COMMUNICATION ABILITIES Types of Speech and Language Delays and Disabilities Niatalie G. Faulve
Types of Speech and Language Delays and DisabilitiesTwo Main Categories of Communication Disorders:1. Speech disorders are related to voice (quality, pitch loudness, resonance, duration) articulation ( speech sounds), and fluency ( rate and rhythm of flow)2. Language disorders are related to comprehension or use of spoken or written words. These skills are related to the reception of language.
Important Components in Evaluation of Communication Skills• General Behavior and Ability to Pay Attention-the child’s ability to make or maintain eye contact is observed-the child’s ability to pay attention to age- appropriate activities is noted, as are the levels of activity, distractibility, impulsiveness, and perseverance-the child’s frustration level when faced with a challenging task is also evaluated
Prelinguistic Skills ( Presymbolic)• Ability to pay attention to visual and auditory information• Ability to imitate gestures and sounds• Development of object permanence• Ability to take turns• Ability to understand that objects have intended purposes• Use of basic communicative gestures and the ability to associate a heard word with its meaningReceptive Language SkillsReceptive language refers to language comprehension.• Understanding vocabulary (words)• Understanding sentences and grammatical structures• Following directions• Understanding concepts
Expressive Language SkillsExpressive language refers to the language that the child producesPossible causes for language disabilities1. Hearing loss2. Mental retardation3. Autism4. Illness5. Abnormal brain development or brain injury6. Emotional disturbance7. Environmental deprivation
3 Parts of Expressive language• Expressive vocabulary- number and types of words a child has acquired• Syntax- word and sentence formation• Pragmatic development- the ability to use language socially
Articulation SkillsArticulation is the production of speech soundsTypes of Articulation ErrorsDistortion- unfamiliar sound productionSubstitution- incorrect sound is used within a wordOmission- sound is omitted within a wordAddition- sound is added within a wordVoiceSome aspects assessed formally and informally are the:Pitch- high or low frequencyVolume- loud or softQuality- hoarse or nasal
FluencyFluency problems, often referred to as stutteringordysfluency, are interruptions in the flow of speech.Oral-Motor SkillsIt relates to the development of the mouth andsurrounding area in terms of its structure andfunctionalityHearingPrimary means of learning to communicate for mostchildren
Play skillsIt is important for the speech-language pathologist toengage or observe children during play activities tobest understand their level of speech and languagedevelopment.Problem-Solving SkillsAs children become older, they should be able toanalyze things that they encounter in more complexways.
Importance of Early InterventionThe sooner the developmental problems areidentified, the sooner they may be addressed. Earlyintervention may result in more effective and shortertreatment.Speech and Language TherapyMany communication problems can be improved bytherapy. Speech and language therapy occurs withina wide variety of settings, ranging from an individualsession in a clinic or child’s home to a group sessionin a classroom.
Role of Team MembersThe collaboration between the therapist and theclassroom teacher. Collaboration means that the lessonsand activities are jointly planned and executed to fulfillboth professionals’ objectives.Augmentative CommunicationAAC ( Augmentative and alternative communication)-refers to the use of technological device or system inaddition to or in lieu of verbal communication.-includes gestural systems (sign language), low-techvisual systems (eye-gaze boards), and high-techcomputerized devices.
Eye-Gaze BoardsThese are often useful for children who do not usespeechPECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) is anaugmentative system designed to help childrenacquire functional communicationCommunication Boards are similar to eye-gaze boardsoften used for children with mental or physicaldisabilities that prevent the effective use of signlanguage or speech
High-Tech Devices include anything from a singleswitch to a complex computerized deviceFacilitated Communication when this method is used,a facilitator supports the child’s hand and arm,allowing the child to communicate by typing on akeyboardParents RoleParents need to communicate to their childrenverbally and non-verbally, that therapy is a positiveexperience
Methods Likely to Encourage Speech and Language Development• Make talking and conversation a positive experience• Talk, talk, and talk to the child about what they and others are doing• Play pretend and guessing games• Sing songs, and use nursery rhymes• Sort and classify things in the child’s environment
Methods That Discourages Language Development• Correcting speech or language errors by telling the child “No”, implying that the child did something wrong, or insisting that the child repeat a correct model.• Discussing any suspected speech or language problems in front of the child.• Withholding favorite things to make the child speak.• Placing unreasonable demands on the child such as insisting that they speak or perform in front of others• Interrupting the child.• Allowing others to tease or make fun of the child.