000 Busan Ilbo 400,000 Joong-ang Ilbo 2,350,000 Daegu Maeil shinmun 170,000 Kookje Daily News 100,000 Dong-a Ilbo 2,100,000 Hankok Ilbo 700,000 November 2001 Kyunghyang Shinmun 450,000 Hankyoreh Shinmun 400,000 Korea Daily News 400,000 Kukmin Daily 350,000 Munhwa Ilbo 300,000 Segye Times 200,000 Korea: 213 copies per 1000 people ※ United Kingdom: 303 / Belgium: 173 / France: 167
  8. 8. The Newspaper Market Share [2008] 24.4 Chosun 28.1 JoongAng Dong-A Kyunghyang 3.7 Maeil Economy 4.3 18.8 Hangyerye 5.8 Others 14.9 ★ Top 3 market share = 58.1% → Oligopoly (62.3% in 2006)
  9. 9. State Intervention Act on the Guarantee of Freedom and Functions of Newspapers (amended in 2005) Article 17. Market-dominating business operators - one business operator whose market share accounts for not less than 30% of the average number of newspapers - 3 or more business operators whose total market share accouts for not less than 60% of the average number of newspapers Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade : Article 3-2 (Prohibition on the Abuse of Market Dominance)
  10. 10. Hot Issue: Deregulation Plan Easing the ban on ‘Cross Media Ownership’ Large firms with more than 3 trillion won (190 million Euro) in assets are banned from owning news channels → 10 trillion won (630 million Euro) Remove coglomerates’ 49% limit of shareholding in the satellite broadcasting sector Allow conglomerates to hold up to 49% in a terrestrial DMB business Foreingers’ shareholding limit in the satellite broadcasting setor will be lifted from 33% to 49% Efficiency Pluralism Competition VS Diversity
  11. 11. Conclusion Pattern of Variation in Four Media System Dimensions on the analogy of Hallin & Mancini Polarized Democratic Liberal Korea pluralist corporatist Development of Low High High High mass press Political parallelism High High Low Getting Lower Professionalization Low High High Getting Higher State intervention High High Low Getting lower
  12. 12. Conclusion Korea
  13. 13. Change of Media Usage [Newspaper Subscription Rate Per People. 1996 ~ 2006] [Weekly Newspaper Reading Hours of Internet Users]