REG. NO. :BIT/112/03161
UNIT TITLE: PROJECT
SUPERVISOR: MR. NJAGI
“I Nicholas Ratemo do hereby declare that the information in this project report is my original work
and has never been published or submitted to any other institution of higher learning for any academic
award to the best of my knowledge.”
I wish dedicate this work to my father James Ratemo, to my mother Eucabeth Nyaboke , to my siblings
Mac Sanaya Ratemo, Japhet Maoga Ratemo, Jeremy Ratemo,Shem Ratemo and Shasha M. Ratemo for
their unconditional support.
Table of Contents
NYAMACHE HOSPITAL is a prestigious hospital situated a long kisii-kiligoris road with a very large
patient capacity. This number is increasing at a rapidly with each passing day. The Management of the
hospital is concerned with the increasing effort in keeping the records of the patients and recording
their activities( done manually).
The hospital treats both indoor patients and the outdoor patients. It maintains full information of both
indoor patients and outdoor patients for the purpose of future use. Doctors who serve to the hospital
are the regular employees of the hospital, sometimes-external doctors are used to handle complicated
cases. So the hospital needs to maintain its Doctors’ records separately along with the records of its
other employees. All these operations are getting cumbersome day by day because of the stiff rise in
As I visited the hospital work was done as follows:
-Registration of patients is done by just writing the Patients name, age and gender.
-Whenever the Patient comes up his information is stored freshly.
- Bills are generated by recording price for each facility provided to Patient on a separate sheet and at
last they all are summed up.
- Diagnosis information to patients is generally recorded on the document, which contains patient
information. It is destroyed after some time period to decrease the paper load in the office.
-All this work is done manually by the receptionist and other operational staff and lot of
papers are needed to be handled and taken care of.
-Doctors have to remember various medicines available for diagnosis and sometimes miss
better alternatives as they can’t remember them at that time.
Lack of immediate retrievals. The information is very difficult to retrieve and to find particular
information like to find out about the patient’s history, the user has to go through various registers. This
results in inconvenience and wastage of time.
Lack of immediate information storage: The information generated by various transactions takes
time and efforts to be stored at right place.
Lack of prompt updating: Various changes to information like patient details or immunization details
of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved.
Error prone manual calculation: Manual calculations are error prone and take a lot of time this may
result in incorrect information. For example calculation of patient’s bill based on various treatments.
Preparation of accurate and prompt reports: This becomes a difficult task as information is
To have planned approach towards working: The working in the organization will be well planned
and organized. The data will be stored properly in data stores, which will help in retrieval of
information as well as its storage.
To have high accuracy: The level of accuracy in the proposed system will be higher. All operation
would be done correctly and it ensures that whatever information is coming from the center is accurate.
To increase reliability: The reliability of the proposed system will be high due to the
above stated reasons. The reason for the increased reliability of the system is that now there would be
proper storage of information.
To reduce redundancy: no information is repeated anywhere, in storage or otherwise.
This would assure economic use of storage space and consistency in the data stored.
To have immediate retrieval of information: Any typeof information would be available whenever
the user requires.
To have immediate storage of information: In manual system there are many problems to store the
largest amount of information.
To easy operation: The system should be easy to operate and should be such that it can be developed
within a short period of time and fit in the limited budget of the user.
An electronic system that will capture various Patient Information, Doctor information, and writing bill
amount such that to shift from manual. Also this data can be maintained at central place for reference
at specific intervals.
It is going to be used in nyamache hospital for maintaining patient details and improve efficiency.
Is a part of a system budgeting and accounting practices which helps the system analyst to determine
the approximate cost and savings for an organization.
Amount in Ksh.
1 Computer System (Laptop Computer)
5 Rewritable DVDs for Back up @ 30
2 ream of printing paper @450
5 pencils and 5 pens
2 GB flash Disk
Airtime @400per week*16wks
Transport per month @ 6000 *4 months
The amount of time required to install system is approximately four months
The system being developed is economic with the hospital s point of view. It is cost
effective in the sense that has eliminated the paper work completely. The result obtained
contains minimum errors and are highly accurate as the data is required.
The technical requirement for the system is economic and it does not use any other
additional Hardware and software.
The system working is quite easy to use and learn due to its simple and attractive
This project is to create a successful system between October,2013 and April, 2014 in order to reduce
load of employees in Nyamache Hospital and also to avoid time wasted by patients who
attends the hospital.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The purpose of writing this literature review was to find out how hospital management systems in
various hospitals work and compare it to nyamache hospital management system.
CASE STUDY – THE ST. ROSS HOSPITAL
St. Ross hospital is situated in Maputo city in Mozambique. On average, around 500 patients per day
tend to visit the hospital, resulting in large queues. With such a diverse range of services offered.
St. Ross hospital needed to implement a Patient Management solution.
The challenge was the fact that many patients, particularly those who travel long distances to visit the
department, tend to arrive hours before their scheduled appointment, further adding to the existing
Patient visibility was a further challenge; with staff time wasted searching for patients through manual
Functionality of the new system
When a patient reports to the registration point, the clerks on duty must establish whether the patient
has a number and whether a file exists as a result of a previous attendance in the system. In many
instances it will be possible to establish that a file exists by obtaining the number from the patient’s
hospital identity card. when a patient does not have an identity card or has forgotten to bring it, the
main list will be needed to trace the number so that the patient’s file can be retrieved. When the
patient’s name is a common one, the records clerk will need to interview the patient or a relative to
obtain sufficient information to identify the patient from others of the same name who appear in the
Before opening a new file, clerks must be instructed to make careful checks that no file already exists.
The supervisor should regularly monitor that these checks are being done. patients may claim that they
have never attended the hospital before, yet a check of the main file reveals that a file already exists.
Administration: The administrator can create User accounts for the staff, define the departments of the
hospital and schedule for the doctors and other staff members which can be viewed all through the
Registration: The registration module captures the complete patient’s information with a unique
Store: This module keeps the watch over the stock/issue of various medicines to the Dispensary
Billing: The bill is generated once the patient is discharged by the Doctor.
Using patients register their arrival by entering the index on their appointment letter. Each patient
enters a required queue, which respects the scheduled appointment time. Patients who arrive early are
reminded of their actual appointment time. Patients who forget their appointment letter can check in
manually by entering their first name into the system. Volunteers are also on hand to assist.
The system has reduced the queue completely, greatly reducing stress for staff and ensuring a good
experience for patients.
Data captured using the system will be used to improve appointment scheduling in the future as it
provides a clear picture on patient flow from entry to exit. The system provides information on daily
work flow, which has the benefit of enabling roster makers to improve staff rosters in the future and
ensure high traffic areas are appropriately looked upon.
CASE STUDY :NYERERE NATIONAL HOSP.
Dr Korir Mohamed is Chairman of Nyerere Hospital, in Tanzania that I interviewed the following
version of the interview .
i would like to know a little about Nyerere Hospital-its origin, history and how it’s come to
Nyerere hospital is an international hospital currently with operations and
developments in the whole country of Tanzania. It is stuated along Mamlaka road in Dodoma town. It
started in the year 1934 with a small number of patients attending it per day and it has grown until now
with an average of 5000 patients visiting various parts of the hospital each day.
Is your hospital management system different from the one that was being used before?
Tell me, what was the kind of system your hospital was using before.
The old system registration of patients is done by just writing the Patients name, age and gender on a
paper. Whenever the Patient comes up his information is stored freshly no reference .Bills are generated
by recording price for each facility provided to Patient on a separate sheet and at last they all are
summed up. Diagnosis information to patients is generally recorded on the document, which contains
patient information. All this work is done manually by the receptionist and other operational staff and
lot of papers are needed to be handled and taken care of .The information is very difficult to retrieve
and to find particular information like to find out about the patient’s history, the user has to go through
various registers. This results in inconvenience and wastage of time. The information generated by
various transactions takes time and efforts to be stored at right place. Various changes to information
like patient details or immunization details of child are difficult to make as paper work is involved.
This becomes a difficult task as information is prepared manually.
what is the kind of system your hospital is using now?
The administrator can create User accounts for the staff, define the departments of the hospital and
schedule for the doctors and other staff members which can be viewed all through the application.
The registration module can captures the complete patient’s information with a unique identification
number. Can store and keep the watch over the stock/issue of various medicines to the Dispensary
department. Can generate the bill is generated once the patient is discharged by the Doctor.
In this information age, it is therefore essential that hospital management system be done with the
utmoste eficiency and accuracy. This is the point at which records management in hospital is integrated
with computer science in order to develop a computer based records management system. The
conclusion is that efficient and comprehensive records keeping is as good as guaranteed when the art of
recordkeeping is simulated and integrated into a computerized records management system.
CHAPTER THREE- METHODOLOGY
Methodology is a term used to describe a process, technique or manner in which an action is
performed. Under the development of a system, a methodology refers to the process will be
taken to ensure that a system is effectively and efficiently developed . In designing Nyamache
management system , the following system development methodology will be used.
System Development Lifecycle
In developing Nyamache Management System, the following steps will be taken;
A project plan will be developed as well as other planning documents. It will provide the basis
for acquiring the resources needed to achieve a solution. This phase will ensure that the problem
that will be solved will be the one that needed to be solved .
At this point, the manual system in place will be analyzed to determine where the problem
is, in an attempt to solve the system. This step will involve breaking down the system in
different pieces to analyze the situation, analyzing project goals, breaking down what
needed to be created and attempting to engage users so that definite requirements could be
Under analysis, Requirement gathering is the most crucial aspect as many times communication
gaps arise in this phase and this leads to validation errors and bugs in the software
Therefore, the following techniques will be used in analysis to gather information.
a) Semi-structured interviews
Semi-structured interviews are conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for focused,
conversational, two-way communication. They will be used both to give and receive
In the process of developing the system, the development team will interview the data entrants
Nyamache hospital inorder to identify the processes, obtain specific quantitative and
qualitative information from the interviewees , obtain general information relevant to data
entry , and to Gain a range of insights on the process of the system.
This tool will be used as a data collection methodology of choice because it is; less intrusive to
being interviewed as the semi-structured interview encourages two-way communication.
b) Direct Observation
Direct Observation is a method in which a researcher observes and records behavior / events /
activities / tasks / duties while something is happening. This will be used in
interviewing in order to gain a more live view of the Hospital’s current management system .
Direct observation will be used as a research methodology of choice in designing the
management system for Nyamache Hospital because; Observations give additional, more
accurate information on behavior of people than interviews or questionnaires.
c) Using available information
This is a data collection method that involves the process of examining and evaluating
existent literature material to obtain facts and data regarding a specific subject. Locating
sources and retrieving the information will help in data collection.
In the development of the nyamache management system, this research methodology will
be mainly used in the analysis and design phases of the system development process.
This is because it will permit the researcher to analyze changes in trends.
In systems design the design functions and operations will be described in detail, including
screen layouts, process diagrams and other documentation. Design elements will describe
the desired system features in detail, and generally will include functional screen layout
diagrams, pseudo code, and a complete entity-relationship diagram.
Testing is critical for a newly developed system as a prerequisite for it being put into an
environment where the end users can use it. Exhaustive testing is conducted to ensure accuracy
and reliability and to ensure that bugs are detected as early as possible. In the process of
designing the system, three levels of testing will be conducted, namely, unit testing, user
acceptance and system testing.
Unit test is where the system is tested partially and independently, component by component, to
ensure that particular portion or module is workable within it. In the development of the of
Nyamache management system, each component will be tested independently before finally
integrating each of them into one system.
A system normally consists of all components that makeup the total system to function. It will be
required to ensure the smooth running of the system as a whole, and it should perform as
expected and as required. Here, technical and functional testing will be performed. The technical
testing will involve the process of testing the systems compatibility with the hardware, operating
system, data integrity in the database and user authorization access rights..
User Acceptance Test
users will be involved so as to analyze acceptability and usability and also to identify areas that
may require modification before the system can fully be commissioned for use.
System documentation is a crucial aspect of system implementation. It it will provide a frame of
reference with regards to the implementation process. In designing the system, the
documentation will be done in form an integrated FAQ file that users of the system can refer to if
they have any challenges as far as using the system is concerned.
Assumptions that will be made by the new system
The following basic assumptions will be made while designing the system
• That the system shall be used only by the Nyamache Hospital staff
• That every system user shall have a unique username and password which shall be
by the administrator.
• That the system shall be used to add, update and delete Nyamache hospital records
• That the normal user shall not have the right to delete information from the system
regards to the intended users of the system, the following suppositions will be made
• That the end user shall have a basic knowledge of working with computers
• That the end user shall have a basic knowledge of the English language which is used in
GUI and associated documentation.
Limitations of the System
With regard to its use, the system will only cater for English speakers. The GUI and
documentation is in English. This may present a problem for non- English speaking users
The system has only two user levels which only cater for the administrator and data
The system also does not cater for the automatic back up of the data in the database.
present a security problem in the event of data loss.
Advantage of the new system
The main advantage of the new system is that it will enable faster and more efficient storage,
execute important reports to support daily medical tasks, retrieval and updating of Nyamache
CHAPTER 4: EXPECTED OUTPUT
The login form below is the first page a person accessing the system sees. It will be used to gain
access to the system resources and determines, based on the user type, which users should access
NYAMACHE MANAGEMENT HOSPITAL
IF YOU HAVE ANY
TROUBLE IN LOGIN
PLEASE CONTACT THE
NYAMACHE MANAGEMENT HOSPITAL SYSTEM 2013
Fig.1 login form
User Registration Form
The form below will be specifically desgined for the administrative account. It will be designed with
a view to grant the administrator the ability to register new users. The form as displayed below, will
enable the administrator to specify the user level or the account type as either user or administrator.
This information will be crucial during the process of logging in as it specifies what priviledges the
system user should and shouldn’t access.
Fig.2 user reg. form
Data Entry and Manipulation Forms
Data entry and manipulation forms in the system include the data add, delete and edit forms. The add
and edit functions will be accessible to both the administrator and normal user who is expected to be
the main data entrant. However, access to the delete forms will be restricted to a user with
Fig.3 Data manipulation form