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Semantic Web und Identifikatoren

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Folien zur Lehrveranstaltung "Digitale Bibliothek" an der FH Hannover

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Semantic Web und Identifikatoren

  1. 1. Digitale Bibliothek Jakob Voss Semantic Web und Identifikatoren Digitale Bibliothek WS 2007/2008 Fachhochschule Hannover Informationsmanagement (BA) 10. Dezember 2007
  2. 2. Idee <ul><li>Computer sollen „verstehen“ </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogene Daten weltweit vernetzen </li></ul><ul><li>Logische Beschreibung mit Regeln und Schlußfolgerungen </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>RDF = URI + Unicode + Tripel + Regeln = „Semantik“ (?) </li></ul>&quot;Literal&quot; @lang Resource Description Framework
  4. 4. Resource Description Framework &quot;Ananas&quot;@en <ul><li>RDF-Schema und Ontologien </li></ul><ul><li>Abkürzung von URIs durch Namensräume </li></ul>@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> . @prefix agro: <http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc> .
  5. 5. RDF/XML <ul><ul><li><rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot; http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# &quot; xmlns:skos=&quot; http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# &quot; xmlns=&quot; http://www.fao.org/aos/agrovoc &quot;> < skos:Concept rdf:about=&quot; #c385 &quot;> < skos:prefLabel xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;> Ananas </skos:prefLabel> </ skos:Concept > </rdf:RDF> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDF/XML ist Murx aber zum Datenaustausch oft unvermeidlich </li></ul><ul><li>Ohne speziellen Parser aussichtslos </li></ul>
  6. 6. Feldbasierte Formate <ul><li>Einfache Daten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titel : Zettelwirtschaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autor : Krajewski, Markus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pica+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>021A : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a : Zettelwirtschaft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>028A : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d : Markus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a : Krajeski </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RDF-basiertes Format <ul><li>Einfache Daten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titel : Zettelwirtschaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autor : Krajewski, Markus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDF in Notation 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>@prefix foaf <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@prefix dc <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dc:title &quot;Zettelwirtschaft&quot; ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foaf:firstName &quot;Markus&quot; ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foaf:secondName &quot;Krajeski&quot; . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. RDF-basiertes Format dc:title foaf:firstName foaf:secondName <ul><ul><ul><li>@prefix foaf <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>@prefix dc <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/>. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dc:title &quot;Zettelwirtschaft&quot; ; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foaf:firstName &quot;Markus&quot; ; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foaf:secondName &quot;Krajeski&quot; . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>... Zettelwirtschaft Markus Krajewski
  9. 9. Mapping nach RDF <ul><li>Mapping von Datenformaten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>021A$a => dc:title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>028A$d => foaf:firstName </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>028A$a => foaf:secondName </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In der Praxis etwas schwieriger, da Daten selten atomar sind (Ansetzungsregeln etc.) und voneinander abhängen! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Beispielontologien <ul><li>Dublin Core </li></ul><ul><li>SKOS </li></ul><ul><li>FRBR (!) </li></ul><ul><li>FOAF </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quelle: Mikroformate <ul><li><div class=&quot;vevent&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><h2 class=&quot;summary&quot; >Weihnachtsfeier</h2> </li></ul><ul><li><p> </li></ul><ul><li>Am <abbr class=&quot;dstart&quot; title=&quot;2007-12-19&quot;> 19.12. </abbr> </li></ul><ul><li>findet im <span class=&quot;location&quot;> Neubau </span> </li></ul><ul><li>wieder unsere alljährliche Weihnachtsfeier statt. </li></ul><ul><li>Bitte tragt euch ein auf der </li></ul><ul><li><a href=&quot;http://company.de/xmas/&quot; class=&quot;url&quot; >Infoseite</a>! </li></ul><ul><li></p> </li></ul><ul><li></div> </li></ul>summary : Weihnachtsfeier dstart : 2007-12-19 url : http://company.de/xmas/ location : Neubau Datensatz RDF
  12. 12. <ul><li>use LWP::Simple; </li></ul><ul><li>my $opac = 'http://opc4.tib.uni-hannover.de:8080/DB=11'; </li></ul><ul><li>my $ikt = 1016; </li></ul><ul><li>my $regexp = '>Ausleihstatus: </strong></td><td[^>]+>([^>]+)<BR>([^>]+)<'; </li></ul><ul><li>my $isbn = shift @ARGV; </li></ul><ul><li>my @status; </li></ul><ul><li>if ($isbn) { </li></ul><ul><li>my $url = $opac . &quot;/CMD?ACT=SRCHA&IKT=&quot; . $ikt . &quot;&TRM=&quot; . $isbn; </li></ul><ul><li>my $html = get($url); </li></ul><ul><li>while ($html =~ m/$regexp/g) { </li></ul><ul><li>push @status, &quot;$isbn: $1, $2&quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>@status = (&quot;$isbn: nicht gefunden&quot;) unless @status; </li></ul><ul><li>print join(&quot; &quot;, @status) . &quot; &quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>} else { </li></ul><ul><li>print &quot;Usage: $0 ISBN &quot;; </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul>Quelle: Screen Scraper RDF
  13. 13. Quelle: unAPI <ul><li>Ziel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bereitstellung einzeln identifizierter Objekte </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anfragesyntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP-Request mit zwei Parametern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>id: Identifikator des Objektes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>format : Gewünschtes Format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Antwortsyntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatliste in XML oder spezifisches Format </li></ul></ul>RDF
  14. 14. Quelle: Harvesting <ul><li>wget, OAI, RSS... </li></ul><ul><li>Datenbereinigung </li></ul><ul><li>Konvertierung nach RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBPedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swoogle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. GRDDL <ul><li>Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (&quot;Griddle&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>W3C Recommendation (September 2007) </li></ul>XML/XHTML RDF
  16. 16. GRDDL in XHTML <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head profile=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2003/g/data-view&quot; > </li></ul><ul><li><!-- Achtung, hier sind Daten mittels GRDDL verfügbar! --> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;transformation&quot; href=&quot;...XSLT-Script...&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><!-- Verweis auf das GRDDL-Transformationsscript --> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;transformation&quot; href=&quot;...&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><!-- ggf. weitere Scripte --> </li></ul><ul><li><!-- ... XHTML-Dokument ... --> </li></ul><ul><li>Anwendungen können per Autodiscovery erkennen, dass RDF-Daten verfügbar sind </li></ul>
  17. 17. Anwendungen <ul><li>Beliebige vorhandene Daten in RDF umwandeln </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Search Engine Swoogle </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic MediaWiki </li></ul><ul><li>DBPedia </li></ul>
  18. 18. Beispielanfragen <ul><li>Übung: DBPedia (http://dbpedia.org) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anfrage zusammenbasteln (SPARQL-light) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beispiele: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filme, deren Musik jemand gemacht hat, der im Jahr 1965 geboren wurde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filme, deren Regisseur gleichzeitig die Filmmusik gemacht hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Beispielanfrage 1965 1965 <ul><ul><ul><li>Filme , deren Musik jemand gemacht hat, der im Jahr 1965 geboren wurde? </li></ul></ul></ul>(music und born sind hierbei vorher bekannte Prädikate einer gemeinsamen Ontologie) Dancer in the Dark Björk ? ?
  20. 20. Vernüpfungen vieler Quellen 1965 OPAC Wikipedia Dancer in the Dark Björk Buch über Björk PND:119525054
  21. 21. Identifikatoren
  22. 22. URI, IRI, URN, URL... <ul><li>Uniform Resource Identifier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unabhängig vom Zugriffsmechanismus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jede mögliche Art von Resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weltweit eindeutig, hierarchisches System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax: schema:identifier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://... URL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>info:isbn:... info-URI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urn:... URN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. URI, IRI, URN, URL... <ul><li>IRI: Internationalisierte URI (Unicode) </li></ul><ul><li>Was keine URI hat, ist im Semantic Web nicht existent! </li></ul><ul><li>Einfache Variante: Permalinks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Identifikatoren in Bibliotheken <ul><li>Sigel, ISIL, MARC-Codes, ... </li></ul><ul><li>Notationen einer Klassifikation </li></ul><ul><li>Verlags-IDs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Auf dem Web ins Semantic Web <ul><li>Vorhandene Identifikatoren in URLs umwandeln </li></ul><ul><li>Vorhandene Datenformate auf RDF und Ontologien abbilden </li></ul><ul><li>Daten verfügbar machen </li></ul>
  26. 26. Probleme des Semantic Web <ul><li>Daten und Anwendungen (Henne-Ei) </li></ul><ul><li>Visualisierung und Anfrageformulierung </li></ul><ul><li>Datenqualität </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unvollständige Daten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unterschiedliche Interpretationen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widersprüche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicht zu unterschätzen! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantik vs. Pragmatik (Theorie & Praxis) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Semantik? <ul><li>Das Semantik Web hat nichts mit Semantik zu tun sondern nur mit der Verknüpfung von Daten. </li></ul>

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