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Form and content upload

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Form and content upload

  1. 1. Form + Content<br />Reading:<br />Artforms, ch. 13<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />Form, Content, Meaning, Subject Matter, Intent, Theory, Formalism, Art for Art’s Sake, Greenbergian Formalism, Expression Theory, Catharsis, Arousal Theory, Contextual, Social History of Art, Zeitgeist, Marxism, Capitalist, Bourgeoisie, Proletariat, Base, Superstructure, <br />Psychoanalysis, Id, Ego, Superego, Conscious, Subconscious, Postcolonialism, <br />
  2. 2. Form<br />Content<br />Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-1498<br />
  3. 3. Form<br />Content<br />Form is the totality of the physical and visual aspects of a work of art.<br />
  4. 4. Form<br />Content<br />Content is the meaning of a work of art.<br />
  5. 5. What specifically is content?<br />Subject Matter<br />Artist’s Intent<br />Viewer’s Interpretation<br />The “Message”<br />
  6. 6. the·o·rynoun ˈthē-ə-rē, ˈthir-ēpluralthe·o·ries<br />1:the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another <br />2:abstract thought : speculation <br />3:the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art <music theory> <br />4a: a belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action <her method is based on the theory that all children want to learn> b: an ideal or hypothetical set of facts, principles, or circumstances —often used in the phrase in theory <in theory, we have always advocated freedom for all> <br />5:a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena <the wave theory of light> <br />6a: a hypothesis assumed for the sake of argument or investigation b: an unproved assumption : conjecture c: a body of theorems presenting a concise systematic view of a subject <theory of equations> <br />
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  8. 8. Basic Questions<br />What is my first response to the work?<br />When and where was the work made? By whom and for whom was it made?<br />What did the work originally look like?<br />What does the form contribute to the works meaning?<br />Where would the work originally have been seen?<br />What purpose did the work serve?<br />What is the title? Does it contribute to the works meaning?<br />
  9. 9. Major Theories of Art Criticism<br />Formalist Theories<br />Expression Theories<br />Contextual Theories<br />Marxist Theories<br />Psychoanalytic Theories<br />Postcolonialist Theories<br />General Approaches<br />(In Artforms, ch. 13)<br />Specific Theories<br />
  10. 10. Art as Form<br />Key Figures:<br />Victor Cousin<br />Theophile Gautier<br />Clive Bell<br />James McNeill Whistler<br />Dante Gabriel Rosetti<br />Clement Greenberg<br />Rosalind Krauss<br />Michael Fried<br />Victor Cousin<br />
  11. 11. Art as Form<br />Joseph Albers, Homage to a Square: Glow, 1966.<br />
  12. 12. Useful Questions<br />What does the work look like?<br />How does the work use the “elements of design” (i.e. composition, color, line, etc.)?<br />How are the “principles of design” (i.e. rhythm, balance, emphasis, etc.) present in the work?<br />How do the “elements” and “principles” interact with one another?<br />What do you reactions to the work’s form say about your taste?<br />
  13. 13. Art as Expression<br />Key Figures<br />Plato (5th century BCE)<br />Aristotle (4th century BCE)<br />Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)<br />R.G. Collingwood (1880-1943)<br />Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)<br />John Dewey (1859-1952)<br />Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945)<br />Susanne Langer (1895-1985)<br />Leo Tolstoy<br />
  14. 14. Art as Expression<br />Wasily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28, 1912<br />
  15. 15. Art as Expression<br />Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830<br />
  16. 16. Useful Questions<br />What is your instinctual reaction to the work of art?<br />What emotions are present in the work? How are they present?<br />Who was the artist?<br />What were the emotions of the artist was trying to express?<br />What message was the artist trying to convey?<br />
  17. 17. Art as Evidence<br />Key Figures:<br />Arnold Hauser (1892-1978)<br />Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969)<br />Louis Althusser (1918-1990)<br />Walter Benjamin (1892-1940)<br />Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002)<br />Shifra Goldman (1926-)<br />Albert Boime (1933-2008)<br />Jules Prown (1930-)<br />Arnold Hauser<br />
  18. 18. Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Viewer<br />Context<br />
  19. 19. Viewer<br />Context<br />Context<br />Artist<br />Art<br />Context<br />
  20. 20. Art<br />Context<br />Context<br />Viewer<br />Artist<br />Context<br />
  21. 21. Useful Questions<br />When and where was the work of art made?<br />How does the work of art illustrate the values or social conditions of this time?<br />Does the work of art conform to or rebel against prevailing ideals of this context?<br />What was life like for people when this work was made?<br />What were the social and economic conditions of the time and place the work was made?<br />Who was the artist? How did they fit in this cultural context?<br />
  22. 22. Marxism<br />Key Figures:<br />Karl Marx<br />Friedrich Engels<br />Louis Althusser<br />Theodor Adorno<br />Walter Benjamin<br />Lee Baxandall<br />John Berger<br />Karl Marx<br />
  23. 23. Most<br />Royalty, Land Owners, etc.<br />Control the Means of Production<br />Capitalists<br />Skilled Laborers/Merchants<br />Do not control the means of production but benefit from it.<br />Control of Resources<br />Bourgeoisie<br />Working Class/Non-Participants<br />Benefit the least from the means of production.<br />Proletariat<br />Least<br />
  24. 24. Art can be a part of the superstructure<br />Cultural Products<br />Mass Media Propaganda Advertisements <br />Superstructure Supports Base<br />Base Creates Superstructure<br />Ideologies<br />Political Social <br />Religious Moral Scientific<br />Superstructure<br />Modes of Production<br />Factories Machines Labor Land Raw Materials<br />Economic Relations<br />Exploitation Resource Stratification<br />Base<br />Art can also serve to undermine the base<br />Marxist View of Society<br />
  25. 25. Useful Questions<br />Who produced this work? Capitalists? Proletariat? Bourgeoisie? <br />What modes of production facilitated the creation of this work?<br />Does this work support or undermine the base?<br />What role does this work play in class struggle?<br />How does this work function politically?<br />
  26. 26. Psychoanalysis<br />Major Figures:<br />Sigmund Freud<br />Carl Jung<br />Mary Caviness<br />Salvador Dali<br />Sigmund Freud<br />
  27. 27. Conscious<br />Form<br />Logic & Reasoning<br />Content<br />Higher-Consciousness or Conscience<br />Base Fears & Desires<br />Subconscious<br />
  28. 28. An Example<br />“After we have studied this picture for some time, it suddenly dawns on us that only Leonardo could have painted it, just as only he could have created the fantasy of the vulture. The picture contains the synthesis of the history of his childhood: its details are to be explained by reference to the most personal impressions in Leonardo’s life. In his father’s house he found not only his kind stepmother, Donna Albiera, but also his grandmother, Monna Lucia, who—we will assume—was no less tender to him than grandmothers usually are. These circumstances might well suggest to him a picture representing childhood watched over by mother and grandmother.”<br />--Sigmund Freud, Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood<br />Leonardo DaVinci, Virgin and Child with St. Anne<br />
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  30. 30. Useful Questions<br />What unconscious motives are present in the form of the work?<br />What might your interpretation of a work say about your unconscious psychological motivations?<br />Could this work be the representation of a dream?<br />What might the work say about the artist’s suppressed fears and desires?<br />
  31. 31. Postcolonial Theory<br />Major Figures:<br />Edward Said<br />GayatriChakravortySpivak<br />HomiBhabha<br />Franz Fanon<br />Gilles Deleuze<br />Felix Guattari<br />Chris Ofili<br />OkwuiEnwezor<br />Edward Said<br />
  32. 32. Jean-Leon Gerome, The Snake Charmer, 1870<br />
  33. 33. Chris Ofili, The Holy Virgin Mary, 1996 <br />
  34. 34. Useful Questions<br />How does the work, explicitly or allegorically, represent various aspects of colonial oppression?<br />Does the work address issue of identity? What does the work reveal about postcolonial identity?<br />Does the work confront or use cultural difference? If so, how?<br />Does the work represent resistance to oppression? If so, how?<br />Did the artist work under colonial oppression? Did the artist work with colonial forces?<br />
  35. 35. Other Theories<br /><ul><li>Gender Theories
  36. 36. Racial Theories
  37. 37. Queer Theories
  38. 38. Viewer-Response Theory
  39. 39. Structuralist Theory
  40. 40. Post-Structuralist Theory</li>

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