Rice Insects Taxonomy and Morphology: Personal Details of Some Old and New Foes Dr. Chris Carlton, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum LSU AgCenter, Dept of Entomology 9 to 9:45 am
Insects that we will deal with <ul><li>Beetles-rice water weevils, rice levee billbug, colaspis leaf beetles, lady beetles </li></ul><ul><li>True bugs-stink bugs, aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Moths-borer complex </li></ul><ul><li>Flies-leafminers </li></ul><ul><li>Mites-panicle rice mite </li></ul>
Beetles (order Coleoptera): adults Elytra completely covering flight wings Elytra partially exposing flight wings Thorax Abdomen Elytra Head Beetles of the World 1. Lawrence et al. 1999. Copyright CSIRO 1999.
Beetles (order Coleoptera): larvae Head Thorax Abdomen Head Thorax Abdomen
Rice water weevils: family Curculionidae http://www.padil.gov.au/pbt/files/uall/38RWW.jpg http://www.aragriculture.org/images/insects /rice/ricewaterweevillarva.jpg Adult Larva Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel Lissorhoptrus simplex (Say) + 17 others in Central and South America
How to distinguish L. oryzophilus and L. simplex Have a look at this part of the hind leg (metatibia). L. oryzophilus L. simplex
What do rice water weevil larvae use to inflict feeding damage on rice? Like a combination of pointed, cutting, and gouging chisels. Mandibles Larval head, bottom view.
Rice water weevils cannot breath water, but live under it. How do they breath? Like a can opener + scuba gear, sorta. Larval spiracle used to access air pockets inside stem.
Rice levee billbug: family Curculionidae Sphenophorus spp. At least nine species occur in Louisiana. Species identification is important.
Colaspis leaf beetles: family Chrysomelidae Adult Larva
Their respective male sex organs (aedeagus). Colaspis louisianae Blake Colaspis brunnea (F.) Distinguishing Colaspis species
Colaspis feeding damage in Louisiana rice seems to mainly be caused by C. louisianae
And now for some good news, lady beetles: family Coccinellidae What people usually think of…
… but a lot of lady beetles are quite small and drab in appearance Diomus terminatus (Say)
… and are important as natural control agents of aphids. What is this Diomus larva doing to consume the aphid? Photo series, M. Ferro and W. Akbar Mandible
+ + Piercing body wall, injecting digestive fluids, sucking down liquified contents… Like a combination of tongs, a syringe, and a shop vac.
http:// animals.howstuffworks.com/.../printable Typical fly adult Typical fly larva, maggot http:// www.fishing-hotspot.co.uk/fishing-with-maggots/ Mosquito larva, also a kind of fly Head Thorax Abdomen
<ul><li>South American rice miner: family Ephydridae </li></ul>Hydrellia wirthi Korytkowski Adult Larva with damage Egg
Like these swan-necked mortise chisels, sorta.
Mites (Acarina): very different from insects <ul><li>8 legs, not 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Body not divided into head, thorax, and abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Mouthparts completely different…chelicerate no mandibles </li></ul><ul><li>More closely related to spiders, ticks and scorpions </li></ul>http:// bugsinmybed.com/mite-biology.php
Rice panicle mite: family Tarsonemidae Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley mites Male Female
http:// keys.lucidcentral.org/.../Mite_Glossary.htm Drill + syringe on a minute (cellular) level
J. Saichuk mites Brown discoloration of sheath
<ul><li>Taxonomic services: how you can help us help you </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and classification: the FIRST step in dealing with pest problems </li></ul><ul><li>We rely of first responders to document new pests and pest outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>The first responder’s toolkit </li></ul>Your local taxonomist, always cheerful and ready to help
The first responder’s toolkit Specimen vials/bottles/ziplocks Labeling supplies Field notebook Preservative: ethanol Knife w/scissors, handlens
A digital camera is also quite useful <ul><li>Images rapidly transmittable </li></ul><ul><li>Live color shots often valuable clues in identification </li></ul><ul><li>Associated damage easy to document </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to be a great photographer </li></ul>
Accurate, precise data are essential, at minimum… <ul><li>State and parish or county </li></ul><ul><li>General location (e.g., distance/direction to nearest town) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific location, GIS coords. if available! </li></ul><ul><li>Crop and specific location on plant or other habitat information (e.g., assoc. with damage) </li></ul><ul><li>Date of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Name of collector </li></ul>
Take home messages <ul><li>Taxonomists and diagnosticians need your help in early detection of pests and pest outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized methods are often necessary to correctly identify species and inform appropriate responses </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanics of feeding and nature of damage differ greatly among different insect groups and even between stages </li></ul>
Acknowledgments and Sources <ul><li>Thanks to Natalie Hummel, staff and students at the LSAM and the LSU AgCenter for paying the bills. </li></ul><ul><li>Images by CEC, AgCenter, or online sources, as indicated in small print. </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana State Arthropod Museum http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/ </li></ul><ul><li>Identification service help page: http://entomology.lsu.edu/lsam/public.htm </li></ul>