Cone of experience1


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Cone of experience1

  1. 1. Discussion Outline • Cone of Experience • Pie Graph on Senses and Perception • Reasons for Using Instructional Media in the Classroom • Guidelines in the Selection of Instructional Media • Distracters of Instruction • Contributions of Instructional Technology to the Learning Process
  2. 2. The “Cone of Experience”
  3. 3. What is Dale’s cone of experience? •The cone of experience is a pictorial device used to explain the interrelationships of the various types of audio-visual media, as well as their individual “positions” in the learning process. •The cone's utility in selecting instructional resources and activities is as practical today as when Dale created it.
  4. 4. Cone of Experience Verbal Symbols Visual Symbols Recordings, Radio, Still Pictures Motion Pictures Television Exhibits Field Trips Demonstrations Dramatized Experiences Contrived Experiences Direct, Purposeful Experiences
  5. 5. Principles on the cone of Experience: The cone is based on the relationships of various educational experiences to reality (real life), and the bottom level of the cone, "direct purposeful experiences," represents reality or the closest things to real, everyday life. The opportunity for a learner to use a variety or several senses (sight, smell, hearing, touching, movement) is considered in the cone.
  6. 6. Direct experience allows us to use all senses.  Verbal symbols involve only hearing. The more sensory channels possible in interacting with a resource, the better the chance that many students can learn from it. Each level of the cone above its base moves a learner a step further away from real- life experiences, so experiences focusing only on the use of verbal symbols are the furthest removed from real life.
  7. 7. Motion pictures (also television) is where it is on the cone because it is an observational experience with little or no opportunity to participate or use senses other than seeing and hearing. Contrived experiences are ones that are highly participatory and simulate real life situations or activities. Dramatized experiences are defined experiences in which the learner acts out a role or activity. as
  8. 8. Verbal Symbols • principal medium of communication • bear no physical resemblance to the objects or ideas for which they stand • may be a word for concretion, idea, scientific principle, formula or philosophic aphorism • Disadvantage: highly abstract
  9. 9. Visual Symbols • chalkboard/whiteboard, flat maps, diagrams, charts • fits the tempo of presentation of idea, topic or situation • very easy to procure and prepare • Limitations: lack of ability to use the media size of visuals simplification of visual materials leads to misconceptions
  10. 10. Recordings, Radio, Still Pictures • attention – getting, particularly projected views • concretized verbal abstraction • Limitations: size of pictures or illustrations expensiveness of projected materials and equipment timing difficulties between radio shows and classroom lessons
  11. 11. Television and Motion Pictures • a solution to time and space constraints • provides “windows to the world” • effective for presenting movement, continuity of ideas or events • substitute for dangerous direct learning experiences • Limitations: Expensive viewing problems timing with classroom lessons  misconceptions about time, size, and ideas
  12. 12. Exhibits • present objects or processes otherwise impossible inside the classroom • exposure to new ideas, discoveries, inventions • problems that may be encountered: too little space time – consuming maintenance
  13. 13. Demonstrations • visualized explanation of an important fact or idea or process • may require nothing more than observation or students may be asked to do what has just been shown how to do • Disadvantages: ideas or processes might not be interpreted or conceived very well visibility to all learners
  14. 14. Field Trips • undertaken primarily for the purpose of experiencing something that cannot be encountered within the classroom • a rich experience in learning about objects, systems, and situations • Disadvantages: time-consuming expensive high exposure to danger /accidents inadequacy of the community’s resources
  15. 15. Dramatized Experiences • help get closer to certain realities that are no longer available at first hand • stirring and attention getting • participant learns to understand intimately the character he portrays • teaches cooperative work • Disadvantages: time consuming without commensurate results participation is limited to few individuals
  16. 16. Contrived Experiences • an “editing” of reality • substitutes for confusing or unmanageable first – hand experiences • easier to handle, manipulate or operate • Disadvantages: simplification leads to misconceptions, distorted views, and incomplete pictures of reality no freedom to handle expensive or fragile models, mock – ups, specimens, etc.
  17. 17. Direct, Purposeful Experiences • unabridged version of life itself • direct participation with responsibility for the outcome • the basis for the most effective and lasting learning • Disadvantage: not all things can be learned through direct, first hand experiencing
  18. 18. Reference: Dale, E. (1954). Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching. NY: Dryden Press.
  19. 19. Pie Graph on Senses and Perception
  20. 20. Pie Graph on Senses and Perception 1.5% 3.5% 1.5% Sight Sound Smell 11% Touch Taste 83%
  21. 21. Retention Rate Levels • Learning is an active process. Retention level practically increases as students are actively involve in various learning activities. • Researchers found out that the most effective approaches – resulting in 75% and 90% retention rates, respectively – are learning by doing and learning by teaching others
  22. 22. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Reading 10% Hearing 20% Seeing 30% Hearing and Seeing 50% Saying 70% Hearing Saying Doing 90% What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand
  23. 23. • References: • • • • • • • Corpus, Brenda B. and Salandanan, Gloria G. (2007) Principles of Teaching 1. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc. Garo, Candelaria D. (2004) Educational Technology . Mandaluyong City National Book Store. Lucido, Paz I. and Borabo (1997) Educational Technology. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc. Newby, Timothy J, Stepich, Donald A., Lehman, James D. and Russell James D. (2000) Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  24. 24. Reasons for Using Instructional Media in the Classroom Source: Kemp, J. & Smellie, D. (1994). Planning, producing, and using instructional technologies. 7th edition. NY: Harper Collins
  25. 25. Happening too quickly • Media used: films, charts, movies, specimens
  26. 26. Too complex to be appreciated • Media used: – Mock-ups, models, diagrams, charts, pictures
  27. 27. Too small to be observed • Media used: – Telescope, microscope, lens, drawings, films, slides, models, pictures
  28. 28. Too large to be easily comprehended • Media used: – models, mock-ups, films, slides, diagrams
  29. 29. Too dangerous to permit live observation • Media used: – simulators, films, slides, diagrams
  30. 30. Taking some place some distance away in time and space • Media used: – simulators, films, field trips, dramas, slides, pictures
  31. 31. Guidelines in the Selection of Instructional Materials Source: Garo, C. (2007). Teaching educational technology. Manila: Rex Publishing.
  32. 32. Determine the needs. • What are you trying to accomplish? • What needs might specific instructional media address.
  33. 33. Check a variety of sources • Library resource • Commercial producers • distributors
  34. 34. Obtain and preview the materials
  35. 35. Durability Size Color Economy Easy to Handle Relevance Novelty
  36. 36. Try the materials out with students • How well do they like the materials? • How effectively do the materials help them learn?
  37. 37. Compare any competing materials • Its effectiveness and appeal to students
  38. 38. Make your selection • Select the material that works best for your students/learning situation
  39. 39. Distracters of Instruction
  40. 40. Contributions of Instructional Technology to the Instructional Process