TUOS = transmission use of system charge. Calculated from things such as revenue and amount of wind on system.This model was used to cost a base case (hedgehog) and 9 different cases - which were simply staggered increases in cable capacity starting from all cables being 500MW in size (Case 1) right up to the cables being designed for maximum power flow (Case 9).
In summary, shown here are the cases 1-9 in increasing order, where cable capacity has been systematically added. It simply highlights that with a small grid comes high grid utilisation, but high wind curtailment. And conversely, with a fully developed grid comes lower grid utilisation but zero wind curtailment.
Shown here by the pink line, is the TUOS charge for Case 9 decreasing (on the y-axis) as the amount of power flowing on the system increases (on the x-axis), versus the constant grid usage and TUOS charge of the Base Case.The results show that the Supergrid only has to increase its generating capacity factor by 11% in order to be cost-competitive with the Base Case. There are many avenues by which to accomplish this, and it is not unrealistic to think that if the grid is there, and the market is there, then the pathway between the two will be used.
Offshore Cabling - European Supergrid
Offshore CablingBremen – 26th March 2012European SupergridJoe CorbettHead of Technical Services
Drivers for Change Biomass Waste 2% 1%• GHG Reduction Oil Wind 3% 3% Coal• Energy Security Hydro 15% 26%• Sustainability• Economic Development Gas 24% Nuclear 26% Europe Electricity Fuel Mix 2008 Source: IEA
Debate ?• Remove Coal North Azerbaijan Kazakhstan• Nuclear Debate S. & Cent. America 1% 2% America 0%• Increase Renewables 1%• Secure Supplies• Invest in Transmission Western Europe 35% RussianConstraints Federation 33%• Regulation• Public Opposition • Onshore Wind Middle East • Overhead Lines 8% Africa Turkmenistan 15% 2% Uzbekistan Europe Gas Sources 2010 Source: BP 3%
Consensus• Invest in Transmission• Renewable Generation • Offshore Wind • Interconnection • Demand Side Management • Storage• Vision Climate Foundation Roadmap – 60% RE Vision Drives Plans. Not Vice Versa
Developing SupergridA Technical Road Map in Three Phases(Friends of the Supergrid – Technical Working Group)Today – 2015 2015 – 2020 After 2020(Supergrid Preparation Phase) (Supergrid Phase 1) (Supergrid Phase 2) ● Renewable energy starts ● Further development of far ● The system integration process replacing older coal fired shore bulk power wind parks is continued leading to a power plants and nuclear (e.g. (some 1,000 MW) European wide overlay grid. Germany) ● Phasing out of coal fired and ● The overlay grid, mainly based ● Large scale wind parks become nuclear power plants on DC, is built to interconnect connected (500...1,000 MW) continuous wind parks and pumped hydro near shore using AC; storages in the North as well as ● Balancing generation and load large scale solar power plants in far shore using DC calls for stronger system the South with the European ● The existing transmission integration on a European level load centres. system reaches its ● To achieve the required ● Trans-continental power limits, planning is underway for flexibility of power flows and transmission is planned to system strengthening and facilitate power connect to the solar power expansion trading, offshore wind parks are plants in the African desserts or connected to one another and to Eastern Europe and even Studies (examples): tapped into cross country links Asia. Offshore Grid, Climate Foundation 2050 Road ● A common European Grid Code Map, North Seas Countries is developed providing a basis Offshore Grid, 2050 Electricity for pan-continental system Highways planning 12
Supergrid Technology Development(Friends of the Supergrid – Technical Working Group)Today – 2015 2015 – 2020 After 2020(Supergrid Preparation Phase) (Supergrid Phase 1) (Supergrid Phase 2) ● Increased power ratings for ● DC cables with extruded ● Further Development of MI and VSC (1,000 MW at 320 kV DC) insulation >320 kV in operation MI-PPL Cables ● Demonstrators for DC side ● MI-PPL 600kV cable in operation ● HVDC cables with new extruded fault clearing (e.g. DC Circuit insulation compounds in Breakers) ● MI >500kV in operation operation ● DC 320 kV cables with ● Development of new extruded ● Superconducting cables extruded insulation in insulation compounds for HVDC operation at different onshore cables ● DC GIL and offshore projects (500 MW per cable) ● System for fast selective fault ● DC/DC converter detection in HVDC networks ● DC cables with extruded insulation >320 kV developed ● DC side selective fault clearing and system reconfiguration ● MI-PPL 600kV (1.1GW per cable) developed and higher ● Hierarchical control architecture voltages in development for integrated AC and DC Grid in ● MI >500 kV cable developed Europe ● AC GIL in operation ● Demonstrators for DC/DC Converter ● Standardization work for HVDC grids in CIGRÈ, CENELEC started 13
Cost - Phase 1● Offshore Wind ● 25-30 GW 2020 in the North Sea (UK, Germany, Belgium)● UK Network Congested● North Germany – High Wind Penetration● Hydro balance capability
Financial Model for Phase 1● Transmission Use Of System (TUOS) charge calculated for various cases ● Debt/Equity ratio of 85/15 ● O&M ● Losses (assumed to be 20%) ● Blended IRR of 17% ● Assumed Phase 1 construction time of 10 years and lifetime of 40 years
Grid Usage, TUOS ChargeTUOS (€/MWh) 45 40 35 30 25 Base Case TUOS 20 Case 9 TUOS 15 10 5 0 44% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% Case 9 Energy Yield Increasing (%)
Pre-requisites for Supergrid(Friends of the Supergrid – Technical Working Group) Technical Non - Technical FACTS ! international harmonization of grid codes and transmission LCC for bulk power transmission investments VSC for Multiterminal systems ! international harmonized regulatory procedures Supernode for integrating separate HVDC links ! methods to share cross-border renewable subsidiary schemes ! multivendor and multi-stakeholder revenue models 18
Cable Supply Chain Offshore wind● Onshore Solar● 27,000 km Hydro● Offshore● 10,000 km Friends of the Supergrid 19
Thank You Phase 0 – 2015-2020 Phase 1 – 2020+Friends of the Supergrid 20