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Kommunikationsformen und Communities

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Einführung in Internetbasierte Kommunikation und Web-Communities mit Schwerpunkt auf die historische Entwicklung Sozialer Software und Sozialer Netzwerke im Netz

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Kommunikationsformen und Communities

  1. 1. Digitale Bibliothek Jakob Voss Kommunikationsformen und Communities Digitale Bibliothek WS 2007/2008 Fachhochschule Hannover Informationsmanagement (BA) 22. Oktober 2007
  2. 2. Digitale Bibliothek Jakob Voss Web 2.0 1/2 Digitale Bibliothek WS 2007/2008 Fachhochschule Hannover Informationsmanagement (BA) 22. Oktober 2007
  3. 3. Disclaimer <ul><li>Ich bin kein Soziologe, Kommunikations- oder Medienwissenschaftler, Psychologe etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Benutze den gesunden Menschenverstand und Menschenkenntnis! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Soziale Software <ul><li>Begriff „Soziale Software“ seit etwa 5 Jahren </li></ul><ul><li>Kernidee älter </li></ul><ul><li>Kurzdefinition: “software that supports group interaction” </li></ul><ul><li>Differenzierung notwendig </li></ul><ul><li>Geschichte nach Christopher Allen: Tracing the Evolution of Social Software (Okt. 2004) http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tracing_the_evo.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1940er: Memex Bild aus Allen, 2004 1945: Vannevar Bush: As we may think
  6. 6. 1960er: Augmentation & ARPA <ul><li>1962: Doug Englebart: Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework . </li></ul><ul><li>1970er: ARPANET, Email, Mailinglisten </li></ul>Bild aus Allen, 2004
  7. 7. 1970er: Automatisierung <ul><li>Office Automatation (IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES) </li></ul><ul><li>Eher Automatisierung als Zusammenarbeit </li></ul>Bild aus Allen, 2004
  8. 8. 1980er: Groupware und CSCW <ul><li>1978: Groupware: “intentional group processes plus software to support them.” </li></ul><ul><li>1984: CSCW: Computer-Supported Collaborative/Cooperative Work </li></ul><ul><li>Mehr Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft als Community und Praxis </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1980er: BBS und Usenet <ul><li>Ab 1975: Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) </li></ul><ul><li>Kommunikation über Telefon ( „für jeden“) </li></ul><ul><li>Umfangreiche Szene und Community </li></ul><ul><li>Usenet: Diskussionsforen-Infrastruktur, ggr. 1979 als freie Alternative zum Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Herausbildung einer Netiquette </li></ul>-- (/) (O.o) This is Bunny. Copy Bunny into your signature (> <) to help him on his way to world domination.
  10. 10. 1990er: Internet-Explosion <ul><li>„ Groupware “ wird Mainstream und damit bedeutungslos (Lotus, Microsoft...), wie heute „ Web 2.0 “ </li></ul><ul><li>Internet-Hype und Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>1995: Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>1996: Weblogs (News) </li></ul><ul><li>2002: Clay Shirk: Social Software Summit </li></ul><ul><li>Dank höherer Verbreitung und Bandbreite neue Formen wie z.B. Tagging </li></ul>
  11. 11. Warum hier relevant? <ul><li>Pragmatische Sicht auf Information (nach Kuhlen): </li></ul><ul><li>Im Vordergrund steht die aktuelle Nutzung und die Handlungsrelevanz bzw. der Nutzen von Information </li></ul><ul><li>Information ist Wissen in Aktion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Digitale Medien <ul><li>Was für (Kommunikations-)Medien gibt es? </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele, Grundformen, Gemeinsamkeiten? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Digitale Medien <ul><li>Was für (Kommunikations-)Medien gibt es? </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele, Grundformen, Gemeinsamkeiten? </li></ul><ul><li>viele! </li></ul>
  14. 14. StudiVZ
  15. 15. GayRomo
  16. 16. Second Life Aus: Jin Tan (2007): Bibliotheken in Second Life. http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00011545/
  17. 17. Nature Network
  18. 18. Wikipedia
  19. 19. LibraryThing
  20. 20. Einige Beispiele <ul><li>Instant Messenger: IRC, ICQ, Chat ... </li></ul><ul><li>Email, SMS, Twitter ... </li></ul><ul><li>Telefon, VoIP (Skype etc.), Podcast ... </li></ul><ul><li>Mailinglisten, Foren, Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Weblogs </li></ul><ul><li>Xing, StudiVZ, Friendster ... </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis, CMS, LMS ... </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vielfalt und lokale Netze <ul><li>http://www.basicthinking.de/blog/2007/09/19/der-deutsche-user-und-die-social-networks-ueberraschung/ </li></ul>
  22. 22. Inhaltsbezogene Aktionen <ul><li>Erstellen </li></ul><ul><li>Weitergeben </li></ul><ul><li>Kommentieren </li></ul><ul><li>Verknüpfen </li></ul><ul><li>Remixen </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  23. 23. Kommunikative Aktionen <ul><li>Fragen </li></ul><ul><li>Antworten </li></ul><ul><li>Dokumentieren </li></ul><ul><li>Werben </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  24. 24. Verändertes Rollenverständis <ul><li>Bisher relativ klare Trennung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autor > Verleger > Dienstleister > Konsument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inzwischen immer leichtere Rollenwechsel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akteur (kann potentiell alles) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. User Generated Content Quelle: http://www.ebizmba.com/articles/user-generated-content.html TOP 25 Sites September 2007 mit Bias gegenüber US-Traffic.
  26. 26. Technik ist Triebkraft <ul><li>Viele Konzepte und Grundformen sind alt </li></ul><ul><li>Aber ohne einfachen Zugang bleibt es beschränkt </li></ul><ul><li>Beispiele </li></ul><ul><ul><li>der am schnellsten wachsende Mobilfunk-Markt: Afrika </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weblogs und Journalismus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia als postmoderne Neuerfindung der Enzyklopädie </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Soziale Räume <ul><li>Virtuelle Räume schaffen Öffentlichkeit en </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Management (OpenID, Shibboleth...) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Netzwerkeffekte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darauf basierend: Empfehlungsdienste </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Soziale Räume <ul><li>Vorteile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Einfache Verfügbarkeit, Globale Vernetzung (The long tail)... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nachteile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spam, Trolle, Stalking, Überwachung... </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. z.B. nervige Zeitgenossen <ul><li>Anonymität und Text als Kommunikationsmedium </li></ul><ul><li>Diskussion um des Diskutieren willens </li></ul><ul><li>Beleidigung, Stänkern, Besserwisserei etc. pp. </li></ul><ul><li>Wo fängt Troll an? </li></ul><ul><li>Trolle, Elche, Stalker etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Es sind Menschen </li></ul>|||/ (o o) ,~~~ooO~~(_)~~~~~~~~~, | Please | | don't feed the | | TROLL! | '~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ooO~~~' |__|__| || || ooO Ooo
  30. 30. Offene Systeme <ul><li>Offener, unverbindlicher Zugang </li></ul><ul><li>bottom-up statt top-down </li></ul><ul><li>Soziale Kontrolle statt Hierarchien </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umgangston, Kontaktadresse (Handy!), Freundschaftsnetzwerke... </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Internetforschung <ul><li>Ganze Wissenschaft(en) für sich </li></ul><ul><li>Medienwissenschaft, Linguistik, Kommunikationsforschung, Philosophie, Psychologie, Soziologie u.v.a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Forschung sehr zerstreut und technisch nicht immer auf dem neuesten Stand </li></ul><ul><li>Aber teilweise sehr aufschlussreich! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Medienrevolution 2.0 <ul><li>Zunehmend neue Kommunikationsformen </li></ul><ul><li>Jeder Vergleiche hinkt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ Fernsehen ist wie Kino, nur kleiner “ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ SMS ist wie Telegram, nur schneller “ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hype und Verdrängungsangst </li></ul><ul><li>Entwicklung längst nicht abgeschlossen </li></ul>
  33. 33. Nachtrag <ul><li>Anti-Social Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hatebook.com, enemybook.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aleinr.de, isolatr.com, introvertster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nosoproject.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getafirstlife.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Der erste Hype beginnt abzuflauen </li></ul><ul><li>Wesentliche Änderungen bleiben </li></ul>

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