Wk 1 mest 3 representation


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Wk 1 mest 3 representation

  1. 1. INTRO TO MEST 3 Review : Representation & Ideology
  2. 2. •Theory tests •Progress updates on individual case studies •Terminology tests •File checks •‘What in the world…?’ quizzes and discussion GETTING STARTED
  3. 3. •Annotated research •Media Glossary •Notes on relevant theories •Relevant images •Bibliography •Scrapbook! CASE STUDY
  4. 4. •It is vital as a media student to keep up to date with national and global events and issues as well as being informed about social, cultural and political news. •10 minute discussions (Hint:tests!!!) at the start of the lesson •Score chart ‘What in the world…?’
  5. 5. •Body of British hostage given to Iraq authorities •Behind the music: The YouTube war is over – but at what cost? •Brown faces scrutiny on plans for young jobless •Helmand poppy farming falls by a third •Manchester duo deny plot to copy Columbine massacre •Pressure grows on government in row over Megrahi •Channel 4 to launch 'creative overhaul' as it axes ********? ‘What in the world…?’
  6. 6. The body of a third British hostage in Iraq was today delivered to Iraqi officials in an apparent step closer to freedom for the only one of five kidnapped Britons now thought to be alive, the computer programmer Peter Moore. The Iraqi army and a security company retained by the British embassy received the remains around midday. The body is believed to be that of either Alec Maclachlan, from Llanelli, Wales, or Alan McMenemy, from Dumbarton, Scotland. The families of both men were told in August that they had almost certainly been killed. ‘What in the world…?’ Body of British hostage given to Iraq authorities • Remains of third hostage not yet formally identified • Only one of five kidnapped men is thought to be alive
  7. 7. YouTube/Google have finally come to an agreement with PRS, but don't expect to find out the details any time soon. Access all areas … the big names are back on YouTube. Photograph: David J. Green/Alamy After long, drawn-out negotiations, PRS for Music and YouTube have finally come to an agreement over rates. It's good news for British music fans, since YouTube's blocking of premium music videos on their site will now be lifted. What it means for songwriters financially is still a mystery however, since the agreement is covered by a Non-Disclosure Agreement. ‘What in the world…?’ Behind the music: The YouTube war is over – but at what cost?
  8. 8. Brown faces scrutiny on plans for young jobless Conservatives demand details on pledge to create 85,000 opportunities for young unemployed Gordon Brown was pressed yesterday to give fresh details of measures he said would create an extra 85,000 jobs and training opportunities for young people. The prime minister claimed more than 150 employers, including Royal Mail, Centrica and Morrisons, will provide apprenticeships, work or training. He said the deal meant that any unemployed person aged 18 to 24 will be given an opportunity of a job or training or education within 10 months of going on the dole from April 2010, rather than within 12 months of losing a job as previously promised. ‘What in the world…?’
  9. 9. Helmand poppy farming falls by a third • UN hails success as UK troops tackle drug networks • Opium output falls slower as farmers increase yield Britain's anti-drugs campaign in Helmand has made its first major breakthrough, according to UN figures released today that show poppy cultivation in the Afghan province fell by a third this year. After years of costly struggle against Helmand's entrenched networks of drug dealers the province has recorded a dramatic drop in opium poppy growing, thanks in large part to farmers switching crops to cash in on high wheat prices. ‘What in the world…?’
  10. 10. Manchester duo deny plot to copy Columbine massacre Two teenage loners plotted a massacre at their own school to murder teachers and pupils before killing themselves on the 10th anniversary of the Columbine shootings, a court heard . Matthew Swift, now 18, and his friend, Ross McKnight, 16, both from Denton, Greater Manchester, planned to bomb a shopping centre and then go on a killing spree at Audenshaw high school, a jury at Manchester crown court was told. Swift was a former pupil at the school while McKnight, his friend, still attended the school in year 11. ‘What in the world…?’
  11. 11. Pressure grows on government in row over Megrahi Downing Street approved decision to include man convicted of Lockerbie bombing in prisoner transfer agreement with Libya, report claims Downing Street today came under further pressure to explain the circumstances surrounding the release of the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombing amid reports that a decision that could have paved the way for him to serve his sentence in Libya was approved by No 10. ‘What in the world…?’
  12. 12. Channel 4 to launch 'creative overhaul' as it axes Big Brother Broadcaster to invest extra £20m in drama and overhaul its programming line- up as dropping of Big Brother frees up airtime ‘What in the world…?’ Channel 4 said today that it will use the axing of Big Brother for the "most fundamental creative overhaul" in its 27-year history, with measures including an extra £20m a year for drama. The broadcaster is pitching the axing of the long-running reality show, which has provided the backbone of Channel 4's schedule for the best part of a decade, as a chance for creative renewal, with an overhaul of the programming lineup and a refocusing on its public service broadcasting remit. Channel 4's decision to scrap Big Brother after next year's Celebrity version and the 11th main summer series will free up 200 hours of peak-time airtime from 2011 on the main network and digital entertainment service E4
  13. 13. You have already encountered representation during your AS study and will understand that it is a difficult concept. Representation can be understood as how groups, events, places and experiences are represented in media texts. It can be a depiction or description of something, someone or an event. It may involve symbolising or standing in for what is being represented, for example, red roses or hearts are used to symbolise love and romance. REVISING REPRESENTATION
  14. 14. There are a number of factors to consider in trying to understand why representations are constructed as they are; a necessary element of A2 Level study. Although these factors are often inter-related they can be grouped as: •The genre and the audience of specific media texts •The creators of the text, their institution and the medium they use •The cultural, political and social context in which the text is produced TEXTS AND CONTEXTS
  15. 15. Understanding the context in which media texts are produced includes keeping up to date with and understanding the current media debates and issues that are taking place in both the popular media and the academic study of media. Looking at the media supplement of the Guardian newspaper on Monday’s or reading the online version from the Guardian’s website are good ways of doing this. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  16. 16. Try to build up a file of extracts or printouts, or make notes of any of the following areas: •Changes in media technology and the digital revolution •Debates about regulation and censorship of the media •Any moral panics about the media and within the media •Globalisation •Debates about the effects of media on its audience •Debates about news values utilised in media •Changes in the ownership and control of any media institutions. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  17. 17. REFLECTIVE VIEW : A reflective view of representation suggests that while the media does reflect reality, it also mediates it through the media language and narrative to give a certain perspective. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  18. 18. CONSTRUCTIONIST VIEW : The constructionist view of representation is a more complex understanding of representation. You have already encountered this approach at AS. This approach suggests that our understanding or knowledge of the world is constructed by representations, found in a range of media texts utilising media language and narrative. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  19. 19. Sometimes a constructionist approach is clear to see, for example, the British media coverage of the final Rugby World Cup match in Paris in October 2007 focused on the penalties, the ‘disallowed try’ and how ‘bravely or impressively’ the England team played. This version was constructed through the media process of representation. The South African media naturally, focused on the positive aspects of South Africa’s game – portraying a different version of reality to a different audience. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  20. 20. Representations are influenced by the cultural, political and social contexts in which they are produced. A reflective approach to representations will see media representations as reflecting the values, ideologies and political and cultural concerns of a particular historical moment. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  21. 21. A similar debate around whether media simply responds to changes in cultural, social and political environments, or in fact influences those changes can be framed around the women’s magazine Cosmopolitan. The magazine remodelled itself in 1965 to become a more sexually aware and ‘sassy’ publication in line with changing attitudes to sexuality and the beginnings of the feminist movement. Was this change a reflection of the cultural attitudes of the era or did it contribute to changing those attitudes? ADDRESSING ISSUES
  22. 22. Task 1: Think about how the types of media texts, films in particular, that arose after the 9/11 tragedy. In what way were they a response to the events that happened? How were the texts influenced by the social and political concerns of the time they were produced? ADDRESSING ISSUES
  23. 23. Example Text : Ladder 49 ADDRESSING ISSUES
  24. 24. Both reflective and constructionist perspectives on representation are concerned with power. A reflective approach focuses upon the relationship between texts and reality and the way in which reality may be distorted or changed in the interests of powerful groups. A constructionist approach is concerned with who has the power to ensure that their versions of reality is the accepted and dominant one. ADDRESSING ISSUES
  25. 25. Task 2: Analyse the following adverts in terms of the representations constructed within it. 1. Who or what is being represented? How are they being represented? Use the key concepts to help you deconstruct the text. 2. How might you apply the Reflective View to this advert? 3. How might you apply the Constructionist View to this advert? 4. Why do you think the representations have been constructed in this way? 5. Who does this construction / value message benefit and why? ADDRESSING ISSUES
  26. 26. ADDRESSING ISSUES  Bisto Advert  Conservative Party Political Broadcast  US Army Recruitment ad
  27. 27. The beliefs represented about groups and institutions are given the force of being ‘naturalized’. They are endorsed by a discourse of common sense. Views about what is OK or not OK are endorsed by common sense. Opposing views are therefore made difficult, to the point of impossible, to conceive of. Representations feed back into these beliefs, to confirm or oppose them. This circularity creates dominant meanings, which in turn reinforce the dominant aspects of ideology. COMMON SENSE / NATURALIZATION
  28. 28. The NATURALIZATION of the beliefs behind representations is also part of ideology. It makes natural and common sense that which is neither of those things. Some will argue that being gay is unnatural. This is far from true: the study of any species reveals frequent examples of same-sex bonding. COMMON SENSE / NATURALIZATION
  29. 29. Some have tried to argue against immigrants and immigration on the grounds of ‘common sense’. But there is no common agreement on the sense of such racist views. There isn’t even any material sense to them, given the declining numbers in European populations and workforces. COMMON SENSE / NATURALIZATION
  30. 30. It can be said that ‘common sense’ and ‘naturalization’ of views are themselves manifestations of ideology-hegemony or the invisible exercise of power at work – ways of stopping people from seeing that representations are actually going against their interests. COMMON SENSE / NATURALIZATION
  31. 31. In what way can you apply the idea of ‘naturalization’ to this text? Do you think this is an example of hegemony? COMMON SENSE / NATURALIZATION
  32. 32. A set of ideas, or a world view, which produces a partial and selective version of reality often to protect the interests of powerful and social groups.   IDEOLOGY The idea of ideology serves the interests of those with power in society. It has its roots in the 19th century writings of Karl Marx, who argued that the property-owning classes were able to rule by ideas which represented as natural the class relationships of production, therefore justifying their own wealth and privilege.
  33. 33. IDEOLOGY The notion of ideology entails widely held beliefs or ideas, which may often be seen as ‘common sense’, legitimising or making widely acceptable certain forms of social inequality. In doing so, ideologies are able to disguise or suppress the real structure of domination and exploitation, which exists in society. The dominant ideology, in Marxist or marxian theory, is the set of common values and beliefs shared by most people in a given society, framing how the majority think about a range of topics, from art and science to politics and economics.
  34. 34. The media’s role may be seen as : •Circulating and reinforcing dominant ideologies; or •(less frequently) undermining and challenging such ideologies   **Example of how the media challenges and reinforces dominant ideologies – comparison between the representation of family life in 2 popular American TV series, The Waltons and The Simpsons.   IDEOLOGY
  35. 35. Close-knit extended family living in rural area Family managed to stay happy and overcome all of its problems through mutual love and support. Heroic male members (John/John Boy) who head the household THE WALTONS
  36. 36. Working class family, riven with chaos and conflict Selfish behaviour of male members (Homer / Bart) who are responsible for many of the problems THE SIMPSONS
  37. 37. The Simpson’s popularity was/is unsettling for many Americans, not used to the darker side of family life being a subject for comedy, (as reflected in the comment of US President Bush in 1992-‘I want families to be more like The Waltons and less like The Simpsons’). As such The Simpsons can be seen as a media text which is capable of subverting traditional values underpinning American institutions such as the family and education. However, it has to be noted that as a family The Simpsons do retain their unity, largely through the love and patience of Marge, the family matriarch. Q. Can you think of any other American TV series’ which you consider challenges or subverts traditional American values? In what ways do you think it is ideologically subversive ?   THE SIMPSONS
  38. 38. Example  Family Guy
  40. 40. Key questions and controversies regarding the relationship between mass media and sexual orientation include whether portrayals of homosexuality and bisexuality in the media: •Promote social progress by encouraging understanding of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals; promoting cultural tolerance toward them; and encouraging support for LGBT civil rights. •Undermine the moral fabric of society, for the same reasons. •Cause more people to identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, or cause more people to engage in those behaviours. •Promote or undermine stereotypes. •Are simply a reflection of existing social attitudes. REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  41. 41. Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world, such as in Denmark in 1933, in Sweden in 1944, in the United Kingdom in 1967, and in Canada in 1969, it was not until the mid-1970s that the gay community first began to achieve actual, though limited, civil rights in some developed countries. •A turning point was reached in 1973 when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, thus negating its previous definition of homosexuality as a clinical mental disorder. REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  42. 42. The bewildering death toll wrought by the AIDS epidemic at first seemed to slow the progress of the gay rights movement, but in time it galvanized some parts of the LGBT community into community service and political action, and challenged the heterosexual community to respond compassionately. •Major American motion pictures from this period that dramatized the response of individuals and communities to the AIDS crisis include An Early Frost (1985), Longtime Companion (1990), And the Band Played On (1993), Philadelphia (1993), and Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt (1989), the last referring to the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt, last displayed in its entirety on the Mall in Washington, D.C., in 1996. REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  43. 43. ‘Carry On…’ films 1958-78 Slapstick, farcical British comedy Overtly ‘camp’ male characters Homosexual in real life but played comic character The only way being ‘gay’ was acceptable to British society in 70’s and 80’s? REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  44. 44. ‘Camp’ characters Has representation in the media really moved on? REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  45. 45. ‘Queer as Folk’ & ‘Tipping the Velvet’ Controversial programming – looking at more ‘realistic’ representations of homosexuality Ratings winners, although criticised for explicit scenes Do these programmes demonstrate society’s acceptance and understanding? REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  46. 46. •Representations of homosexuality in advertising – still relying on ‘traditional’ images / ‘myths’ •Is homosexuality still seen as the ‘other’? •Naturalization? REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  47. 47. •Brokeback Mountain – Ang Lee (2006) REPRESENTATIONS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
  48. 48. MEST 3-SECTION B Representation of Teenagers Representations of Liverpool