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Semantic Web und Linked Open Data. Eine Bibliothekarische Geschichte

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Vortrag von Jakob Voß an der Bibliothek der
Westsächsischen Hochschule Zwickau (siehe http://biblog.fh-zwickau.de/2010/03/29/semantic-web-und-linked-data/)

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Semantic Web und Linked Open Data. Eine Bibliothekarische Geschichte

  1. 1. Digitale Bibliothek Jakob Voß Semantic Web und Linked Open Data Eine Bibliothekarische Geschichte Bibliothek der Westsächsischen Hochschule Zwickau Montag, 12. April 2010
  2. 2. Semantic Web und Linked Open Data Tim Berners-Lee: Waving the Web. Harper, 1999 <ul><ul><li>I have a dream for the Web […] A ‘Semantic Web’ [...] the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines . The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Idee des Semantic Web <ul><li>Computer sollen „verstehen“ </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogene Daten weltweit vernetzen </li></ul><ul><li>Logische Beschreibung mit Regeln und Schlussfolgerungen (KI) </li></ul><ul><li>Science Fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Inzwischen mehr: „ Linked Open Data “ </li></ul>2 1
  4. 4. Semantic Web und Linked Open Data
  5. 5. <ul><li>Daten: Strukturen aus unterscheidbarer Zeichen, die aufgrund von Verein-barungen Informationen darstellen. </li></ul>Semantic Web und Linked Open Data
  6. 6. Bildrechte: Berlin-Verlag Semantic Web und Linked Open Data <ul><li>Daten </li></ul><ul><li>Drei Dramen </li></ul><ul><li>In den Alpen </li></ul><ul><li>Elfriede Jelineck </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Verlag </li></ul><ul><li>❄❄❄❄❄❄❄❄ </li></ul>Vereinbarung
  7. 7. Bildrechte: Berlin-Verlag Semantic Web und Linked Open Data <ul><li>Metadaten (über ➔) </li></ul><ul><li>Untertitel: Drei Dramen </li></ul><ul><li>Titel: In den Alpen </li></ul><ul><li>Autor: Elfriede Jelineck </li></ul><ul><li>Verlag: Berlin Verlag </li></ul>
  8. 8. Semantic Web und Linked Open Data <ul><li>Strukturierte Daten </li></ul><ul><li>Untertitel: Drei Dramen </li></ul><ul><li>Titel: In den Alpen </li></ul><ul><li>Autor: Elfriede Jelineck </li></ul><ul><li>Verlag: Berlin Verlag </li></ul>Datensatz „ Elfriede Jelineck hat im Berlin Verlag In den Alpen. Drei Dramen veröffentlicht.“
  9. 9. <ul><li>Daten: Strukturen aus unterscheidbarer Zeichen, die aufgrund von Verein-barungen Informationen darstellen. </li></ul><ul><li>Alle Daten können binär kodiert werden </li></ul><ul><li>1100001 = A (Vereinbarung: ASCII) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer speichern und verarbeiten Daten </li></ul>Semantic Web und Linked Open Data
  10. 10. Kurze Geschichte der Datenspeicherung <ul><li>Ziel: viele strukturierte Daten speichern und verfügbar machen </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kurze Geschichte der Datenspeicherung <ul><li>Ziel: viele strukturierte Daten speichern und verfügbar machen </li></ul><ul><li>Bücher </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliotheken </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliografien </li></ul>Biblioteca Universalis 1545ff
  12. 12. Bandkatalog, ETH Zurück (1922) http://ba.e-pics.ethz.ch/link.jsp?id=Ans_00339
  13. 13. Erfindung der Bibliografie Conrad Gesner Biblioteca Universalis 1545ff
  14. 14. Gesners Idee: Zerschneiden & Rekombinieren <ul><li>Titelaufnahmen der Bücher auf ein Papier schreiben </li></ul><ul><li>Stichwörter hervorheben </li></ul><ul><li>Blätter in Streifen schneiden </li></ul><ul><li>Zettel in benötigter Ordnung aufkleben </li></ul>
  15. 15. Karteikarten statt Bücher zur Datenspeicherung <ul><li>Ziel: viele strukturierte Daten speichern und verfügbar machen </li></ul><ul><li>Bücher + Karteikarten </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliotheken </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliografien </li></ul>http://www.blyberg.net/card-generator/
  16. 16. Zettelkatalog, Universitätsbibliothek Graz Foto von Marcus Gossler (2005)
  17. 17. Verschiedene Sucheinstiege <ul><li>Autorenkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>Titelkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>Schlagwortkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Gesamtkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>„Mehrere Dimensionen“ </li></ul>Autoren Titel Schlagwörter
  18. 18. <ul><li>Bandkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentielle Suche </li></ul><ul><li>Grobe Sprungeinstiege </li></ul><ul><li>Zettelkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentielle Suche </li></ul><ul><li>Viele Sprungeinstiege </li></ul><ul><li>Leichter kopierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Leichter rekombinierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Mehrere Dimensionen </li></ul>
  19. 19. Standardisierung der Karteikarte Dewey-Decimal-Classification (DDC) American Library Association (ALA) ab 1876 Kommerzieller Erfolg erst dank E. W. Sherman Melvil Dewey Library Bureau Catalog (1886)
  20. 20. Mundaneum (1898)
  21. 21. Semantic Zettelkatalog Paul Otlet
  22. 22. Zwischenfazit <ul><li>Zerschneiden & Rekombinieren </li></ul><ul><li>Karteikarte zur Speicherung </li></ul><ul><li>Standards zum Austausch </li></ul><ul><li>Mehrere Sucheinstiege und Dimensionen </li></ul>
  23. 23. Kurze Geschichte der Datenspeicherung <ul><li>Ziel: viele strukturierte Daten speichern und verfügbar machen </li></ul><ul><li>Karten Datensätze </li></ul><ul><li>Kartei Speicher Datenbank </li></ul>Hollerith-Lochkarte (1895) IBM 305-Festplatten (1956)
  24. 24. Kurze Geschichte der Datenspeicherung UNIVERSO Magnetband (1951) IBM 305-Festplatten (1956) <ul><li>Sequentiell </li></ul><ul><li>Random Access </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bildrechte: Berlin-Verlag <ul><li>Untertitel: Drei Dramen </li></ul><ul><li>Titel: In den Alpen </li></ul><ul><li>Autor: Elfriede Jelineck </li></ul><ul><li>Verlag: Berlin Verlag </li></ul>Relationales Datenbankmodell Zerschneiden & Rekombinieren
  26. 26. Beliebige Sucheinstiege <ul><li>Für jede Art von Suche (nach Autor, Titel, Jahr, Signatur...) kann ein eigener Index eingerichtet werden </li></ul><ul><li>Direktes Springen an die Treffer </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Zettelkatalog </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentielle Suche </li></ul><ul><li>Viele Sprungeinstiege </li></ul><ul><li>Leichter kopierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Leichter rekombinierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Mehrere Dimensionen </li></ul><ul><li>Datenbank </li></ul><ul><li>Indexbasierte Suche </li></ul><ul><li>Direkte Sprungeinstiege </li></ul><ul><li>Beliebig kopierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Beliebig rekombinierbar </li></ul><ul><li>Beliebig viele Dimensionen </li></ul>
  28. 28. Semantic Web und Linked Open Data
  29. 29. Hyperlinks Ted Nelson Bild: ted.hyperland.com A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Indeterminate (1965)
  30. 30. Information Management: A Proposal (1989) Tim Berners-Lee Das WWW Bild: captsolo@flickr
  31. 31. Das World Wide Web <ul><li>URL - Einheitliche Adressierung </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP - Einheitlicher Transport </li></ul><ul><li>HTML - Einheitliche Kodierung </li></ul>
  32. 32. Before libraries join the &quot; Semantic Web &quot; (which exists, if I'm not mistaken, in Unicorn-Land ), can they join the &quot; Web Web &quot;? For example, it would be nice if I could link to a book in a library catalog […] Tim Spalding (LibraryThing), NGC4LIB, 23.10.2009 http://serials.infomotions.com/ngc4lib/archive/2009/200910/1676.html
  33. 33. WWW falsch verstanden <ul><li>Portale als Gatekeeper, hinter denen Inhalte versteckt sind </li></ul><ul><li>Eigene Protokolle statt HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamische Webseiten mit Sessions und Cookies statt eindeutige, stabile URLs ( Permalinks ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliothekskataloge (u.A.) sind im Web aber nicht Teil des Web </li></ul>
  34. 34. Nicht Teil des Web: Beispiel Krücke:
  35. 35. <ul><li>Sigel: Identifikator um auf einzelne Biblio-theken zu verweisen </li></ul><ul><li>Inzw. ISIL (ISO 15511) </li></ul><ul><li>z.B. HSB = DE-Zwi2 </li></ul>Referenzierbarkeit Erstes Sigelverzeichnis (1914)
  36. 36. Datensatz im Sigelverzeichnis
  37. 37. Grundregeln Linked Data (1/2) <ul><li>Benutze URIs , um Objekte zu identifizieren </li></ul><ul><li>Benutze HTTP URIs ( URLs ) , so dass Objekte nachgeschlagen werden können </li></ul>Tim Berners-Lee: Linked Data Design Issues. 2006/2009 http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  38. 38. Data Linked Linked Open Data Information Management: A Proposal (1989)
  39. 39. Viele Identifier, wenig URIs <ul><li>Publikationen: ISSN, ISBN, DOI … </li></ul><ul><li>Katalogisate: </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC Number, LCCN </li></ul><ul><li>EKI, VD16, VD17, VD18 ... </li></ul><ul><li>Normdaten: </li></ul><ul><li>LCSH , GND (PND/GKD/SWD) ... </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliotheken: </li></ul><ul><li>ISIL </li></ul><ul><li>Kataloge, Bibliotheksdienste: ? </li></ul>
  40. 40. What makes a cool URI? A cool URI is one which does not change. What sorts of URI change? URIs don't change: people change them. Tim Berners Lee: Cool URIs don‘t change. 1998 http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI
  41. 41. Grundregeln Linked Data (2/2) <ul><li>Benutze URIs , um Objekte zu identifizieren </li></ul><ul><li>Benutze HTTP URIs ( URLs ) , so dass Objekte nachgeschlagen werden können </li></ul><ul><li>Wenn jemand eine URI nachschlägt, biete zweckdienliche Informationen nach den Standards RDF oder SPARQL </li></ul><ul><li>Biete Links zu anderen URIs , so dass weitere Objekte [und Beziehungen] nachgeschlagen werden können. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Zweckdienliche Informationen
  43. 43. Resource Description Framework <ul><li>Jedes Objekt (Resource) hat eine URI </li></ul><ul><li>Verknüpfung durch Links </li></ul><ul><li>Jeder kann auf jeden verlinken </li></ul>
  44. 44. Resource Description Framework <ul><li>Jedes Objekt (Resource) hat eine URI </li></ul><ul><li>Verknüpfung durch Links </li></ul><ul><li>Jeder kann auf jeden verlinken </li></ul>
  45. 45. Resource Description Framework <ul><li>Jedes Objekt (Resource) hat eine URI </li></ul><ul><li>Verknüpfung durch getypte Links </li></ul><ul><li>Jeder kann auf jeden verlinken </li></ul><ul><li>Auch Link- & Objekt-typen sind Objekte </li></ul>
  46. 46. ” Semantic Web ” 03/2009
  47. 47. <ul><li>Frei verfügbar </li></ul><ul><li>Entsprechend Web-Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Was nicht verfügbar ist, wird ignoriert </li></ul><ul><li>Hier können Bibliotheken eine wichtige Rolle spielen (andernfalls machen es die Nutzer selber: Wikipedia, LibraryThing...) </li></ul>Voraussetzung: Open Data
  48. 48. Beispiele Siehe: Tim Berners-Lee: The year open data went worldwide. TED 2010 http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html
  49. 49. Bild: http://www.lsnc.net/equity/zanesville/
  50. 50. Bild: http://www.lsnc.net/equity/zanesville/
  51. 57. Vorteile <ul><li>Darstellung unabhängig vom Inhalt </li></ul><ul><li>Einzelne Teile lassen sich herausnehmen und in anderem Kontext weiterverwenden </li></ul><ul><li>Neue Fragen beantworten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Datenvisualisierung </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. Biblioteca Universalis (Digitalisat des Exemplars) http://diglib.hab.de/drucke/49-1-quod-2f/start.htm Conrad Gesner (in PND) http://d-nb.info/gnd/118694413 Biblioteca Universalis (Exemplar) http://gso.gbv.de/DB=2.1/PPNSET?PPN=151089981 Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel info:isil/DE-23 Biblioteca Universalis (die Auflage) VD 16 G 1698 Biblioteca Universalis (das Werk) http://www.librarything.de/work/9793769 dc:creator frbr:realization libo:exemplar frbr:owner frbr:reproduction
  53. 59. Der Weg ins „Semantic Web“ <ul><li>Datenquellen ermitteln </li></ul><ul><li>URIs festlegen </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologien festlegen </li></ul><ul><li>Konvertierung nach RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Daten unter HTTP URIs bereitstellen </li></ul><ul><li>Joachim Neubert (ZBW): Praktische Erfahrungen aus der Linked Data Publikation bei der ZBW. SWIB09 (Folien und Mitschnitt unter http://www.swib09.de/programm_25-november.html) </li></ul>
  54. 60. Open Data aus Bibliotheken <ul><li>Schwedische Nationalbibliothek http://blog.libris.kb.se/semweb/ </li></ul><ul><li>Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW http://www.hbz-nrw.de/projekte/linked_open_data/ </li></ul><ul><li>Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek Köln http://opendata.ub.uni-koeln.de/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ghent University Library http://lib.ugent.be/info/en/exports.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>OKF-AG Open Bibliographic Data http://wiki.okfn.org/wg/bibliography </li></ul>
  55. 61. Zusammenfassung <ul><li>Semantic Web und Linked Data ist keine Magie sonder basiert auf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„Zerschneiden“ von Daten in Tripel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verwendung von Standards (RDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verlinkung von Daten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bereitstellung und Austausch von Daten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wichtiger als die konkrete Technik: Grundverständnis von Links und Daten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kopierbar- und Rekombinierbarkeit </li></ul></ul>
  56. 62. <ul><li>Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! </li></ul><ul><li>Fragen? </li></ul>

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