Roman Art: From Republic to Empire<br />Reading:<br />Stokstad, 168-177<br />Range:<br />510 BCE-14 CE<br />Republic and I...
Portrait of AulusMetellus (“the Orator”), Roman Republican, early 1st century BCE
The Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial, 1st century CE
AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). 13-9 BCE.
Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Heads, Roman Republican, c. 1st century CE</li></li></ul><li>When Are We?<br />Etruscans:	...
Titian, Rape of Lucretia, 16th Century CE<br />
Roman Republic<br />
Portrait of Patrician (“Brutus”), Probably of Etruscan Artistry, Roman Republican, c. 1stcentury BCE<br />
Portrait of AulusMetellus (“the Orator”), near Lake Trasimeno, Roman Republican, early 1st century BCE<br />
Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Heads, Roman Republican, c. 1st century CE<br />
Republican Tomb Relief of the PubliusGessius Family, Via Cassia, 30-13 BCE.<br />
The Rise of Julius Caesar<br />
Sestertius of Julius Caesar, c. 45 BCE<br />Bust of Julius Caesar, Roman Republican, 1st century BCE <br />
Jean-Léon Gérôme.  The Death of Caesar.  1859-67.  Oil on canvas, 2’4” x 4’11”.  Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.<br />Jean-...
Rise of Augustus<br />Marcus Antonius<br />Octavian<br />
The Fall of the Hellenistic World<br />133 BCE<br />64 BCE<br />80 BCE<br />31 BCE<br />Attalos III<br />Pompey<br />Pompe...
Bust of Octavian, Roman Republican, c. 39 BCE<br />
The Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial, 1st century CE (possible copy of 20 CE original).<br />
Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE.<br />Portrait Head of an Elder.  Roman Republican, c.80 BCE.  <br />
Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE.<br />Polykleitos, Doryphoros, Roman Copy, 5th Century CE<br />
AulusMetellus (The Orator). Roman Republican c. 80 BCE.  <br />Augustus of Primaporta, Roman Imperial  1st Century CE<br />
Sol (Sun) on a chariot<br />Luna (moon)<br />Roman standard with sculpture of eagle<br />Roman soldier<br />Parthian soldi...
Cupid<br />(Eros)<br />
Campus Martius<br />
Augustus of Primaporta.  Copy of a bronze original of c.20 BCE.  Marble, height 6’8”.  Vatican Museums, Rome.  (Stokstad 6...
AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace).  View from the southwest.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
Imperial procession.  Detail of the relief on the south frieze of the AraPacisAugustae.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
Imperial procession.  Detail of the relief on the south frieze of the AraPacisAugustae.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
Detail of the Panathenaic festival procession. Parthenon, c.447-438 BCE.  <br />Imperial procession.  Detail of the relief...
AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace).  View from the southwest.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
Female personification (Tellus?).  Panel from the east façade of the AraPacisAugustae.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace).  View from the southwest.  13-9 BCE.  <br />
Whether a man aspires to the prize of Olympia's palm and breed horses, or rears bullocks, strong for the plough, let his c...
AraPacisAugustae, Altar of Augustan Peace, View from the northeast, 13-9 BCE<br />
AraPacis, view from the northeast, Roman Imperial, c. 30-13 BCE.<br />
Sus<br />Ovis<br />Taurus<br />= Suovetauralia<br />Census Taking Relief, Rome, Roman Republic, c. 2nd century CE<br />
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  • http://mapofrome.net/
  • AulusMetellus (The Orator)80 BCE
  • Patrician Carrying Portrait BustsEnd of 1st Century CE
  • Julius Caesar was assassinated in Rome on the Ides of March (March 15), 44 BC. Characteristically, Gérôme has depicted not the incident itself, but its immediate aftermath. The illusion of reality that Gérôme imparted to his paintings with his smooth, polished technique led one critic to comment, &quot;If photography had existed in Caesar&apos;s day, one could believe that the picture was painted from a photograph taken on the spot at the very moment of the catastrophe.&quot;
  • Gold frame, reverse side in ornamented open-work; German, 17th century
  • Oikoumene – the personification of the civilized world
  • Republic to empire upload

    1. 1. Roman Art: From Republic to Empire<br />Reading:<br />Stokstad, 168-177<br />Range:<br />510 BCE-14 CE<br />Republic and Imperial<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />Latium, republic, senate, verism, patrician, plebian, oligarchy, triumvirate, Augustus, princeps, ara, suovetauralia, <br />Key Monuments:<br /><ul><li>Portrait of Patrician (“Brutus”) Roman Republican, c. 1st century BCE
    2. 2. Portrait of AulusMetellus (“the Orator”), Roman Republican, early 1st century BCE
    3. 3. The Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial, 1st century CE
    4. 4. AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). 13-9 BCE.
    5. 5. Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Heads, Roman Republican, c. 1st century CE</li></li></ul><li>When Are We?<br />Etruscans: c. 800-300 BCE<br />Roman Republic: 509 BCE – 27 BCE<br />Augustus: 27 BCE—14 CE<br />Julio-Claudians: 14 CE – 68 CE<br />Flavians: 69 CE – 96 CE<br />The Five Good Emperors: 96 CE- 180 CE<br />Severans: 193 CE – 217 CE<br />Soldier Emperors: 217 CE – 284 CE<br />Tetrarchy: 284 CE – 313 CE<br />Constantinian: 317 CE – 364 CE<br />
    6. 6. Titian, Rape of Lucretia, 16th Century CE<br />
    7. 7. Roman Republic<br />
    8. 8. Portrait of Patrician (“Brutus”), Probably of Etruscan Artistry, Roman Republican, c. 1stcentury BCE<br />
    9. 9. Portrait of AulusMetellus (“the Orator”), near Lake Trasimeno, Roman Republican, early 1st century BCE<br />
    10. 10. Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Heads, Roman Republican, c. 1st century CE<br />
    11. 11. Republican Tomb Relief of the PubliusGessius Family, Via Cassia, 30-13 BCE.<br />
    12. 12. The Rise of Julius Caesar<br />
    13. 13. Sestertius of Julius Caesar, c. 45 BCE<br />Bust of Julius Caesar, Roman Republican, 1st century BCE <br />
    14. 14. Jean-Léon Gérôme. The Death of Caesar. 1859-67. Oil on canvas, 2’4” x 4’11”. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.<br />Jean-Leon Gerome, Death of Julius Caesar, 1867.<br />
    15. 15. Rise of Augustus<br />Marcus Antonius<br />Octavian<br />
    16. 16. The Fall of the Hellenistic World<br />133 BCE<br />64 BCE<br />80 BCE<br />31 BCE<br />Attalos III<br />Pompey<br />Pompey<br />Augustus<br />
    17. 17. Bust of Octavian, Roman Republican, c. 39 BCE<br />
    18. 18. The Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial, 1st century CE (possible copy of 20 CE original).<br />
    19. 19. Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE.<br />Portrait Head of an Elder. Roman Republican, c.80 BCE. <br />
    20. 20. Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE.<br />Polykleitos, Doryphoros, Roman Copy, 5th Century CE<br />
    21. 21. AulusMetellus (The Orator). Roman Republican c. 80 BCE. <br />Augustus of Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st Century CE<br />
    22. 22. Sol (Sun) on a chariot<br />Luna (moon)<br />Roman standard with sculpture of eagle<br />Roman soldier<br />Parthian soldier<br />Apollo on a griffin<br />Diana on a stag<br />Personification of Bounty<br />Cornucopia<br />
    23. 23. Cupid<br />(Eros)<br />
    24. 24. Campus Martius<br />
    25. 25. Augustus of Primaporta. Copy of a bronze original of c.20 BCE. Marble, height 6’8”. Vatican Museums, Rome. (Stokstad 6-18)<br />Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (“PioClementio”), Roman Imperial, 1st century CE <br />AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). View from the southwest. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    26. 26. AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). View from the southwest. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Imperial procession. Detail of the relief on the south frieze of the AraPacisAugustae. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    29. 29. Imperial procession. Detail of the relief on the south frieze of the AraPacisAugustae. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    30. 30. Detail of the Panathenaic festival procession. Parthenon, c.447-438 BCE. <br />Imperial procession. Detail of the relief on the south frieze of the AraPacisAugustae. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    31. 31. AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). View from the southwest. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    32. 32. Female personification (Tellus?). Panel from the east façade of the AraPacisAugustae. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    33. 33. AraPacisAugustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). View from the southwest. 13-9 BCE. <br />
    34. 34.
    35. 35. Whether a man aspires to the prize of Olympia's palm and breed horses, or rears bullocks, strong for the plough, let his chief care be to choose the mould of the dams. The best-formed cow is fierce-looking, her head ugly, her neck thick, and her dewlaps hanging down from chin to legs. Moreover, her long flank has no limit; all points are large, even the feet; and under the crooked horns are shaggy ears. Nor should I dislike one marked with white spots, or impatient of the yoke, at times fierce with the horn, and more like a bull in face; tall throughout, and she steps sweeping her footprints with the tail's tip. The age to bear motherhood and lawful wedlock ends before the tenth year, and begins after the fourth; the rest of their life is neither fit for breeding nor strong for the plough. Meantime, while lusty youth still abides in the herds, let loose the males; be first to send your cattle to mate, and supply stock after stock by breeding. Life's fairest days are ever the first to flee for hapless mortals; on creep diseases, and sad age, and suffering; and stern death's ruthlessness sweeps away its prey.<br /> --Virgil, The Georgics<br />
    36. 36. AraPacisAugustae, Altar of Augustan Peace, View from the northeast, 13-9 BCE<br />
    37. 37. AraPacis, view from the northeast, Roman Imperial, c. 30-13 BCE.<br />
    38. 38. Sus<br />Ovis<br />Taurus<br />= Suovetauralia<br />Census Taking Relief, Rome, Roman Republic, c. 2nd century CE<br />
    39. 39. Crowning of Augustus<br />Erection of a Trophy<br />Gemma Augustea. Roman Imperial, Early first century CE<br />
    40. 40. Augustus / Jupiter<br />Livia? / Roma<br />Winged Victory<br />Tiberius<br />Oikoumene<br />Oceanus<br />Capricorn<br />Crowning of Augustus<br />Italia<br />eagle<br />Erection of a Trophy<br />
    41. 41. Critical Thinking Questions<br />How are the ideals of the Roman republic different than the ideals of 5th century Athens? How does this relationship change under Augustus?<br />What is verism? Why is it a problematic term in the interpretation of Roman republican art?<br />How are Roman origin myths present in the art of the early empire under Augustus?<br />How does Augustus manage the transformation between republic and empire. Why must this be done delicately?<br />

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