Chapter one review


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Chapter one review

  1. 2. <ul><li>No Child Left Behind: </li></ul><ul><li>(PL 107-110) Reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act- (ESEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to better serve students at-risk </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Accountability- using standards to ensure statewide progress and testing is met. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent and Student Choice: Learners can move schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Places reading first: money is set aside for scientifically based instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly qualified teachers: Teachers are required to meet certain standards and get students to met goals and standards. </li></ul>IDEA: Individuals with disabilities Education Act. (PL 94-142). Passed in 1990 and reissued again in 2004. The purpose was to initiate authorized funding to the states to assist in developing of special education programs. This law has been reauthorized several times with new changes and emphasis each time. 1983- (PL98-199): provided incentives for states to serve preschool children with disabilities * States need to collect All learners are to receive: Free Appropriate Education (FAPE): All schools must give all students all services for all students to learn. Every learner must be give a education that is free and helps that student meet the learning requirements. Appropriate Evaluation: A evaluation must be done by professional, in a nondisctiminatory manner, a variety of assessments must be done, a parental consent must be signed before conducting assessment and any evaluation can be contested and be redone at districts expence. Individual Educational Program (IEP): Is a educational program designed to help meet the needs of the learner. It is a written document that all students in special education must have. It is a communication and learning tool to monitor progress and set guidelines and accountability for student, parents and teacher. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Learners with disabilities are to be educated in general education curriculum/classroom as possible. Parental Involvement: Parents have equal rights when it comes to the decisions about learners education. They are to be invited to meetings, must sign consent forms for evaluations and will be asked to provide information about their learner. (They are considered the professional on their child) Procedural Safeguards: These are rights to protect parents and learner. They have every right to records, request a hearing if the disagree with and step in special education process and their child.
  2. 3. <ul><li>504: </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed all students with limitations in one or more major life activity to receive special services. </li></ul><ul><li>Most learners who do not fall under the guidelines of IDEA will be able to receive services through 504. This law falls under civil rights laws. These civil laws guarantee the rights of everyone to have access and rights to things “abled” people do. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act: </li></ul><ul><li>Established guidelines for employment, public accomodations, transportation, state and local government operations and telecommunication systems. This is such a attempt to be inclusive of all abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>** Definitions for disabilities are the same as 504. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Belonging </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude or philosophy (not a program) </li></ul><ul><li>A right </li></ul><ul><li>Being a valued a part </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting difference </li></ul><ul><li>Permission to be yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates positive social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>What Inclusion is not…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not favor or trial period </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a place or a measured amount spent with others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Inclusion Defined: A intent to have people all of all abilities be included in society.
  5. 7. <ul><li>What: A set of standards that is set by law that learners must met standards in both performance and content areas. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the idea that instruction should be taught the each meets standards in each content area at a set time. </li></ul><ul><li> Content Areas include: Language Arts, Math, Science, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure that all students can demonstrate the same knowledge and skills necessary to read, write, compute, problem solve, think critically, apply technology, and communicate across subject areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction must be tied to state standards: </li></ul><ul><li>both performance and content. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>The way students learn is as diverse as their finger prints. </li></ul><ul><li>Each learner bring their own strengths, needs, and interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for UDL- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s based on 3 systems by Vygotsky about how people receive information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1: Recognition- repetition and interpretation of sensory input </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2: Strategic- ability to plan and take action </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3: Affective System: the personal motivation to engage in activity. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><ul><li>Universal Design for learning: is a universal curriculum approach that minimized barrier and maximizes barriers for all students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A development of educational curriculum and materials that include potent supports fro access and learning for the start, rendering them effective for a far wide range of students than traditional materials. (Pisha & Coyne 2001). Focus is on a designed curriculum for all learners. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why use it: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attends to individuals need as a group in general. Does not single out a student </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The curriculum is usable by everyone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good at using technology and electronic resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used and understood by everyone. Should provide learning opportunities for everyone </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Things that to look at when looking at UDL Implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>1- It should challenge each student at a reasonable level. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Materials should be flexible, move along well with the next level of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Provided good learning experiences for all. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Assessments should be reliable, valid, and give teacher information to help instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Representation: Show your information in a variety of ways. Use various sources. Use graphics, notes, animations, background knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Action and Expression: allows learns to show what they know through many forms of assessments, expressions and demonstrations. Use various sources. Use graphics, notes, animations, background knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3- Engagement- Give options that engage each learner. Provide many ways to engage. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><ul><li>NCLB Act now requires states to use tiered intervention strategies for at-risk and special learner. (Although Minnesota has a variance that is similar called the problem-solving approach.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I think this is such a good strategy to have implemented by law because it enhances the accountability factor for teachers as well gives such benefit and reason to apply action to the great research that is done in education. The fact that most students don’t need special education after engagement in the Tiers of RTI shows that students respond to good teaching. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Individualizing Instruction: Allowing instruction to meet the needs of each learner. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept is to meet the learning needs of as many students in a general education class as possible. </li></ul>Experience: As an employee at the YMCA I was battling the boys each day to read. I watch what they were into and went to the library to get books they liked and it transformed our study time. This was my “Relevant pedagogy moment”. They were so engage during study time from that day on.
  11. 14. <ul><li>Student Accountability: </li></ul><ul><li>EMPOWERMENT!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Each learner is required to take be accountable with their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>An annual review will be made, and more often progress monitoring as indicated in IEP. </li></ul><ul><li>Each must take high stakes tests. (Some may need assistance. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>I do have a belief that each student can met that standards set for them. </li></ul><ul><li>As hard as it may be, I thank God that has a country we have come up with the answer as YES!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>We set all to the standards. </li></ul>We all really do all have a function… I was recently shown a video of a guy on a subway licking his shoes on a New York Subway. And then I was asked the question… Can everyone be successful, can everyone truly function? Food for thought.
  13. 16. <ul><li>Areas to consider best practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of core discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order of thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Culture impact </li></ul><ul><li>Determining difference vs. Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors must use evidenced based methods to teach according to NCLB. </li></ul><ul><li>Much research and learning is done to help teachers and students function their best. </li></ul>
  14. 17. We need to consider all aspects of a learner as we teacher. It is imparative to be sensitive and respectful. Sexual Orientation Culture Language Physical abilities Mental Abilities Economic Status
  15. 18. We all have a variety of things that make us who we are. As instructors we need to be aware of the pieces of who a child is and teach from respect and knowledge of who the learner is. Work together to create see the whole puzzle. Research shows the teachers who engage students with what they know have the most impact in instruction. In my own experience I have had to take a student who I did not connect with very well and find what they like and start engaging them just be talking about what they like. They leave with a happy feeling about you and will want to tell you more. Diversity Impilcations