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Mobile leaning nik amanatidis


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Introduction to Mobile Learning, the basic theories, topics and actions.

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Mobile leaning nik amanatidis

  1. 1. Nik Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 1
  2. 2. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 2
  3. 3.  It‟s not about the platform or technology its about the context. And when we differentiate by context, mobile as a concept, and a device, fragments into a range of scenarios: from interacting with the barcodes in a shop, to checking the bus schedule on your way to the station, playing games hours on end or spending 10 minutes reading through an article on Instapaper. Mobile as a term no longer exists. Because there is no dividing line between which devices are used where and for what, it‟s all blurred. When designing for different platforms, what we need to think about is the need for stuff like: screen real estate, time, focus, enjoyment, tasks, information, type of human interaction, immediacy, role, tactile etc. We need to define the activity based on its preferences, not the connected ability of the device we are putting it on – because everything is connected and portable. Helge Tennø Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 3
  4. 4.  phone PC networked device audio/video capable of recording and playback GPS enabled live TV and World Radio games device accelerometer and other sensorsWhen thinking Mobile and mLearning, considercarefully how you can use one or more of thesecapabilities. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 4
  5. 5.  Any activity that allows individuals to be more productive when consuming, interacting with, or creating information, mediated through a compact digital portable device that the individual carries on a regular basis, has reliable connectivity, and fits in a pocket or purse, (eLearning Guild) Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 5
  6. 6. Early definitions of [mobile learning],which focused predominantly on theattributes of mobile technology, havegiven way to more sophisticatedconceptualisations suggesting thatmobility is the central issue...This denotes not just physical mobilitybut the opportunity to overcomephysical constraints by having access topeople and digital learning resources,regardless of place and time.”KUKULSKA-HULME (2010) Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 6
  7. 7.  Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies. In other words mobile learning decreases limitation of learning location with the mobility of general portable devices. M-learning is convenient in that it is accessible from virtually anywhere. M-Learning, like other forms of E-learning, is also collaborative; sharing is almost instantaneous among everyone using the same content, which leads to the reception of instant feedback and tips. M-Learning also brings strong portability by replacing books and notes with small RAMs, filled with tailored learning contents. In addition, it is simple to utilize mobile learning for a more effective and entertaining experience. Wikipedia 24.5.2012 Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 7
  8. 8.  Can we use mobile capabilities to enhance learning outcomes? Which of those affordances would interest would-be learners? Will mode of connection better enable learning interaction? What instruction modes and support strategies will help learners be more productive? What content/material is already on hand that could be made easier to access via mobile devices? Do we need to digitize/transform/adapt educational content What network will be used for distribution? What actions, sessions or activities will need to be tracked or recorded? Will mobile learning integrate with other educational systems/modes or does it need to? Who will participate? Teachers-Students Suitable for Special Education? Training for effective utilization of the media/mode Who will handle any needed user support? What kind of evaluation is suitable? How we acknowledge any learning outcomes, how we assess learning. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 8
  9. 9.  The screens are too small Specific applications for Students with disabilities Content and software application limitations, including a lack of built-in functions, the difficulty of adding applications Costs of going on-line Challenges in learning how to work with a mobile device, and differences between applications and circumstances of use Network speed and reliability Physical environment issues such as problems with using the device outdoors, excessive screen brightness, concerns about personal security Possible radiation exposure from devices using radio frequencies, the need for rain covers in rainy or humid conditions Lack of adequate applications/ infrastructure Excessive cost issues Ownership Guidance, tutoring and evaluation Assessments Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 9
  10. 10. Case studies: Mobile phones for language learning Students were sent frequent vocabulary messages and revision material via mobile phones using SMS text messages. Within behaviourist learning paradigm, Mobile phones with online services allow students to access multiple choice questions and answers, and learning is thought to be best facilitated practical exercises.through the reinforcement of an association Mobile devices allow students to review, listen and between a particular stimulus and a practice speaking, and provide services such as phrase response (drill and feedback). translation, quizzes and live coaching (Stanford Learning Lab). Yuen, S.C.Y., & Wang, S.Y. (2004). M-learning: Mobility in Learning. Proceedings of ELEARN 2004, pp. 2248-2252. Behaviourist learning “Drill and feedback”: use mobile devices toMobile devices in particular can enhance the behaviourist learning process. The use of mobile devices to present present content specific questions, gatherteaching materials/content specific questions (stimulus), student responses rapidly and anonymously, obtain responses from learners (response), and provide and assemble a public, aggregate display, toappropriate feedback (reinforcement) – provide „drill and feedback‟ activities, fits within the behaviourist learning show variation in the group‟s ideas paradigm. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 10
  11. 11. Constructivist learningConstructivist learningConstructivist learning is an active process in which learnersconstruct new ideas or concepts based on their current andpast knowledge (Bruner, 1966).Within a constructivist learning framework, instructorsshould encourage students to discover principles forthemselves. In order to transform learners from passiverecipients of information to active constructors of knowledgeinstructors must give learners an environment in which toparticipate in the learning process, and the appropriate toolsto work with that knowledge. Mobile devices provide a unique opportunity to have learners embedded in a realistic context at the same time as having access to supporting tools. Each learner carries a networked device which allows them to become part of the dynamic system they are learning about Games (PDA): participatory simulations where learners play an active role in the simulation of a dynamic system or process. Handheld games (Pocket PC): where context-sensitive data (raw data) and social interactions (interviews with „virtual‟ experts) are used to supplement real world interactions Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 11
  12. 12. Situated learning The situated learning paradigm (Lave et al., 1991) holds that learning is not merely the acquisition of knowledge by individuals, but instead a process of social participation. Brown et al (1989) also emphasisethe idea of cognitive apprenticeship where teachers (the experts) work alongside students (the apprentices) to create situations where the students can begin to work on problems even before they fully understand them. Situated learning requires knowledge to be presented Mobile devices for in authentic contexts (settings and applications that natural sciencewould normally involve that knowledge) and learners to learning: use PDA to participate within a community of practice support field studies, e.g. taking observational notes, Mobile devices for Geography:use iPods to support field-based Multimedia museum: use Pocket PC to provide an taking photo, interactive audio-visual tour, allowing visitors to view activities, e.g. listen to pre- video and still images, listen to expert commentary and querying networked loaded instructions, taking reflect on their experience by answering questions or photos and observational notes, mixing a collection of sound clips to create their own database and record students own reflections,etc. (University of Gloucestershire soundtrack for an artwork. comparing data, etc Futurelab & Kingston University) Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 12
  13. 13. Problem-based learning Problem-based learning (PBL) (Koschmann et al 1996) aims to develop students‟ critical thinking skills by giving them an ill-defined problem that is reflective of what they would encounter as a practicing professional. Throughout the process of exploring a problem, students are encouraged to identify the areas of knowledge they will require to understand the problem. The group thencollects these learning issues, along with data, hypotheses and plans for future inquiry in a structured manner, which can be facilitated by shared information resources (e.g.physical or electronic whiteboard), and uses the collected information to develop a plan for the next iteration of problem formulation, solution, reflection and abstraction. Case Studies Medial education Business administration Nursing Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 13
  14. 14. Context awarenessContext awareness means gathering information from the environmentto provide a measure of what is currently going on around the user and the device. Activities and content that are particularly relevant to that environment can then be made available.Mobile devices are especially well suited to context-aware applications Contextsimply because they are available in different context, and so can draw awareness ison those contexts to enhance the learning activity. Context-aware being exploredmobile devices can support learners by allowing a learner to maintain not just as atheir attention on the world and by offering appropriate assistance when way to deliverrequired. appropriate content but to enableCase Studies: Multimedia museum and gallery: provide additional information about appropriateexhibits and displays based on the visitor‟s location within them. Pre-class podcasts: actions andContain news/issues related to the subject, books/journals/films reviews, activities,explanation of key concepts/terminologies, background information about the includingsubject, links to make wider connections, questions students should be thinkingabout before the class, etc. (University of Leicester, University of Gloucestershire & interactions withKinston University, Duke University, University of Mary Washington, Charles Sturt other learners inUniversity) MOBIlearn the same or similar contexts. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 14
  15. 15. The sociocultural theory of learningThe sociocultural theory of learning views that learning takes place in a social context(Rogers, 2002), and the forming and re-forming of concepts need not necessarily takeplace only at the level of the individual, but that collaborative group work and sharing withpeers (and others) can be a powerful way of confronting one‟s own conceptions (pre-conceptions), contributing to the need to restructure one‟s cognitive schemas. So learningis perceived as being as much about communication as it is about content. Of course,communication is not confined to peer-to-peer. It can involve teachers, experts,experienced colleagues, workmates, friends and family.The mobile environment can make a significant contribution to this process. By facilitatingthe rapid access to other users any time/any place, sharing content, knowledge,experience and gossip, learners can develop „communities of practice‟ (Wenger,McDermott and Snyder, 2002) as well as informal discussion groups, as and when neededto optimise their learning processes Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 15
  16. 16. Collaborative learningBoth the capabilities of mobile devices and their widecontext of use contribute to their propensity to fostercollaboration. Mobile devices can easily communicate withother devices of the same or similar type, enablinglearners to share data, files and messages. They can alsobe connected to a shared data network, further enhancingpossibilities for communication. These devices are alsotypically used in a group setting, and so interactions andcollaboration will tend to take place not just through thedevices but also at and around them as well. Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 16
  17. 17. Conversational learning Conversation theory (Pask, The most compelling Mobile computerConversation Conversation Conversation 1976) describes learning in examples of supported collaborative conversational learning learning (MCSCL) terms of conversations occur when mobile system: teacher‟s between different systems technology is used to handheld device (Pocket of knowledge. Learning is a provide a shared PC) is used to distribute continual conversation with conversation space. Effective learning occurs activities to a mobile the external world and its when people can converse network, students work artefacts, with oneself, and in collaborative groups with each other, by also with other learners and interrogating and sharing (students have to come teachers. The most their descriptions of the to agreement before the successful learning comes world. answer can be when the learner is in A mobile learning device submitted), teacher control of the activity, able can assist conversational collects students works to test ideas by performing learning by integrating through Pocket experiments, ask questions, learning descriptions PCFuturelab across different locations, collaborate with other for example by making people, seek out new connections between knowledge, and plan new exhibits in a museum, and actions. by holding the results of learning actions for later retrieval and reflection. It can also provide tools to support learning in context, such as electronic measuring instruments, maps, and reference guides Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 17
  18. 18. Activity Theory Activity theory builds on the work of Vygotsky (1978, 1987) and is a way ofconsidering learning using three features – involving a subject (the learner), an object (the task or activity) and tool or mediating artefacts. Its central tenet is that human behaviour is situated within a social context that influences their actions. Themeanings of actions are mediated by the rules of their community and the division of labour within the community influences the ways in which we behaveThe emphasis that Activity Theory Museum Art Gallery exhibit: the PDA contained background information in a varietyplaces on tools, including computer of media about works on display, in additionbased tools in the way activities are to games, opinion polls and the possibility ofmediated is very helpful. This shifts our communication with other visitors viaattention away from simply the standard text messages.interaction between computer and to The PDA introduced many possibilities to thethe activity as a whole. Activity Theory activity of learning in the museum. The mainis a productive way to evaluate learning possibility – the use of multimedia contentenvironments that are rich in appeared to enhance the activity, expandingtechnology. the type of information available to visitors (Waycott, 2004 p.215). Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 18
  19. 19. A more holistic framework for mobile learning comes with Koole‟s FRAMEmodel.This consists of a three-circle Venn diagram comprising the Learner aspect(L), the Social aspect(S) and the Device aspect (D). Taking two or more of these together at thepoint at which the circles overlap in the Venn diagram: Devise Usability Mobile Learning Social Technology Interaction Social Aspect Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 19
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  21. 21.  These days, phones are sophisticated, and some come with operating systems that allow for installation and removal of applications on the device. Mobile devices in the past came with fixed features that couldn‟t be altered, and a user had to make do with the functionality that shipped with the device. In the future, all phones will have sophisticated operating systems, sensors, and connectivity; developing applications for those will be different from typical eLearning as is seen on desktop computers. it would be probably more interesting, collaborative, critical and probably more fun. Iphone, Andriod, Blackberry, Sony Ericsson, Samsung Phonegap Rhomobile Titanium ELIPS Studio 3 MoSync QT Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 21
  22. 22.  Tools to develop Web applications: iui jQTouch iWebkit Tools for Games: EDGELIB Unity3D JGame Here is the link containing list of engines specifically for IPhone and with the release of Android NDK you can create some really cool games for Android devices. Tools for Augmented Reality: Layar Unifey Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 22
  23. 23. 1. Apple Education2. Mobile Learning Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training3. Marc Prensky Blog4. M-Learning Org5. Mobile Learning thinking: Get on your skateboard to keep up!6. The Revolution No One Noticed: Mobile Phones and Multimobile Services in Higher Education7. Will at Work Learning8. Futures of Learning9. Cell Phones in Learning10. Mlearning World11. Mlearning Bibliography12. Kapp Notes13. Ulearning Blog14. Mlearning Blog15. Mlearning Africa16. MLearning is Good17. The Mobile Learning Engine (MLE) for Moodle18. 3D Animation for Mobile19. Upside Learning Blog20. Derek Bruff‟s Blog Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 23
  24. 24. 1. Mlearnopedia2. Learning2Go3. eLearning Roadtrip4. Are You Ready for Mobile Learning?5. Mobilearner6. Ignatia Web7. M-Learning: Emergent Pedagogical and Campus Issues in the Mobile Learning Environment8. Using Mobile Technology to Enhance Students‟ Educational Experiences9. Location-Aware Computing10. Voice: The Killer Application of Mobile Learning11. Mobile technologies and Learning12. Mobile Learning Technologies and the Move towards „User-Led Education‟13. Squidoo Cellphone Learning14. The Mobile Learner15. Mobile Services Taxonomy16. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 200917. M-Learning18. Five Types of Mobile Learning19. Disruptive Mobile Learning (presentation)20. Mobile Phones as a Challenge for Learning Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 24
  25. 25. 1. mLearning Wikipedia2. 2009 Horizon Report3. Pockets of Potential4. Mobile Learning Institute5. Enabling Mobile Learning6. 7 Things You Should Know About Augmented Reality7. Duke University: Mobile Devices in Education8. Learning Light E-learning Center9. 7 Things You Should Know About Location- Aware Applications10. Mob Learn Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 25
  26. 26. “A major task for educational evaluation is to identify and analyze learning within andacross contexts. For mobile learning, the interest is not only in how learning occurs in avariety of settings, but also how people create new contexts for learning through theirinteractions and how they progress learning across contexts.”VAVOULA & SHARPLES (2008)Challenges Capture and analyze learning in context, with consideration of learner privacy Assess the usability of the technology and how it affects the learning experience Look beyond measurable cognitive gains into changes in the learning process and practice Consider organizational issues in the adoption of mobile learning practice and its integration with existing practices and understand how this integration affects attributes of in/formality Span the lifecycle of the mobile learning innovation that is evaluated, from conception to full deployment and beyond Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 26
  27. 27. 1. Micro level, which examines the individual activities of the technology users and assesses theusability and utility of the educational technology system. E.g. the activities could includecollecting objects through exhibit codes, making notes, contacting people who hadcollected a particular item, recording audio, and taking pictures.2. Meso level, which examines the learning experience as a whole, to identify learningbreakthroughs and breakdowns. It also assesses how well the learning experience integrateswith other related activities and experiences. E.g. evaluation at this level involvesexploring whether there isa successful connection between learning in the new space-locationand the classroom, as well as identifying critical incidents in the new space-location that revealnew patterns and forms of learning or where learning activity is impeded.3. Macro level, which examines the impact of the new technology on established educationaland learning practices and institutions. E.g. this could relate to the organization ofschool museum (or any other place of educational interest) visits.The evaluation at this level examined the appropriation of the new technology by teachers, theemergence of new museum practices in supporting school visits, and how these related to theoriginal project visions.Vavoula, Sharples, (2009) Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 27
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  30. 30.  Accessibility Inclusion Security Privacy Personal Time/Space Cultural Change/Not Professional Standards/Modes Support Monitoring Behavioral Change Rules Bob and Sue Mobile learning devices Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 30
  31. 31. The use of mobiles as an alternative source of learning andinformation is rapidly gaining ground in the learning environment.This is compounded by the fact that a large number oforganizations and institutions are opting for new modes oflearning as part of their training and development. Mobile Learningis slowly but clearly emerging as the future of learning.Before joining the flood of implementers trying out mobilelearning, it is imperative you conduct a thorough analysis of yourrequirements, plan a framework and then implementthe strategy.Have a vision, get organized, adopt the right-tailored to yourneeds and learning aims strategies and instruction modes relatedto your and your students‟ educational context, gain new skills,keep informed and familiar with the challenges and the newaffordances that emerge everyday in the world of mobile learning.Do this correctly, and the chances are your mobile learningstrategy will be effective and the learners in your organization willsee substantial benefits as a result. Mobile learning Why mobile learning? Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 31
  32. 32. Dr Nikos AmanatidisICT Trainer, Primary School TeacherPhD in ICT Training and Evaluation in EducationAbout: Nets:!/nickaman Nik Amanatidis 11/10/2012 32