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Business communication complete note

Business communication complete note for graduate and postgraduate students of BBA /MBA

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Business communication complete note

  1. 1. Non Verbal Communication • The process of sending and receiving messageswithout using words, either spoken or written. • Examples of non verbal communication include be a smile, wink, or wave. All of these communicate something without the use of oral or written language. Even if you do not say a word, your silence can communicate in a non-verbal way.
  2. 2. • Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication:[65] • Express emotions • Express interpersonal attitudes • To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners • Self-presentation of one's personality • Rituals (greetings)
  3. 3. Types of non verbal com • Body language or Kinesics • Para language or voice • Space Language • Time language.
  4. 4. Nonverbal communication divided into • Kinesics and Proxemics acts • Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture • Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
  5. 5. Body language or Kinesics • A type of nonverbal communication that relies on body movements(such as gestures, posture, and facial expressions) to convey messages. • Body language may be used consciously or unconsciously. It may accompany a verbal message or serve as a substitute for speech.
  6. 6. Important features of Body Language • Posture • The way a person stands or sits is his posture. It is good to adopt a flexible erect posture rather than a stiff or slouching posture. An erect posture reveals confidence and poise. Drooping shoulders, sagging in the seat, etc., reveal a feeling of depression and lack of interest. • Head motion • In oral communication, the movement of the head plays an important role. No one is expected to keep on shaking his head, but appropriate nods and shakes of the head enhance the level of communication
  7. 7. • Eye Contact • In an oral communication context, the speaker and listener should not only face each other but also maintain correct eye contact. If someone avoids direct eye contact, he is suspected to be sly or cunning. • Gestures • Gestures can be some of the most direct and obvious body language signals. Waving, pointing, and using the fingers to indicate numerical amounts are all very common and easy to understand gestures. Some gestures may be cultural, however, so giving a thumbs-up or a peace sign might have a completely different meaning than it might in the United States.
  8. 8. Facial Expression • Facial Expression • Face is the index of the mind. We say, ‘she put on a long face’ to mean that she was not in the best of her moods. However much one tries, his hidden feeling of anger, fear, confusion, uncertainty, enthusiasm and joy will get revealed by the facial expression. Sometimes, the words that you utter may be contradicted by your facial expression. A teacher might ask the student if he understood the idea, but he should not wait for an answer. A lack-lustre bewildered facial expression would reveal that the student has not grasped anything.
  9. 9. Paralanguage • Paralanguage refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously, and it includes the pitch, volume, and, in some cases, intonation of speech. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. The study is known as paralinguistics.
  10. 10. Paralinguistics • Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.
  11. 11. • Examples of paralinguistic features include pitch, rate, quality of voice and amplitude. • People express meaning not just in what they say but in the way they say it. The paralinguistic features employed by a speaker provide nuanced meaning, communicate attitudes and convey emotion.
  12. 12. Proxemics or space language • Proxemics is the study of the cultural, behavioral, and sociological aspects of spatial distances between individuals.[61] Every person has a particular space that they keep to themselves when communicating, like a personal bubble. When used as a type of nonverbal signal in communication, proxemics helps to determine the space between individuals while they interact.
  13. 13. types of proxemics • there are four types of proxemics with different distances depending on the situation and people involved 1 Intimate distance is used for close encounters like embracing, touching, or whispering. 0 to 18 inch 2 Personal distance is for interactions with close friends and family members. 18 to 4 feet
  14. 14. types of proxemics • 3. Social distance is for interactions among acquaintances. It is mostly used in workplace or school settings where there is no physical contact. 4 feet to 12 feet • 4 Public distance is for strangers or public speaking.12 to 30 feet
  15. 15. Time language or Chronemics • Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way that one perceives and values time, structures time and reacts to time frames communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyle, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements and how long people are willing to listen
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  17. 17. What is a paragraph? • A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. In a paragraph, you will state one main idea and explain it. Paragraphs are extremely important because they help organize information in a way that is easy for your reader to follow, thus bettering the flow of your writing. To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity, A Topic Sentence, Supporting Sentences, and a Conclusion.
  18. 18. • A paragraph is the basic unit of composition. It consists of a group of related sentences that develop one main idea. It has three main parts; an introduction, a body of the paragraph and a conclusion. In other words, it has a • topic sentence, • a few supporting sentences, • and a concluding sentence.
  19. 19. Components of paragraph 1: unity in a paragraph? Unity: it means that you discuss only one main idea in a paragraph. The main idea is stated in the topic sentence and then each supporting sentence develops that idea. It means that the entire paragraph should focus on one single idea. It defines that all sentences in a paragraph should speak about one single idea or one main subject. That is, the topic sentence, the supporting details, and the concluding sentence should focus on only one idea
  20. 20. Components of paragraph • 2: coherence in a paragraph? • Coherence in a paragraph is the technique of making words, phrases, and sentences move smoothly and logically from one to the other. • It establishing a relationship between the ideas presented in a paragraph. It means that all the sentence in a paragraph should be inter linked . • It help the reader to understand the paragraph easily 3: topic sentence . it tells the reader what the paragraph is going to be about. It also helps you keep your writing under control. • It express the main idea of paragraph and the remaining sentences support it . • Generally it found in benign or in the end of the paragraph in some case it could be in middle of the paragraph
  21. 21. Components of paragraph • 4: supporting sentences. The supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. They explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations, among other things 5:Concluding Sentence. A concluding sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. A conclusion can remind the reader of the main points of a paragraph and/or leave the reader with something to think about in relation to the topic.
  22. 22. Some important steps to be consider • Put only one main idea per paragraph. • Aim for 3 to 5 or more sentences per paragraph. • Include on each page about 2 handwritten or 3 typed paragraphs. • Make your paragraphs proportional to your paper. • Since paragraphs do less work in short papers, have short paragraphs for short papers and longer paragraphs for longer papers. • If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of a larger paragraph– and can be combined—or whether you can add details to support each point and thus each into a more fully developed paragraph
  23. 23. Types of paragraph • 1. DESCRIPTIVE • This paragraph describes something or someone. • E.g. :My mother is a very special woman. She is beautiful . She is tall. She always takes care of me . She helps me with my homework. She cooks delicious food. She loves me and I love her so much. My mother is the best mom in the world
  24. 24. Types of paragraph • INFORMATIVE • This paragraph explains an idea and inform facts. • E.g. • MY COUNTRY “Afghanistan” My country is “Afghanistan . It is located in Asia. It is small but beautiful country. It has many touristic places you can visit and have fun like, the mountains and the cities . The climate is great. “Afghanistan is a wonderful country
  25. 25. Types of paragraph • PERSUASIVE paragraph • This paragraph tries to convince the reader of something. • E.g: • New Chocolate :The best Chocolate has arrived to Kabul. It is delicious, it has milk, almonds and etc. . It also has many vitamins that will help you grow and make your teeth very strong. You can’t keep living without trying this chocolate .Buy one today !!!
  26. 26. Types of paragraph • NARRATIVE paragraph • This paragraph describes an event or tells a story. • Eg: My last vacation was very fun. First I went to the beach with my cousins. We surfed and swam in the ocean. Then went to my grandparents farm and rode a horse. Next we climb a big mountain. Finally we came back home and rest . I had the best vacation ever.
  27. 27. Paragraph development techniques • To build unity in paragraph it may be developed by using certain devices . • Popular devices to bring unity in paragraph are following : • Inductive method / technique • Deductive method/ technique • Chronological method/technique • Special method/technique • Linear method/technique
  28. 28. Paragraph development techniques 1: Inductive method / technique • I n the inductive method supporting fact and details are given one after another to find sentence which contain the main idea . 2: Deductive method/ technique • This method is revers to inductive method ,where writer develop the main idea from are inter link and progress {not complete}
  29. 29. Paragraph development techniques 3; Chronological method/technique{not complete} • In this method writer persuade with the description of event as they occur in the method generally ? 4: Special method/technique • In this method the writer describe in this way so that the reader can visualize it with the reading In method its necessary that their should be a mental connection between the thought of writer and reader , so that it may look real to the reader 5: Linear method/technique • In this method one dimension narration or statements go on . It is simply stating the incident as if being told in a story .
  30. 30. Communication through Technology • Using technology in communication has become a necessity, its now part of our lives. People communicate through emails, faxes, Mobile phones, texting services, video conferences, video chart-rooms and social media channels. As time goes on, more emerging technologies will change the way we communicate and it will be up to us to embrace them or not. • technology in communication to a business: Today, every business uses technology in its own way to reach the media and targeted consumers. Also businesses have embraced technology by easing communication with in companies and among investors and suppliers
  31. 31. how has technology affected business communication• Speed • As technology has progressed, it has vastly accelerated the speed of business communications. Instead of having to wait a week for a file to be delivered by mail, information can be instantaneously transferred via email or file sharing programs • Accessibility • Technology has greatly increased accessibility in business communication. Because of things like smart phones, email, text messaging and instant messaging, information can be sent very quickly to anyone, anywhere. This has altered accessibility in a multitude of ways. • Global Partnerships • Technology has made the world a lot smaller, especially in the context of business. People from different cultures interact on a frequent basis. Global partnerships have become much more feasible as things like video conferencing have facilitated meetings that cost much less to conduct than flying halfway across the world
  32. 32. how has technology affected business communication• Market Access • As technology partners with the Internet to connect people from all walks of life, business communication with the consumer has changed greatly. The advent of social networking sites have allowed companies to target demographics that are already interested in their products and services with advertisements. • Relational Dynamics • The relational aspect of business communications has been changed definitively by the evolution of technology. With email, text messaging, social networking sites, and cell phones becoming more and more popular, face to face communication is become far less frequent. A side effect of this change has been a decreased emphasis on personal relationships with business contacts and clients by some companies.
  33. 33. tools • Email – This has become the main form of communication for many businesses, as it is relatively fast and very cheap and can be used to forward and receive additional files attached to each message. • Social media – Social media has allowed businesses to communicate on a much more personal level with their customers.
  34. 34. tools Internet• • The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer network that use the standard Internet protocol suit(TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide.• Today’s communication is so much dependent on internet. In business communication it plays more important role. This technology facilitates other medias like – E-mailing Instant Messaging Tele conferencing Video conferencing
  35. 35. tools Voice-Mail • • Voicemail (also known as voice-mail, VMS, or message bank) is a centralized system of stored telephone messages that can be retrieved later. The term is also used more broadly to denote any system of conveying a stored telecommunications voice message, including using an answering machine. Most cell phones have voicemail as a basic feature, and many land line phones and corporate PBXs have their own voicemail options.
  36. 36. tools • Tele conferencing • • A teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunic Teleconferencing Equipment • Computer with online connection • Camera hooked up to computer• Software • – CU-SeeMe • – NetMeeting • – Skype • – Yahoo Messenger
  37. 37. tools • Video Conferencing: • Companies of all sizes and in every industry are quickly adopting video conferencing as a way to stay connected, increase productivity and cut costs in these difficult economic times. As prices on conferencing equipment drop and the technology becomes easier to use video conferencing is gradually becoming an efficient way for business to communicate with employees, customers and sales prospects – it : • Save time by not travelling to meetings • Reduce your travel costs by working remotely • Increase productivity through collaborative working • Share presentations, data and media in an instant • Use it in the office, on the move or at home • Delivers a tangible return on investment
  38. 38. PowerPoint presentation • The term "PowerPoint presentation" was coined when Microsoft introduced its software program PowerPoint. PowerPoint is commonly used by presenters as a digital aid when presenting their topic to an audience. Microsoft has called this type of software a "presentation", which is a misnomer. Many presenters often forget that they are the presentation that the audience came to see, not their PowerPoint presentation. • PowerPoint is probably the most used (and misused) presentation software program. Microsoft estimates that over 30 million PowerPoint presentations are given daily around the globe.
  39. 39. The Key to Creating an Effective Presentation • Determine the Purpose of the Presentation • Determine the Presentation’s Audience • Gather Your Information • Sketch Out the Slides on Paper • Determine the Order Of Your Slides • Create the Presentation
  40. 40. Unit 2: business letter
  41. 41. Meaning of Business Correspondence • Communication through exchange of letters is known as correspondence. • A Businessman writes and receives letters in his day to-day transactions, which may be called business correspondence. • We communicate our feelings, thoughts etc. to our friends and relatives through letters that may be called personal correspondence • business letters may be defined as a media or means through which views are expressed and ideas or information is communicated in writing in the process of business activities
  42. 42. Importance of Business Correspondence 1.Help in Maintaining Proper Relationship • Now-a-days business activities are not confined to any one area or locality. The businessmen as well as customers are scattered throughout the country. Thus, there is a need to maintain proper relationship among them by using appropriate means of communication 2. Inexpensive and Convenient Mode • Though there are other modes of communication like telephone, telex, fax, etc. but business information can be provided and obtained economically and conveniently through letters. 4. Serves as Evidence We cannot expect a trader to memorize all facts and figures in a conversation that normally takes place among businessmen. Through letters, he can keep a record of all facts. Thus, letters can serve as evidence in case of dispute between two parties.
  43. 43. Importance of B-C 3. Create and Maintain Goodwill • Sometimes business letters are written to create and enhance goodwill. Businessmen at times send letters to enquire about complaints and suggestions of their customers. They also send letters to inform the customers about the availability of a new product, clearance sale etc. All this results in cordial relations with the customers, which enhances the goodwill of the business. 5. Help in Expansion of Business • Business requires information regarding competing products, prevailing prices, promotion, market activities, etc. If the trader has to run from place to place to get information, he will end up doing nothing. It will simply result in loss of time. But through business letters, he can make all enquiries about the products and the markets. He can also receive orders from different countries and, thus enhance sales.
  44. 44. Essential Qualities of a Good Business Letter • We may classify the qualities of a good business letter as: a. Inner Qualities; • The inner qualities of a good business letter refer to the quality of language, its presentation, etc . b. Outer Qualities • The outer qualities of a good business letter refers to the appearance of the letter
  45. 45. the various inner qualities of a good business letter. • Simplicity - Simple and easy language should be used for writing business letters. • - Clarity- The language should be clear, so that the receive will understand the • Relevance - The letter should contain only essential and relevant information. • Courtesy - Courtesy wins the heart of the reader. In business letters, courtesy can be shown/expressed by using words like please, thank you, etc.
  46. 46. the various inner qualities of a good business letter. • You- attitude : is a style of writing that places the writer in the reader’s position, allowing a clear view of the situation from the reader’s perspective. The writer then communicates in a manner sensitive to the reader’s needs. • Accuracy - The statements written in the letter should be accurate to, the best of the sender’s knowledge. Accuracy demands that there are no errors in the usage of language - in grammar, spellings, punctuations etc. • Completeness - A complete letter is one that provides all necessary information to the users. For example, while sending an order we should mention the desirable features of the goods, i.e., their quality, shape, colour, design, quantity, etc. • Neatness- A neat letter is always impressive. A letter either handwritten or typed, should be neat and attractive in appearance.
  47. 47. Outer Qualities OF B-C • The outer qualities of a good business letter refers to the appearance of the letter Includes : • Quality of paper • Color of the Paper • Size of the paper • Folding of letter • Envelope
  48. 48. Parts of a Business Letter
  49. 49. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter Enquiry Letter • The letter written to sellers to know the details of the goods which they want to buy, like quality, quantity, price, mode of delivery and payment • GUIDELINES FOR ENQUIRY LETTER 1:Indicate the nature of enquiry at the beginning. 2:State reasons for the enquiry. 3:Clearly state what information you are seeking. 4: Close with a statement which would elicit quick response.
  50. 50. Inquiry letter sample • Major UK Company 123 Made Up Road Derby D11 1AA • Date: 6th January 2011 • Dear Sir / Madam • I am writing to you to inquire about a vacancy in your company's London office for an IT Project Manager. I have been told of this opening by a Mr Richard Brown who is currently employed by your company. • If the position exists then I am very interested in it as I feel it is a perfect fit for my skills and abilities. I am currently working for a leading multinational company, where I have been successful in controlling cost and budgets, improving staff performance and completing projects to time. • I look forward to discussing my relevant work experience and academic qualifications with you and also explaining how I contribute to your company's continued growth and success. • Please feel free to contact me if you require clarification or any further information. I thank you for your time and I look forward to hearing form you. Yours sincerely, • Mark Thompson 128 Somewhere Road Birmingham B18 6NF
  51. 51. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter Quotation Letter A quotation letter is sentin reply toan enquiryletter. It shouldcontain point by point detailed information. After receiving the letter of enquiry from a prospective buyer, the sellers supply the relevant information by writing a letter that is called quotation letter GUIDELINES FOR QUOTATION LETTER 1:Mention the letter number and date of enquiry letter to which reply is made. 2: Give detailed information in points. 3: Mention the terms and conditioned involved. 4: Keep in mind that the letter will be examined from several points of view: quality, price, promptness in reply, etc.
  52. 52. E-mail • E-mail • An e-mail is a communication sent from one computer to another, usually via a network. It is the least formal method of written communication within a company.
  53. 53. E-mail sample
  54. 54. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter 4. Complaint/claim Letter A complaint letter is written when the purchaser does not find the goods up to his satisfaction. It is normally written by the purchaser when he receives wrong, defective or damaged goods or receives incorrect quantity of goods GUIDELINES FOR CLAIM LETTER 1: Explain clearly what has gone wrong. 2: Give sufficient data if necessary. 3: Motivate prompt action. 4: Specify clearly what adjustment you would consider fair. 5: Address the letter to a senior officer of the organization
  55. 55. Complaint/claim letter sample • [Your Address] [Your City, State, Zip Code] • [Date] • [Name of Contact Person] [Title] [Company Name] [Street Address] [City, State, Zip Code] • Dear Manager • RE: COMPLAINT ABOUT FAULTY TELEVISION CABINET PURCHASED AT CABINET WORLD ON 15 DECEMBER 2012 • I am unhappy with the quality of a television cabinet I bought at 5 Street on 15 December and I am writing to seek a replacement. • The cabinet doors do not open and shut properly and the stain on the cabinet is uneven, with one half darker than the other. The cabinet was delivered on 30 December and I noticed this problem as soon as I unpacked it from the box. • I have attached a photocopy of my receipt as proof of purchase. • I would like to have this problem fixed quickly please. If I do not hear from you within 10 days, I will lodge a formal complaint with Consumer Affairs in my state. • You can contact me on 1234 5678 during working hours or after hours on 123 456 789 to discuss this matter further. • Yours sincerely, • Jane Brown
  56. 56. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter Job Application it is written to apply for a job position, admission in college etc. • GUIDELINES FOR JOB APPLICATION LETTER 1: Personal details. 2: Educational details. 3: Training its nature and duration. 4: Experience – organization in which you worked, nature of duties and duration. 5: Other accomplishments – prizes and awards won, research paper and books published. 6: References.
  57. 57. 49 Broome Avenue Nottingham NG2 3PJ Tel: 011 24567890 2 June 2013 Mr --------------- Human Relations Manager Temple Street London SE1 4LL Dear Mr ____________ APPLICATION FOR THE POST OF MANAGER (MARKETING) I am interested in applying for this post as advertised in the ‘The Times of India dated 12 March 2013. I have graduated from Sharda University with a degree in Business Management. I am keen to join a progressive company such as yours (name of the company). My full particulars are mentioned in my enclosed Curriculum Vitae. I shall be grateful if you could kindly consider my application/candidature to. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely niaz sahil enc
  58. 58. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter • Sales Letter Sales Letter , in simple words, is an advertisement to sell products or services. The main aim of sales letter is to advertise your product in front of the customers or clients . The sales letter explains the good features of the service you are providing. GUIDELINES FOR SALES LETTER • 1: Get attention from attractive opening. 2: Arouse interest in the product. 3: Present reader benefit information. 4: Close with a clincher sentence. 5: Mention about enclosures if added.
  59. 59. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter • ADJUSTMENT LETTER Adjustment letter is a reply to a claim letter. It should not be sent in a moment of excitement or anger. Take sometime to restore to one’s usual self before writing such letter. • GUIDELINES FOR ADJUSTMENT LETTER 1: Convey good news first. • 2: Explain why things went wrong. 3: Give additional information for the same product. 4: Send new sales material about other product in which the customer might be interested. 5: Close the letter, emphasizing the action to be taken by customer. 6: Address the letter to the claimant by name.
  60. 60. Kinds/TYPES of Business Letter Order Letter • Letters written by a buyer to the seller giving the order to purchase the goods is called order letter. 5.Recovery Letter • The letter written by the seller for collection of money for the goods supplied to the buyer