Types of test
(To be reported by Nhisa S. Tumanda, Group 1, 3 reporter, MTh 10:30-12:00)
After studying the report, you should be able to:
Identify the type of test and types/kinds of each types of test;
Know the guidelines in constructing the each type of test;
Know the advantages and disadvantages of each type of test.
Types of test:
True or False Test ─ in this type of test, the examinees determine whether the statement presented true or
Types of True or False Tests:
Simple True or False
Modified True and False-underlining the word(s) that make the statement wrong.
True or False with Correction (e.g. 5x3=8 Answer: False 5+3=8 or 5x3=15)
Cluster True or False (e.g. T if TRUE, F if FALSE)
True or False with Options (e.g. Write A if only the first statement is TRUE. Write B if only the second
statement is TRUE.)
Fact or Opinion-identifying if the statement is a FACT or OPINION.
Identifying Inconsistencies in a Paragraph
Advantages of True or False Test
It covers a lot content in a short span of time.
It is easier to prepare compared to multiple-choice and matching-type of test.
It is easier to score because it can be scored objectively compared to a test that depends on the
judgement of the rater(s).
It is useful when there are two alternatives only.
The score is easy to check and is more reliable than essay test.
Easy to construct.
Disadvantages of True or False Test
Limited only to low level of thinking skills such as knowledge and comprehension, or recognition or recall
Dependence of absolute judgement at the teacher’s criteria for the evaluation of the truth or falsity of
High probability of guessing (50%).
Guidelines in Constructing True or False Test
Avoid writing a very long statement.
Avoid trivial questions.
It should contain only one idea in each item except for showing the relationship between cause and
It can be used for establishing cause and effect relationship.
Avoid using negative or double negatives.
Avoid specific determiner such as “Never”, “always”, “all”, “none”, “some”, “may”, etc.
Avoid grammatical clues that could lead to a correct answer such as the article (a,an,the)
Avoid statement directly taken from the textbook.
Avoid arranging the statements in a logical order such as (TTTT,FFTT,FTFT)
Directions should indicate where or how the students should mark their answer.
The number of true items must be the same with the number of false items.
Construct items that measure important objectives.
Avoid using trick questions.
Approximately half of the statements should be false (if the answer is false).
Supply Type or Subjective Type of Test Items─ this type of test requires students to create and supply
their own answer or perform a certain task to show mastery of knowledge or skills. It is also known as
constructed response test.
Kinds of Subjective Type or Short Answer Test Items:
Completion Type or Short Answer Test─ an alternative form of assessment because the examinee
needs to supply or create the appropriate word(s), symbol(s) or number(s) to answer the question or
complete a statement rather than selecting the answer from the given options. Two ways of
constructing completion type or short answer type of test: question form or complete the statement
Advantages of a Completion or Short Answer Test
It covers a broad range of topic in a short span of time.
It is easier to prepare and less time consuming.
It can assess effectively the lower level of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
It reduces the possibility of guessing the correct answer because it requires recall.
It covers greater amount of contents than matching type test.
Disadvantages of a Completion or Short Answer Test
It is only appropriate for questions that can be answered with short responses.
There is a difficulty in scoring when the questions are not prepared properly and clearly.
It can assess only knowledge, comprehension and application levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive
It is not adaptable in measuring complex learning outcomes.
Scoring is tedious and time consuming.
Guidelines in Constructing Completion Type or Short Answer Test
The item should require a single word answer or brief and definite statement.
Be sure that the language used in the statement is precise and accurate in relation to the subject matter
Be sure to omit only key words.
Do not leave the blank at the beginning or within the statement. It should be at the end of the statement.
Use direct question rather than incomplete statement.
Be sure to indicate the units in which to be expressed when the statement requires numerical answer.
Be sure that the answer the student is requires to produce is factually correct.
Essay Items─ it consists of a few number of questions wherein the examinee is expected to
demonstrate the ability to recall factual knowledge, and organize and present his knowledge in logical
and integrated answer.
Types of Essay Items:
Extended Response Essays─ An essay test that allows students to determine the length
and complexity of the response.
Restricted Response Essays─ An essay item that places strict limits on both content and
the response given by the students.
Advantages of Essay Test
It is easier to prepare and less time consuming compared to other paper and pencil tests.
It measures higher-order thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation)
It allows students’ freedom to express individuality in answering the given question.
It reduces guessing answer compared to any objective type of test.
It presents more realistic task to the students.
It emphasizes on the integration and application of ideas.
Disadvantages of Essay Test
It cannot provide and objective measure of the achievement of the students.
It needs so much time to grade and prepare scoring criteria.
The scores are usually not reliable most especially without scoring criteria
It measures limited amount of contents and objectives.
Low variation of scores.
It usually encourages bluffing.
Guidelines in Constructing Essay Test Items
Construct essay question used to measure complex learning outcomes only.
Essay questions should relate directly to the learning outcomes to be measured.
Formulate essay questions that present a clear task to be performed.
An item should be stated precisely and it must clearly focus on the desired answer.
All students should be required to answer the same question.
Number of points and time spent in answering the question must be indicated in each item.
Specify the words, paragraphs or number of sentences for the answer.
The scoring system must be discussed or presented to the students.
Suggestions for Grading Essay Test (by Zimmaro)
Decide on a policy for dealing with incorrect, irrelevant, or illegal responses.
Keep scores of the previously read items out of sight.
The student’s identity should remain anonymous while his/her paper is being graded.
Read and evaluate each student’s answer to the same question before grading the next question.
Provide students with general grading criteria by which they will be evaluated prior to examination.
Use analytic scoring or holistic scoring.
Answer the test yourself by writing the ideal answer to it so that you can develop the scoring criteria from
Write your comments on their papers.
Matching-Type Test─ is similar to the multiple-choice test. In this kind of test, the examinee associates an
item in one column with a choice in the second column.
Types of Matching-Type Tests:
Perfect Matching- an option is the only answer to one of the items in column A.
Imperfect Matching- an option is the answer to more than one item in the column.
Sequencing Matching- requires the examinees to arrange things, steps, or events in chronological order.
Multiple Matching- requires the examinees to match the items in column A to B, then match the answers
from column B to column C and further match answers from column C to column D.
Advantages of the Matching-Type Test
The matching-type test is simple to construct and score.
It reduces the effects of guessing, although the chance of guessing increases as the student progresses in
Disadvantages of the Matching-Type Test
It tends to ask students to associate trivial information.
Guidelines in Constructing Matching-Type Tests
If possible, the response list should consist of short phrases, single words, or numbers.
Use homogeneous options and items.
Have more options than the given items.
Arrange the options and items alphabetically, numerically or magnitudinally.
Limit the number of items within each set.
Place the shorter responses in column B.
Provide complete directions.
Place the list of options on the same page as the list of items.
Avoid specific determiners and trivial information that can help the students find the correct response
without any effort on their part.
Clearly explain the basis on which the match is to be made.
Suggestions for Measuring Complex Objectives with Matching-Type Tests
Match examples with terminologies.
Use novel pictorial materials.