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Tribes of the Chinook Nation <ul><li>Cathlamet </li></ul><ul><li>Wahkiakum </li></ul><ul><li>Clatsop </li></ul><ul><li>Wil...
Pre-1900’s
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Multiplicity of nature spirits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each character has its own personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Chinookan storytelling was an art form that could only be transmitted by word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Tah (guar...
<ul><li>Walla Walla spirit quest as described by ethnographer Marcus Whitman (Boyd, 118). </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciousnes...
<ul><li>Ipétes refers to “a sacred package of a particular tutelary spirit”  It is as personal as one’s spirit song and ha...
<ul><li>Winter Spirit Dance:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in December and January in large house with a center pole </li></...
 
<ul><li>1774: initial contact with Spanish ships </li></ul><ul><li>1805: Direct contact with Lewis and Clark </li></ul><ul...
Disease and depopulation <ul><li>Smallpox epidemic killed around 30% of population in the late 18 th  century </li></ul><u...
Material Culture <ul><li>Wooden tools were replaced with iron tools when trading was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>White cl...
Elijah White’s Law Code <ul><li>Chinook social relations were worked on the level of kin relations </li></ul><ul><li>Chief...
Struggle for Federal Recognition <ul><li>1851: Chinooks signed a treaty but it was never ratified </li></ul><ul><li>1855: ...
<ul><li>In the 1960’s, the BIA crossed the Chinook nation off the list.  The press circulated that the Chinooks were extin...
<ul><li>The Chinook nation is suing the federal govt. for recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>30% of the area’s local school ch...
<ul><li>They encourage any tribe in a similar situation, “don’t give up.  You will do a disservice to your ancestors to gi...
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Chinook Nation

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Chinook Nation

  1. 2. Tribes of the Chinook Nation <ul><li>Cathlamet </li></ul><ul><li>Wahkiakum </li></ul><ul><li>Clatsop </li></ul><ul><li>Willapa </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Chinook </li></ul>
  2. 3. Pre-1900’s
  3. 18. <ul><li>Multiplicity of nature spirits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each character has its own personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grizzlies were evil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue jay was crazy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bear Woman was a “kindly mother” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coyote was the most prominent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coyote was like a “stand for a well-to-do village leader who concerns himself with the peoples’ welfare” (Boyd, 115). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 19 th century, Sáxali tayí (“The Great Chief Above) was implemented into belief system </li></ul>
  4. 19. <ul><li>Chinookan storytelling was an art form that could only be transmitted by word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Tah (guardian spirit) is a term used to describe an invisible force; independent of a material being itself </li></ul><ul><li>The internal poetic structures and cadences of Chinookan tales have been lost through transcription and translation </li></ul><ul><li>Tah conferred particular powers to boys and girls during spirit quests </li></ul><ul><li>The power was then displayed during winter ceremonies through song and pantomime </li></ul>
  5. 20. <ul><li>Walla Walla spirit quest as described by ethnographer Marcus Whitman (Boyd, 118). </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness is “dead”; it is a potential avenue to make contact with the supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>Post-contact: the belief of good and bad tah was adopted due to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans (medicine men) used tah to aid in curing (Boyd, 121). Accounts almost always included exorcism. </li></ul>
  6. 21. <ul><li>Ipétes refers to “a sacred package of a particular tutelary spirit” It is as personal as one’s spirit song and has a power all its own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Bear claw, wolf tail, feather, fur or stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such charms are always buried with the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salmon blood is aut-ni (sacred) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 1 st of the year, blood from a beheaded salmon is collected in a “basin”, kept for 5 days, and poured back into the river by a shaman. The rest of the villagers are present and a feast follows. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 22. <ul><li>Winter Spirit Dance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in December and January in large house with a center pole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New guardian spirits were “made obvious” to the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremony was open to all with guardian spirits; they could perform their individual spirit songs and dances. Symbolic clothing ornaments identified the spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shamans sponsored the ceremonies; guiding novices and performing tricks like handling hot rocks and swallowing fire or boiling water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifts were distributed during the final days of the ceremony </li></ul></ul>
  8. 24. <ul><li>1774: initial contact with Spanish ships </li></ul><ul><li>1805: Direct contact with Lewis and Clark </li></ul><ul><li>1838: Chinookans had control of their destiny </li></ul><ul><li>1847: Open warfare and forced removals </li></ul><ul><li>1850’s: reservations established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population had dropped to less than a quarter of the original numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing and gathering economies were disrupted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed from original homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious systems were changed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 25. Disease and depopulation <ul><li>Smallpox epidemic killed around 30% of population in the late 18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd epidemic passed through in early 19 th century along with White venereal diseases and tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>1805: Lewis and Clarke estimated a population of 9,800 </li></ul><ul><li>1843: Perkins estimated a population of 1,500 </li></ul>
  10. 26. Material Culture <ul><li>Wooden tools were replaced with iron tools when trading was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>White clothes were adopted </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Astoria (fur-trading post) in 1811 and Fort Vancouver in 1824 increased Chinookans availability of material resources </li></ul>
  11. 27. Elijah White’s Law Code <ul><li>Chinook social relations were worked on the level of kin relations </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs were family heads and held little true authority </li></ul><ul><li>White’s law code was the first official set of laws established among the Chinooks and was considered federal law </li></ul><ul><li>Contentions among tribes increased as some chiefs refused to punish their people </li></ul>
  12. 28. Struggle for Federal Recognition <ul><li>1851: Chinooks signed a treaty but it was never ratified </li></ul><ul><li>1855: Asked to sing another treaty which would relocate the Chinooks north with a tribe that they do not get along with. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They refused the treaty and Governor Stephens stormed out. That was the last time they heard officially from the govt. in regards to treaties. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 29. <ul><li>In the 1960’s, the BIA crossed the Chinook nation off the list. The press circulated that the Chinooks were extinct even though they had not been terminated by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>While considered “unrecognized” land was taken away from elders and others. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, recognition was granted. However, it was appealed and the decision was overturned. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of the struggle, the Chinooks have more documentation proving their existence than most recognized tribes. </li></ul>
  14. 30. <ul><li>The Chinook nation is suing the federal govt. for recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>30% of the area’s local school children are Chinook. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a solid govt. and still have the traditional salmon ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a scholarship program set up with $48,000 in scholarships. </li></ul><ul><li>They are working for grants for a health clinic. </li></ul>
  15. 31. <ul><li>They encourage any tribe in a similar situation, “don’t give up. You will do a disservice to your ancestors to give up. We have to honor them. We have to get them back to their place in history as soon as possible” </li></ul><ul><li>://www.chinooknation.org/Default.aspx?tabid=1 </li></ul>

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