• things commonly thought to be good, like money, knowledge,
love and power, can be misused and therefore not good
• All of the actions that one person use the other person
merely as a means to self-advantage (power, fame, money),
disregarding other persons as valuable ends in themselves.
• Thus, One must never use another person as a means to one's
own selfish end.
– founder of critical philosophy, a moral law that is
unconditional or absolute for all agents, the validity or claim of which does not
depend on any ulterior motive or end.
- a Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at University
of Konigsberg in 1770.
- he wrote philosophical treatises to change the
history of Western thought (1781-1798)
Moral Imperatives - a principle that is from a person’s mind that would force that person to act it out.
*Even if a good act makes you feel good, it is not a reward, it’s just a
bonus of what you did said by Kant.
• The rightness or wrongness of actions is to be judged by
the goodness or badness of the consequences of a rule
that everyone should perform the action in like
• Acts that are right tend to promote happiness for all
concerned; not just the individual.
The Greatest Happiness Principle:
Happiness = pleasure, and
the absence of pain
Unhappiness = pain, and
the absence of pleasure
Whether an action is morally right or wrong depends entirely on its consequences. An action is
right if it brings about the best outcome of the choices available. Otherwise it is wrong.
The Good: Things (goals, states of affairs) that are worth pursuing
The Right: the moral rightness (or wrongness) of actions and policies.
“Suppose that a person has promised to
meet a friend for a social engagement,
but on the way to the agreed upon the
meeting point, he sees a serious accident
and is in the proposition of being able to
bring relief to the victims.”
*An act is a prima facie duty when there is a moral
reason in favor of doing the act, but one that can be
outweighed by other moral reasons.
*An act is a prima facie wrong when there is a
moral reason against doing the act, but one that can
be outweighed by other moral reasons.
• (a) Duties of Fidelity:
-are duties to keep one’s promises and contracts and not to engage in deception.
• (b) Duties of Reparations:
- a duty to make up for the injuries one has done to others
• (c) Duties of Gratitude:
- a duty to be grateful for benefactions done to oneself and if possible to show it by benefactions in return
• (d) Duties of Justice:
• (e) Duties of Beneﬁcence:
• (f) Duties of Self-Improvement
• (g) Duties of Non-Maleﬁcence
• “the acceptance of moral principles”
• “Veil of ignorance”
• Decisions that will be made in this situation will represent
fairness and rightness.
- a professor in Harvard University
- developed a contract theory in ethics where in the
social and moral order is founded on convention or
agreement, “the contract”.
equality of access to basic liberties.
He mentions specific liberties from the Bill of Rights:
Freedom to vote
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Assembly
Freedom to own Personal Property
Freedom from arbitrary arrest
Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure
more complicated principle, refers to two limitations on
• the first limitation concerning a form of recognition of prudential concerns
• and the second referring to openness of offices.
-the second part of this principle assures equal access to the hierarchy of authority and responsibility
– Rawl’s defines as “the successful execution of a rational plan of life.”
FOUR FACTORS OF SELF-RESPECT:
A belief in one’s own worth
A belief that one’s plan of life is a worthy one
A belief in one’s ability to carry out the chosen plan of life
Appreciation and confirmation by associates
Two key suggestions have been made as to why
unethical behavior is so widespread:
5 Cultural Climates that will
describe pose serious ethical
dilemmas for organizations
When organizations engage in illegal behavior or behavior that is considered to be
highly unethical, an individual may “BLOW THE WHISTLE” and reveal the conduct to a
regulatory agency or to the news media.
5. Support seeking
6. Via various media
8. Straining a “contractual agreement”
1) The harm to the public is serious and considerable.
2) The internal channels of the organization have been tried and exhausted.
3) Accurate evidence of wrongdoing has been collected and documented.
4) Public knowledge of wrongdoing will force organizational changes and rectify the
5) The harm caused to the organization, its members, and stockholders it outweighed by
the public harm.
• Kant’s Categorical Imperative is difficult to apply in this situation because one could
NOT universalize a maxim of action to brrach loyalty, or confidence or contracts. And so
in tolerating the continuation of the injustice and harm caused by organizational
• The Five Criteria fit a UTILITARIAN analaysis. They are targeted to alleviate serious
societal harm. And balancing the harm brought about to the organization and attempts
to save the organization harm by giving it an opportunity to correct the situation on its
• ROSS would view the situation as a classic one involving conflicts of PRIMA FACIE
DUTIES. The principal conflict between duty of fidelity and non-maleficence.
• In Rawl’s the organization’s conduct must be balanced against the right of the public to
know about the dangerous and unjust practices of the organization.