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Printmaking and photo upload


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Printmaking and photo upload

  1. 1. The Processes of Mass Production: Printmaking and Photography<br />Reading:<br />Artforms, 105-132<br />Terms/Concepts: <br />print, matrix, edition, artist’s proof, relief, woodcut, registered, wood engraving, linoleum cut, intaglio, engraving, burin, etching, aquatint, drypoint, lithography, tusche, stencil, screenprinting, photo screen, <br />heliotype, daguerreotype, photograph, developer, plate, film, kodachrome, “straight photography”<br />
  2. 2. What is printmaking?<br />print·mak·ing<br />noun -ˌmā-kiŋ<br />1: the design and production of prints by an artist <br />"...broadly, the production of images normally on paper and exceptionally on fabric, parchment, plastic or other support by various processes of multiplication; more narrowly, the making and printing of graphic works by hand or under the supervision of the artist.” –Encyclopedia Britannica<br />
  3. 3. Basic Components of Printmaking<br />+<br />+<br />Ink<br />Matrix<br />=<br />Print<br />Surface<br />
  4. 4. Relief<br />Woodcut<br />Linocut<br />is the process of making a print with a matrix where the non-image area (negative space) is cut away and the image area (positive space) is left raised.<br />
  5. 5. 1. Removing the ground.<br />
  6. 6. 2. Inking the Cut<br />
  7. 7. 3. Printing the cut onto your surface<br />
  8. 8. *<br />*<br />Areas of high contrast; values cannot really be blended.<br />Strong<br />Raw<br />Powerful<br />Intense<br />Rough<br />Emil Nolde, Prophet, 1912, Woodcut, 12 1/2” X 8 13/16”<br />
  9. 9. Distance between lines simulates modulated chiaroscuro.<br />*<br />*<br />*<br />Areas of high contrast<br />Delicate lines<br />*<br />Less white = Fewer areas gouged out<br />Rockwell Kent, Workers of the World Unite, 1937, woodcut print, 8” X 5 1/8”<br />
  10. 10. Katsushika Hokusai, The Wave, from 1000 Views of Mt. Fuji, 1830, color woodblock print*, 10 1/4” X 15 1/8” <br />* To add different blocks of unblended color, multiple woodcuts are used—one for each color. They are registered (lined up) to ensure that the blocks are correctly placed. <br />
  11. 11. Intalgio<br />Engraved plate using drypoint<br />Prepped plates about to be etched<br />is a printmaking process that transfers the images via the areas that are cut away, not the raised areas (the opposite of relief printing).<br />
  12. 12. 1a The Plate: Engraving<br />Burr<br />Burins<br />Engraving a plate<br />is simply creating burrs (or troughs where the ink settles) by engraving into the metal plate.<br />
  13. 13. 1b Plate: Etching<br />1.<br />2.<br />Applying the ground<br />Smoking the plate<br />3.<br />4.<br />5.<br />6.<br />Making the image<br />Making the etch<br />Cleaning the plate<br />Finished plate<br />
  14. 14. 2. Inking the Plate <br />1.<br />Inking the plate<br />2.<br />Removing excess ink<br />
  15. 15. 1.<br />Applying paper to plate<br />3. Making the Print<br />2.<br />3.<br />Running press over plate<br />Finished print<br />
  16. 16. *<br />*<br />less dramatic contrasts<br />more delicate details than woodcuts<br />complex<br />subtle<br />detailed<br />fine<br />Albrecht Durer, The Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513, Engraving, 9 5/8” X 7 1/2"<br />
  17. 17. *<br />Etching with acid creates consistent depth of lines.<br />*<br />More subtle shading effects are possible with etching.<br />Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, Christ Preaching, 1652, Etching, 61 1/4” X 8 1/8”<br />
  18. 18. *<br />multimedia <br />*<br />Drypoint<br />*<br />Aquatint<br />Mary Cassatt, The Letter, drypoint, soft ground etching, and aquatint, 13 5/8” X 8 15/16”<br />
  19. 19. Lithography<br />is a printmaking process that transfers the image via a stone, working with the natural resistance between oil and water.<br />
  20. 20. 1. Draw on the Stone<br />*<br />This process is also called greasing the stone<br />
  21. 21. 2. Treat the Stone<br />2.<br />1.<br />Treating with acid<br />Treating with gum arabic<br />4.<br />3.<br />5.<br />6.<br />*<br />Cooling the stone<br />Removing the material<br />Wetting the stone<br />Applying Asphaltum<br />*<br />Ghost Image<br />
  22. 22. 3. Printing<br />1.<br />2.<br />Wetting the Stone<br />Inking the Stone<br />3.<br />4.<br />6.<br />5.<br />Rewetting the Stone<br />Applying the Paper<br />Printing<br />Finished Print<br />
  23. 23. *<br />Replication of drawing marks and techniques<br />*<br />Subtle gradations, not reliant on sharp contour lines<br />Honore Daumier, Rue TransnonainApril 15, 1834, 1834, Lithograph, 28.6 cm X 44 cm.<br />
  24. 24. *<br />Multi-color technique used multiple stones<br />Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jane Avril, 1893, Lithograph in five colors, 50 5/8” X 37”<br />
  25. 25. Silkscreen<br />or screenprinting is a process where a print is made by forcing ink through porous fabric, often through or around a stencil. <br />
  26. 26. 1. Screen<br />1.<br />2.<br />Choose porous fabric<br />Stretch and staple screen<br />3.<br />4.<br />Seal screen<br />Finished screen<br />
  27. 27. 2. Stencil<br />4.<br />2.<br />1.<br />3.<br />Cut Out<br />1.<br />2.<br />Rinse screen<br />Block Out<br />Expose to light<br />Apply Emulsion<br />Place Image<br />Apply glue around image<br />Let dry<br />1.<br />2.<br />3.<br />Photographic<br />Cut image<br />Remove excess<br />Finished screen<br />
  28. 28. 3. Printing<br />2.<br />1.<br />Spread ink with squeegee<br />Position paper<br />3.<br />Finished Print<br />
  29. 29. *<br />multiple screens were used to create different colors<br />*<br />Screens do not print the same way after many repetitions.<br />This work shows how the image degrades after repeated use.<br />Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, 80 4/5” X 57” <br />
  30. 30. *<br />Sharp contrast between different fields of color. Evidence of multiple screens.<br />*<br />*<br />Printmaking methods were used commercially for packaging and advertisements.<br />Ester Hernandez, Sun Mad, 1982, Silkscreen, 22” X 17”<br />
  31. 31. What is photography?<br />Literally: Light (Photo) Drawing (Graphy)<br />the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface –Miriam Webster<br />PHOTOGRAPH, n. A picture painted by the sun without instruction in art. It is a little better than the work of an Apache, but not quite so good as that of a Cheyenne. –Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary<br />
  32. 32. Joseph NicephoreNiepce, View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826, Heliographic Engraving (Niepce)<br />
  33. 33. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Le Boulevard du Temple, 1839, Daguerreotype.<br />
  34. 34. Julia Margaret Cameron, Julia Jackson, March 1886, Albumen silver print from wet-collodion glass negative, 13 1/4” X 11”<br />
  35. 35. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
  36. 36. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
  37. 37. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
  38. 38. Diagram of early posing tool, mid-19th century<br />Early Posing Chair, mid-19th century.<br />
  39. 39. Invention of Film<br />*<br />George Eastman invented rolled photographic film in 1889.<br />Kodak Brownie Junior Box Camera. c. 1933<br />
  40. 40. Alfred Stieglitz, The Flatiron Building from Camera Work, October 1903, Gravure on vellum. <br />
  41. 41. Coloring Photos<br />
  42. 42. Young Women in Geisha Garb, Late 19th Century-Early 20th Century, Hand-Painted Tintype <br />
  43. 43. Cypress Gardens Postcard, 1957, Kodachrome Photograph.<br />
  44. 44. Circulating the Image/Message<br />Honore Daumier, Rue TransnonainApril 15, 1834, 1834, Lithograph, 28.6 cm X 44 cm.<br />
  45. 45. Circulating the Image/Message<br />Margaret Bourke-White. Louisville Flood Victims. 1938. Photograph.<br />
  46. 46. Ansel Adams, Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, California, 1944, Photograph.<br />
  47. 47. Experimenting with the Medium<br />Elizabeth Murray, Exile from Thirty-Eight, 1993, 23 color lithograph/screenprint construction with unique pastel application by the artist.<br />Man Ray, Rayograph, 1927, Gelatin Silver Print, 11 9/20” X 9 1/10” <br />
  48. 48. Medium as Meaning<br />Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, 80 4/5” X 57” <br />