7 clash of empires.

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PPT 10/18

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7 clash of empires.

  1. 1. CLASH OF EMPIRES
  2. 2. <ul><li>English population was far greater than French in America </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for coming to America </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish – to conquer </li></ul><ul><li>English – to establish settlements </li></ul><ul><li>French – to trade (furs) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>French gov’t wanted colonies as a line of defense against English </li></ul><ul><li>Along St. Lawrence River </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal </li></ul>
  4. 4. Search for Northwest Passage <ul><li>Jacques Marquette – priest </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Joliet – fur trader </li></ul><ul><li>Navigated from Lake Michigan down Miss. River – </li></ul><ul><li>not all way to Gulf </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>La Salle </li></ul><ul><li>used prior info – to Gulf </li></ul><ul><li>**Claimed all land drained by Miss R. for France </li></ul><ul><li>Returned north to plan another trip w/ settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Missed mouth of river, in TX </li></ul><ul><li>Built Ft. St. Louis (2 nd flag) </li></ul><ul><li>Murdered by own men </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reasons to settle mouth of Mississippi River <ul><li>Base of attack against Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Trading post for furs & ore </li></ul><ul><li>Keep English from taking control of Miss. River </li></ul><ul><li>1718 New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>*France controlled 2 access points to interior </li></ul><ul><li>St Lawrence River – Quebec & Montreal </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi River – New Orleans </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mississippi River
  8. 8. <ul><li>France increases tensions with Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Both England & France recruited Indian allies </li></ul><ul><li>England – Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>French – Algonquin & Huron </li></ul><ul><li>English population increases rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>not the French </li></ul><ul><li>French built forts around Ohio Valley </li></ul>
  9. 9. FRONTIER BRUTALITY
  10. 10. ALBANY PLAN OF UNION 1754 <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin called for colonies to unite for defense against Indians </li></ul><ul><li>1 st political cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>“ Join or Die” </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>***Colonists feared a central government </li></ul><ul><li>Meant giving up their independence </li></ul>
  12. 13. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR <ul><li>Virginia governor sent Geo. Washington to drive French from Ohio valley </li></ul><ul><li>Ft. Duquesne – Fr. fort at forks of Ohio River </li></ul><ul><li>Ft. Necessity – British fort – attacked by French </li></ul><ul><li>1 st battle of French & Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>*The defeat of Ft. Necessity cost the British their Indian allies </li></ul>
  13. 14. French Advantages <ul><li>Controlled more land in America </li></ul><ul><li>New France had a single gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>France sent ships & soldiers to fight </li></ul><ul><li>France could depend on loyal Indian allies </li></ul>
  14. 15. English Advantages <ul><li>More settlers than the French </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies along coast – easier to defend </li></ul><ul><li>English willing to fight to defend their homes </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>2 nd attempt to take Ft. Duquesne </li></ul><ul><li>General Edward Braddock > </li></ul><ul><li>Ft. Duquesne </li></ul><ul><li>French laid ambush </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of army killed </li></ul><ul><li>Braddock killed </li></ul><ul><li>Result: French kept control of Ohio Valley </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>1757 New prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>William Pitt – planned to win </li></ul><ul><li>Began winning back the forts </li></ul><ul><li>Ft. Duquesne taken, renamed </li></ul><ul><li>Ft. Pitt </li></ul>
  17. 18. BATTLE OF QUEBEC <ul><li>City on hill over St. Lawrence River </li></ul><ul><li>James Wolfe (Br) sneaked 4,000 troops during the night up the hill </li></ul><ul><li>Next a.m. great battle </li></ul><ul><li>French lost Quebec – </li></ul><ul><li>**turning point of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal was lost later </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH VICTORY! </li></ul>
  18. 19. Treaty of Paris 1763 <ul><li>Ended French & Indian War (also known as the 7 Years War) </li></ul><ul><li>Britain took: </li></ul><ul><li>Canada & all land east of Miss. River </li></ul><ul><li>Not New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Spain took: </li></ul><ul><li>All land west of Miss. River </li></ul><ul><li>and New Orleans </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Pioneers eagerly moved into the Ohio River Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Indians began to join together to resist the British </li></ul><ul><li>Pontiac’s Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Indians drove out British </li></ul><ul><li>British found it was hard to govern large amounts of land </li></ul>

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