IntroductionBringing change in a planned manner is the primeresponsibility of all managers who are forwardlooking. Planned change aims to prepare thetotal organization to adapt the significantchanges in the organization’s goals & direction.“Planned change is deliberate design &implementation of a structural innovation, a newpolicy or goal, or a change in operatingphilosophy, climate or style”.Planned change attempts at all aspects of theorganization which are closely interrelated;technology, task, structure, people.
Technology related changeTechnology refers to the sum total of knowledgeproviding ways to do things. It may includeinvention & techniques which affect the way ofdoingthings, ie., designing, producing, distributingproducts. Technology related changes mayinclude: Changing problem solving & decision makingprocedures Introduction of automated data processingdevices
Task related changesTechnology related changes determine the typesof tasks that may be number of ways rangingfrom job simplification to job enrichment. Taskrelated changes must focus on High internal work motivation High quality work performance
Structure related changesStructural changes redefined nature ofrelationships among various organizationalpositions & may include: Changing the no. of hierarchical levels Changing one form of organization to anotherform Changing span of management Changing line staff & functional authority
People related changesChanges of any type as pointed out ie.,technology, task & structural require changesin people in a organization. These changesmay be of two types; ie., skills & behavior.For example, If there is a change in technologyfrom manual to automated, it requires differenttypes of skills in the operators as compared tothe previously used skills.
Process of plannedchangeManagement of organizational change is a complex process.Major organizational change requires considerable planning.The change is successful if it is taken in planned way whichproceeds in a sequential form.Identifying need for changeElements to be changedPlanning for changeAssessing change forcesAction for change
Identifying need for changeThe 1st basic step in planned change is toidentify when change in organization isrequired because change for the sake ofchange may produce much strongerresistance while useful & necessary. Thoughthere are various external forces necessitatingchange in an organization.
Elements to be changedWhat elements of the organization should bechanged will largely decided by need & objectivesof change.While the process of the identification of change willprovide clue why change should take place, thisstage takes the analysis further by diagnosing theproblems caused because of which the change isnecessary.For example, declining profit may require changebut does not specify what elements are to bechanged. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnosethe factors which are responsible for declining
Planning for changeAt this stage, managers should plan about howthe change can be brought in the light.Planning for change includes who will bringchange, when to bring change, & how to bringchange.
Assessing change forcesIn a group process, there are some forces favoring change & someopposing it to maintain equilibrium. In a situation, there are bothdriving & restraining forces which influence any change that mayoccur. Driving forces are those which affect a situation by pushing itin a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change & keep it go.Restraining forces act to restrain change or to decrease the drivingforces. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of driving forcesequals the sum of restraining forces.
Action for changeActions for change comprise three stages: Unfreezing Changing RefreezingUnfreezing is the process in which a person casts aside his oldbehavior which might be inappropriate, irrelevant, orinadequate to the changing demands of the situation.Changing is the stage at which the individual being changedlearn new behavior methods of working, newthinking, perception of new roles, etc.Refreezing means that what has been learned is integrated intoactual practice. At this stage, the individuals internalize thenew beliefs, feelings, & behavior learned during the changingphase. They adopt these elements as a permanent part oftheir behavior repertoire.