SIR Niamat


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SIR Niamat

  1. 1. Niamat ullahStudent of Post Rn BSN
  2. 2. Organic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry: The chemistry of carbon and carbon-based compoundsOrganic Chemistry in everyday life:Smells & tastes: fruits, chocolate, fish, mintMedications: Aspirin, Tylenol, Decongestants, SedativesAddictive substances: Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol, NarcoticsHormones/Neurotransmitters: Adrenaline, EpinephrineFood/Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamins
  3. 3. Functional Group A part of a large molecule; composed of an atom or group of atom that has characteristics chemical behavior Family Name Alkane Alkene Aromatic Alcohol Ether
  4. 4. Functional group Functional groups are attached to the carbon backbone of organic molecules. They determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of molecules. Functional groups are far less stable than the carbon backbone and are likely to participate in chemical reactions. Six common biological functional groups are hydrogen, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, ph osphate, and methyl
  5. 5. Hydrocarbon FunctionalGroups ❍ Hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and carbon ❍ The hydrocarbon functional groups include  Alkanes  Alkenes  Alkynes  Aromatics
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONCOMPOUNDS HYDROCARBONS contain only C and H atoms AROMATIC ALIPHATIC Hydrocarbons must hydrocarbons contain a BENZENE ring SATURATED UNSATURATED hydrocarbons hydrocarbons contain C–C and C–H contain at least 1 C–C single bonds only multiple bond (ALKANES) ALKENE ALKYNE contains the contains the C=C functional group C≡C functional group
  7. 7. Remember!GROUP 14 Carbon needs FOUR bonds 15 Nitrogen needs THREE bonds 16 Oxygen needs TWO bonds 17 Fluorine needs ONE bond
  8. 8. Alkanes ❍ Alkanes are the simplest functional group ❍ An older name for alkanes is paraffins ❍ The functional group is the C-C single bond ❍ Example CH4 (methane) Simplest Alkane each Carbon (ethane) has TETRAHEDRAL geometry CH3—CH3
  9. 9. Normal (Straight Chain) Alkanesmethane CH4 ethane CH3CH3propane CH3 -CH2 -CH3 bond-line structures (molecular graphs) butane CH3 -CH2-CH2 -CH3 or CH3 -(CH2)2-CH3pentane CH3 -CH2-CH2-CH2 -CH3 hexane CH3 -CH2-CH2- CH2 -CH2 -CH3
  10. 10. Alkyl Groups (“stick-on”groups) ❍ If a hydrogen is removed from an alkane, it leaves an “alkyl group” ❍ Alkyl groups are “stick-on” groups that can be attached to larger molecules ❍ Alkyl groups are named by replacing “-ane” on the alkane name with “-yl” methyl ethyl n-propyl generic carbon group R n-propyl isopropyl cyclopropyl
  11. 11. Examples ethane an ethyl group ethyl chloridean alkane an alkyl group
  12. 12. Alkenes❍ Functional Group C=C double bond❍ Generic Formula❍ Example CH2=CH2 ethene
  13. 13. Alkynes ❍ Functional Group C C triple bond ❍ Generic Formula R—C R’ R’ means that it can be a different alkyl group than R ❍ Example H —C C—H ethyne acetylene
  14. 14. Aromatics (aka Arenes) H H C H❍ Functional Group C C C C H C H H benzene ring (C6H6)❍ Example CH3 toluene (methylbenzene)
  15. 15. Alkyl Halides (or Haloalkanes) ❍ Functional Group a halogen (Cl, Br, I) generically, a halogen is “X” ❍ Generic Formula R-X ❍ Example CH3-I methyl iodide
  16. 16. Alcohols ❍ Functional Group OH (hydroxyl group) ❍ Generic Formula R-OH ❍ Example CH3CH2-OH ethanol
  17. 17. Amines❍ Functional Group N R 2❍ Generic Formula R N R 1 3 CH3NH2❍Example methylamine
  18. 18. Carbonyl Functional Groups❍ A carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen is a carbonyl group O C❍ The carbonyl functional groups include Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic Acids Esters Amides
  19. 19. Ketones O❍ Functional Group C carbonyl O❍ Generic Formula R C R O❍ Example CH3 C CH 3 propanone acetone
  20. 20. Aldehydes O❍ Functional Group C H terminal carbonyl O❍ Generic Formula R C H O❍ Example CH3 C H ethanal acetaldehyde
  21. 21. Carboxylic Acids O C OH❍ Functional Group carboxyl carbonyl + hydroxyl O❍ Generic Formula R C OH O CH C OH❍ Example 3 ethanoic acid acetic acid
  22. 22. Ethers ❍ Functional Group oxygen bridge ❍ Generic Formula R-O-R′ ❍ Example CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3 diethyl ether “ether”
  23. 23. Amides O R C N R❍ Generic Formula 1 2 R 3 O O H N CH C N CH C OH 2 2 2 H❍ Example a small protein
  24. 24. References Organic chemistry and Experimental Organic Chemistry lab , Freeman Own teaching experience