Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science

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  • celestial objects (suchas stars, planets, comets, nebulae, starclusters and galaxies)Phenomenas: (such as the cosmic background radiation).Oldest science developed by manCosmology: Study of the universe as a whole and its evolution. "Cosmology" involves the study of the origin and structure of the universe, including such topics as the shape of the earth, the location of the sun, moon, planets and stars, age of the universe, evolution of stars, etc.Biblical cosmologyThe word astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον), "star" and -nomy from nomos (νόμος), "law" or "culture") literally means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation).Babylonian culture- plurality of earths
  • Nat Sci I- Report about Ancient Views About Science

    1. 1. Ancient Views About Science<br />Nichole Ballesteros<br />Ma. Jennifer Estrella<br />Christa Del Rosario<br />
    2. 2. - boy<br />(astroboy – boy) + naomi = ?<br />ASTRONOMY<br />
    3. 3. -<br />John 15:5<br />(unicorn – corn) + verse = ?<br />universe<br />
    4. 4. CAL<br />cosmo + log + eye + cal<br />cosmological<br />
    5. 5. ic<br />(geodude – dude) + cent +ic = ?<br />geocentric<br />
    6. 6. heel + o + (sounds like: celtics) = ?<br />Heliocentric<br />
    7. 7. -cir<br />copper + knee + (circus – cir) = ?<br />copernicus<br />
    8. 8. -fa<br />cell + S + (facial –fa)<br />celestial<br />
    9. 9. tall + E + me = ?<br />Ptolemy<br />
    10. 10. pillows + sofi = ?<br />philosophy<br />
    11. 11. -p<br />patient – p = ?<br />ancient<br />
    12. 12. astronomy<br />Astronomy is a natural science that deals<br />with the study of and phenomena that<br />originate outside the Earth's atmosphere <br />It is concerned with the evolution, physics,<br />chemistry, meteorology, and motion of<br />celestial objects, as well as the formation and<br />development of the universe<br />
    13. 13. Ancient genesis myths and cosmological beliefs<br />
    14. 14. The Hindu, Greek and Babylonian views of the universe share many of these common ideas.<br />Today, Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions believe in a universe that was created by God.<br />
    15. 15. Ancient Views: Matter and Motion<br />Greeks and Aristotle (384-322 BC):<br />“The world and the human race had always existed and would continue to exist indefinitely.”<br />Emphasis on Natural Philosophy<br />Geocentric theory<br />
    16. 16. Geocentric Theory<br />The universe has 2 domains:<br />Celestial (The world of eternal and perfect beings)<br />Terrestrial (The world of temporal and corruptible things)<br />Note: Behavior of objects depends on two things: (a)Nature of its composition, (b)domain<br />
    17. 17. Motions<br /> Celestial bodies- uniform circular motion.<br /> Terrestrial bodies- toward its natural resting place<br />Elements<br />earth, wind, air, fire (on earth)<br />ether (celestial world)<br />
    18. 18. The earth has:<br />(a) spherical shape<br />(b) state of rest<br />(c) a position at the center of the universe.<br />
    19. 19. Ptolemy’s Geocentric Model<br />
    20. 20. Ptolemy’s <br />Geocentric Model<br />Celestial World<br />Terrestial World<br />Objects in space- <br />heavenly bodies<br />Inhabited by life<br /> forms<br />
    21. 21. Ptolemaic model<br />Consist of transparent spheres<br />Outer most sphere ~ celestial spheres of stars<br />Immovable earth ~ center of the universe<br />Each sphere ~ celestial body moving in uniform circular motion<br />Explained generally observed motions of the heavenly bodies and objects of the sublunary world<br />
    22. 22. Some difficulties were met regarding changes in the shape, brightness and speed of bodies especially the retrogade motion<br />Retrograde motion is backward movement of planets (east to west)<br />Ptolemy perfected geometrical devices like eccentric, epicycle-deferent system and equant to explain retrograde motion<br />
    23. 23. Epicycle-deferent system<br />Planet P moves uniform circular motion on a small circle called the epicycle. The center of the epicycle (A) is a point on a large circle called deferent.<br />From B to C- eastward<br />From C to B- westward <br />Then repeats itself<br />
    24. 24. A word on Ancient Greek Theory<br />Ptolemaic model was based on fundamental philosophical concepts- Plato’s principle of uniform circular motion was assumed as a philosophical truth<br />Greeks-physical theory of the universe can be best understood in the context of prior assumption or preconceptions.<br />Greek philosophy influenced the beginning of science<br />
    25. 25. Other scientific features of ancient Greek theory<br />Quantitative or measurable observations<br />Uniformity and order in motion<br />Mathematical and geometrical principles<br />
    26. 26. Copernican Revolution<br />
    27. 27. Heliocentric model<br />Nikolai Copernicus- earth was displaced from the center of the universe.<br />The earth was moving about the sun together with the planets<br />As regard to the retrograde motion- consequences of the relative motion of the earth with respect to the other planets<br />
    28. 28. Its basic concern was still the same as that of Plato: a more simple geocentric system of the universe.<br />There was much opposition against the Copernican model from the standpoint of religious or faith ~ to believe in the heliocentric model was equivalent to heresy<br />It took more that 100 years before the heliocentric theory gained acceptance<br />
    29. 29. Note to self<br />Copernicus’ theory did not improve on the accuracy of predictions over the geocentric model<br />There were NO new fundamental facts or observations that the Copernican model could explain which the geocentric model could not<br />
    30. 30. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST<br /><ul><li>The earth is the center of the universe
    31. 31. The sun is the center of the universe
    32. 32. Used planets and the sun
    33. 33. Accepted by religion and faith
    34. 34. Took a long time to be accepted
    35. 35. Based on Greek philoso-phies
    36. 36. Failed to explain subsequent observations
    37. 37. Explained some observed motions of heavenly bodies simpler</li>

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