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  • All of these depend on what mode of care you are using, and on how or when you get to use them
  • For the entire shift nurse takes care of pt. Initially occurred in ICU units Advantages – intensity of focus on the pt thru-out that shift Disadvantages – lack of communication and lack of continuity over time. Just meeting daily needs, not trying to make a plan and get them out
  • Everybody has a task. Norm in the US hospitals from late 1800’s til the end of WWII. There was a shortage of nurses at the time, so we put people in who can do things, like a team who went thru and checked dressings, a team that took vital signs, etc. Advantage – no role confusion. You knew what you were doing. This method is efficient and cheap. Disadvantage – client couldn’t identify who their caretaker was, because there were so many caretakers.
  • Group can be 10-20 pt’s to 4-5 nurses. Over each group of teams is a charge nurse. Has evolved into modular nursing (more of a spacial thing). Clients are grouped by a floor plan, happens a lot in ED’s. We’re in pod A, which has 10 beds, it’s intermediate care, and we’re in pod A all day. RN assigns work on team members expertise. Who’s good at what, what can this person do, and where do you want to put them. You’re accountable for delegating things to people who are trained to do them.
  • She would be assigned a group of pt’s (kind of like a nurse manager) and she’s responsible for them their entire hospital stay. Ponder thinks it sounds very challenging. Hallmark to this is that you have autonomy/accountability 24 hours a day. You make treatment decisions and what not
  • Also focus on containing health care costs first for the pt, then for the facility. Practicing case manamgement can also be- I get this pt and I check him and I consult all these specialists (like neurologist and social workers) about his condition and checking his discharge stuff and looking over everything. Sometimes hospitals don’t have specific case managers, but every nurse is expected to be their pt’s case manager…
  • A population with a costly disease, people who are on outpt dialysis. Focus is on the population. We want to provide optimal, cost effective care. By doing this we can actually do a lot of prevention (hopefully). Going to diabetic clinic and teaching them so we can hopefully prevent them from reaching the need for outpt dialysis.
  • Megginson offer three distinct meaning of the word discipline: Self-discipline Necessary condition of orderly behavior Act of training and punishing .
  • In self controlled discipline the employee brings her or his behavior in to agreement with the organizations official behavior code, ie the employee regulate their activities for the common good of the organization. As a result the human beings are induced to work for a peak performance under self controlled discipline. Is a managerial action enforces employee compliance with organization’s rules and regulations. ie it is a common discipline imposed from the top here the manager exercises his authority to compel the employees to behave in a particular way
  • The symptoms of indiscipline are change in the normal behaviour, absenteeism, apathy, go-slow at work, increase in number and severity of grievances, persistent and continuous demand for overtime allowance, and lack of concern for performance.
  • Organizing2

    1. 1. ORGANIZING Staffing and Scheduling MJCN2014
    2. 2. Staffing • Process of determining and providing the acceptable number and mix of nursing personnel to produce a desired level of care to meet the patient's demand. MJCN2014
    3. 3. Factors Affecting Staffing • The type, philosophy, and objectives of the hospital and the nursing service; • The population served and the kind of patient served, whether pay or charity; • The number of patients and severity of their illness • Availability and characteristics of the nursing staff, including education, level of preparation, mix of personnel, number and positions. MJCN2014
    4. 4. • Administrative policies. • Standards of care desired which should be available and clearly spelled out. • Layout of the various nursing units and resources available within the department • Budget MJCN2014
    5. 5. • Professional activities and priorities in non-patient activities • Teaching program or the extent of staff involvement in teaching activities. • Expected hours of work per annum of each employee. This is influenced by the 40=hour week law; and • Patterns of work schedule – traditional 5 days per week, 8 hours per day; 4 days a week, ten hours per day and three days off; or 3 ½ days of 12 hours per day and 3 ½ days-off per week. MJCN2014
    6. 6. PATIENT CARE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM • A method of grouping patients according to the amount of complexity of their nursing care requirements and the nursing time and skill they require. MJCN2014
    7. 7. Requirements • The number of categories into which the patients should be divided; • The characteristics of patients in each category; • The type and number of care procedures that will be needed by a typical patient in each category; and • The time needed to perform these procedures that will be required by a typical patient in each category.MJCN2014
    8. 8. Classification Categories • Level I – Self Care or Minimal Care Average amt of NCH/pt/day = 1.5 Ratio of Prof to NonProf = 55:45 MJCN2014
    9. 9. Classification Categories Level I-Self Care or Minimal Care -NCH 1.5/pt/day - Ratio 55:45 -Can take a bath on his own; feed himself; perform his own ADL. -For discharge pt; non-emergency, newly admitted don’t exhibit unusual s/s; - requires little treatment and observation Level II – Moderate Care or Intermediate Care -NCH 3/pt - Ratio 60:40 -Need some assistance in bathing, feeding, ambulating for short period. -Extreme s/s of illness must have subsided or have not yet appeared -May have slight emotional needs -v/s taking ordered 3x/shift; with IVF/BT; are semi- conscious and exhibiting some psychosocial or social problems; - periodic treatments and/or observations and /instructions MJCN2014
    10. 10. • Level II – Moderate Care or Intermediate Care Average NCH/pt/day = 3 Ration or Prof to NonProf = 60:$0 MJCN2014
    11. 11. Classification Categories Level III – Total, Complete or Intensive Care -NCM 6hrs/pt/day -Ratio 65:35 -Patient are completely dependent upon the nursing personnel. -They are provided complete bath, are fed, may or may not be unconscious, with marked emotional needs; with v/s monitoring more than 3x/shift -Maybe on continuous oxygen therapy, with chest or abdominal tubes -They require close observation at least every 30 minutes for impending hemorrhage, with hypo or hypertension and/ or cardiac arrhythmia MJCN2014
    12. 12. • Level III – Total, Complete or Intensive Care Average NCH/pt/day = 6 Ratio of Prof to NonProf = 65:35 MJCN2014
    13. 13. Classification Categories Level IV- Highly Specialized Critical Care -NCH 6-9 or more /pt/day - Ratio 70:30 or 80:20 -Need maximum level of nursing care with a ratio of 80 professionals to 20 non-professionals. -Needs continuous treatment and observation -With many medications, IV piggy backs; v/s monitoring every 15-30 minutes; hourly output. -There are significant changes in doctor’s orders MJCN2014
    14. 14. • Level IV – Highly Specialized Critical Care Average NCH/pt/day = 6-9 hours Ratio of Prof to NonProf = 70:30 or 80:30 MJCN2014
    15. 15. Categories of Level of Care of Patients: Nursing Care Hours/Pt/Day & Ratio of Prof-Non Prof Levels of Care NCH Needed Per Pt./Day Ratio of Prof to Non-Prof Level I – Self-Care or Minimal Care 1.50 5:45 Level II Moderate or Intermediate Care 3.0 60:40 Level III Total or Intensive Care 4.5 65:35 Level IV Highly Specialized or Critical Care 6.0 7 or higher 70:30 80:20 MJCN2014
    16. 16. Percentage of Nursing Care Hours Type of Hospital Minimal Care Moderate Care Intensive Care Highly Spcl Care Primary Hosp 70 25 5 - Secondary Hosp 65 30 5 - Tertiary Hosp 30 45 15 10 Spcl tertiary Hosp 10 25 45 20 MJCN2014
    17. 17. Nursing Care hours per patient/day according to classification of patients per units Cases/Patients NCH/Pt/Day Prof to Non Prof Ratio 1. General Medicine 3.5 60:40 2. Medical 3.4 60:40 3. Surgical 3.4 60:40 4. Obstetrics 3.0 60:40 5. Pediatrics 4.6 70:30 6. Pathologic Nursery 2.8 55:45 7. ER/ICU/RR 6.0 70:30 8. CCU 6.0 80:20MJCN2014
    18. 18. Computing for the number of Nursing Personnel Needed • Consider sufficient staff to cover all shifts, off-duties, holidays, leaves, absences and time for staff development programs. • R.A. 5901 – Forty-Hour Week Law MJCN2014
    19. 19. Total No. working-Non working days & hours of nursing personnel per year Rights & Privileges Given Each Personnel Per Year Working Hours Per Week 40 hours 48 hours 1. Vacation Leave 2. Sick Leave 3. Legal Holidays 4. Special Holidays 5. Special Privileges 6. Off-Duties as per R.A. 5901 7. Continuing Education Program Total Non-working Days per year Total working days per year Total working hours per year 15 15 10 2 3 104 3 152 213 1,704 15 15 10 2 3 52 3 100 265 2,120 MJCN2014
    20. 20. Relievers Needed - To compute for relievers needed, the following should be considered; 1. Average number of leaves taken each year------ 15 a. vacation 15 b. sick leave 5 2. Holidays -----------------------------------------------------12 3. Special Privileges as per CSC MC#6 s. 1996-------3 4. Continuing Educ. Prog. For professionals------------3 Total Average Leave-------33 MJCN2014
    21. 21. To determine the relievers needed - divide 33 by number of working days per year each employee served (whether 213 or 265) - result will be 0.15 per persons works for 40 hour/week - result will be 0.12 per persons works for 48 hour/week - multiply the computed reliever per person by the computed number of nsg personnel - this will give you the total number of relievers MJCN2014
    22. 22. Distribution by Shifts • 45% AM shift, 37 % PM and 18 % night MJCN2014
    23. 23. Staffing Formula To illustrate: Find the number of nursing according to levels of care needed. 1. Categorize the patients according to levels of care needed 250 pts x 0.30 = 75 pts needing minimal care 250 pts x 0.45 = 112.5 pts needing moderate care 250 pts x 0.15 = 37.5 pts needed intensive care 250 pts x 0.01 = 25 pts need highly specialized 250 nsg care MJCN2014
    24. 24. 2. Find the number of nursing care hours (NCH) needed by patients at each level of care per day. 75 pts x 1.5 (NCH needed at Level I) = 112.5 MCH/day 112.5 pts x 3 (NCH needed at Level II) = 337.5 NCH/day 37.5 pts x 4.5 (NCH needed at Level II) = 168.75 NCH/day 25 pts x 6 (NCH needed at Level IV) = 150 NCH/day Total 768.75 NCH/day 3. Find the total NCH needed by 250 patients per year. 768.75 x 365 (days/yr) = 280,593.75 NCH/year MJCN2014
    25. 25. 4. Find the actual working hours rendered by each nursing personnel per year. 8 (hrs/day) x 213 (working days/year) = 1,704 (working hours/year) 5. Find the total number of nursing personnel needed. a. Total NCH per year = 280,593.75 = 165 Working hrs/year 1,704 b. relief x total nsg. Personnel = 165 x 0.15 = 25 c. total nursing personnel needed 165 + 25 = 190 MJCN2014
    26. 26. 6. Categorize to professional and non-professional personnel ratio of prof to non-prof in a tertiary hospital is 65:35 190 x .65 = 134 professional nurses 190 x .35 = 66 nursing attendants 7. Distribute by shifts 124 nurses x .45 = 56 nurses on AM shift 124 nurses x .37 = 46 nurses on PM shift 124 nurses x .18 = 22 nurses on night shift Total 124 nurses 66 nsg attendants x .45 = 30 nsg. attendants on AM shift 66 nsg attendants x .37 = 24 nsg attendants on PM shift 66 nsg attendents x .18 = 12 nursing attendants on noc Total = 66 nursing attendants MJCN2014
    27. 27. Placement • Advantages –Fosters personal growth –Provides motivating climate for the employee –Maximizes productivity –Organizational goals have better chances of being met. MJCN2014
    28. 28. • Results of Inappropriate placement –Frustration –Poor quality of work –Reduced organizational efficiency –Rapid turn-over –Poor image of the agency MJCN2014
    29. 29. Factors to consider • Inherent in the employee • Past experience and training • Culture of the clientele • Decision-making skills • Communication skills MJCN2014
    30. 30. Advantages of proper placement • Adapt faster • Feet are lighter • A lot happier • Felt confident when supervised MJCN2014
    31. 31. Scheduling • A timetable showing planned work days and shifts for nursing personnel. MJCN2014
    32. 32. Factors considered in Making Schedules • Different levels of the nursing staff; • Adequate coverage for 24 hours, seven days a week; • Staggered vacations and holidays; • Weekends and long stretches of consecutive working days; • Evening and night shifts; and • Floating. MJCN2014
    33. 33. Assessing a scheduling system • Ability to cover the needs of the unit. • Quality to enhance the nursing personnel’s knowledge, training and experience. • Fairness to the staff • Stability • Flexibility MJCN2014
    34. 34. Types of Scheduling • Centralized Schedule • Decentralized Schedule • Cyclical Schedule MJCN2014
    35. 35. Advantages of Cyclical Schedule • It is fair to all • It saves time • Enables the employee to plan ahead for their personal needs • Scheduled leave are more stable • Productivity is improved. MJCN2014
    36. 36. Rotating Work Shifts • Common in most hospitals. MJCN2014
    37. 37. Assessing a Scheduling System 1. Ability to cover the needs of the unit 2. quality to enhance the nursing personnel's knowledge, training and experience 3. fairness to the staff – fair share of weekends, holiday offs, rotation patters for the whole year including assignment to “difficult” or “light” or “undesirable” units or shifts 4. stability – the schedule must be harmonized with their family or social activities of the nurse staff 5. flexibility – ability to handle changes brought by emergency leaves. MJCN2014
    38. 38. Make a schedule in a weekly or monthly basis and do cycle system with the staff under the area assigned for fairness and flexibility. MJCN2014
    39. 39. A one-week cyclical schedule Personnel S M T W T F S 7/3 Headnurse/Senior Nurse x x Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x 3/11 Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x 11/7 Staff Nurse x x Nsg. Att. x x Gen. Rel. 3/11; 11/7 S. nurse 3/11 3/11 11/7 x x 3/11 11/7 N. Att. 3/11 11/7 x 7/3 3/11 11/7 x MJCN2014
    40. 40. Organizing Patient Care MJCN2014
    41. 41. • What is our focus…… • Why are we here……. • ….patients now more than ever need reassurance that they are indeed the focus of the healthcare team - Joan Shinkus Clark MJCN2014
    42. 42. Traditional Modes of Care Delivery • Total Patient Care • Functional Nursing • Team and Modular Nursing • Primary Nursing • Case Management MJCN2014
    43. 43. • Care delivery modalities (modes) affect autonomy and job satisfaction. • Direct pt care functions are actually caring for pt. • Indirect pt care functions are like being able to self schedule, charting MJCN2014
    44. 44. Total Patient Care • Total patient care - nurses assume total responsibility for meeting all needs of assigned patients during their time on duty – ICU – Form of primary nursing MJCN2014
    45. 45. Functional Method • Functional nursing - work assignment by functions or tasks, such as passing medicine, doing dressing changes, giving baths, or taking vital signs • Assignment by function. MJCN2014
    46. 46. Team Nursing • Team nursing - a team of RNs, and aides under the supervision of one nurse, called the team leader MJCN2014
    47. 47. Primary Nursing • Primary nursing is an approach in which a nurse has responsibility and accountability for the continuous guidance of specific clients from hospital admission through discharge MJCN2014
    48. 48. Case Management • Case management in acute care hospital nursing has been defined as a system of client care delivery that focuses on the achievement of client outcomes within effective and appropriate time frames and resources MJCN2014
    49. 49. CASE MANAGEMENT SERVICE AREAS MJCN2014 Category Service Setting Acute Orthopedics, cardiovascular, critical care, high-risk perinatal, oncology, emergency department Subacute Skilled nursing centers, rehabilitation units Ambulatory Physician's office, clinics Long-term care Nursing homes, group homes, assisted-living facilities Insurance companies Health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), workers' compensation, Medicaid, Medicare Community Nurse-managed centers, home health agencies, urgent care centers, schools, rural settings
    50. 50. Disease Management • Common high-cost, high-resource utilization diseases • Population-based health care – Covered lives • Continuous health improvement MJCN2014
    51. 51. Job descriptions • It is a written statements, found in policy manuals that describe the duties and functions of the various jobs within the organization. • They outline the scope of authority, responsibility, and accountability involved in each position. MJCN2014
    52. 52. Job descriptions • It should provide 1. the broad general guidelines under which the individual will function 2. the basis for performance evaluation of the person working in that role MJCN2014
    53. 53. Contents of a Job Description • 1. Identifying Data • 2. Job Summary • 3. Qualification Requirements MJCN2014
    54. 54. Uses of Job Description • 1. For recruitment and selection of qualified personnel • 2. To orient new employees to their jobs • 3. For job placement, transfer or dismissal • 4. As an aid in evaluating the performance of an employee MJCN2014
    55. 55. Uses of Job Description • 5. For budgetary purposes • 6. For determining departmental functions and relationships to help define the organizational structure • 7. To serve as channel of communication.MJCN2014
    56. 56. Uses of Job Description • 8. For classifying levels of nursing functions according to skill levels required. • 9. To identify training needs • 10. As basis for staffing MJCN2014
    57. 57. Developing Job descriptions • Contents – Identifying data – Job summary – Qualification requirements – Job relationships – Specific and actual functions and activities MJCN2014
    58. 58. Uses of Job Description • For recruitment and selection of qualified applicants • To orient new employees to their jobs • For job placement, transfer or dismissal • As an aid in evaluating the performance of an employee MJCN2014
    59. 59. • For budgetary purposes; • For determining departmental functions and relationships to help define the organizational structure; • For classifying levels of nursing functions according to skill levels required; • To identify training needs; • As basis for staffing; and • To serve as channel of communication. MJCN2014
    60. 60. DISCIPLINE
    61. 61. MEANING The word “discipline” is derived from the Latin word “disciplina”, which means teaching, learning and growing.
    62. 62. TYPES OF DISCIPLINE 1. Self controlled discipline 2. Enforced Discipline
    63. 63. INDISCIPLINE:- Indiscipline means disorderliness, insubordination and not following the rules and regulation of an organization. 
    64. 64. Causes of indiscipline:- • Non-placement of the right person on the right job • Undesirable behaviour of senior officials. • Faulty evaluation of persons and situations by executives leads of favoritism. • Lack of upward communication. • Leadership which is weak, flexible, incompetent and distrustful.
    65. 65. • Defective supervision and an absence of good supervisors who know good techniques, who are in a position to appreciate critically the efforts or their subordinates. • Lack of properly drawn rules and regulations. • Workers’ personal problems, their fears, apprehensions, hopes and aspirations; and their lack of confidence in and their inability to adjust with their superior and equals. • Worker’s reactions to rigidity and multiplicity of rules and their improper interpretation. • Intolerably bad working conditions.
    66. 66. • Inborn tendencies to flout rules. • Absence of enlightened, sympathetic and scientific management. • Errors of judgement on the part of the supervisor or the top management. • Improper co-ordination, delegation of authority and fixing of responsibility. • Discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, sex, language, and place in matters of selection, promotion, transfer, placement and discrimination in imposing penalties and handling out rewards.
    67. 67. APPROACHES TO DISCIPLINE:- The different approaches to discipline include; • Human relation approach: In human relation approach the employee is. helped to correct his deviations • Human resources approach: Under the human resources approach, the employee is treated as resource and the act of indiscipline are dealt by considering the failure in the area of development, maintenance and utilization of human resources.
    68. 68. • Group discipline approach: The group as a whole sets the standards of discipline, and punishments for the deviations. The individual employees are awarded punishments for their violation under the group discipline approach. • Leadership approach: In this approach, every supervisor administers the rules of discipline and guides, trains and controls the subordinates regarding disciplinary rules.
    69. 69. • Judicial approach: In judicial approach, indisciplinary cases are dealt on the basis of legislation and court decisions. The Industrial Employment Act, 1946, to a certain extent, prescribed the correct procedure that should be followed before awarding punishment to an employee in India.
    70. 70. PRINCIPLES FOR MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE:- The most important principles to be observed in the maintenance of discipline have been outlined by Yoder, Heneman, Turnbull and Harold Stone. They are:  All the rules should be framed in co- operation and collaboration with the representatives of employees.  All the rules should be appraised at frequent and regular interval to ensure that they are, and continue to be, appropriate, sensible and useful.
    71. 71. Cont..  Rules should vary with changes in the working conditions of employees.  Rules should be uniformly enforced if they are to be effective.  Penalties for any violation of any rules should be clearly stated in advance.  A disciplinary policy should have as its objectives the prevention of any infringement rather than the simple administration of penalties; however it should be preventive rather than punitive.
    72. 72.  Extreme caution should be exercised to ensure that infringements are not encouraged.  If violations of a particular rule are fairly frequent, the circumstances surrounding them should be carefully investigated and studied in order to discover the cause or causes of such violations.  Recidivism must be expected. Some offenders would almost certainly violate rules more often than others. These cases should be carefully considered so that their causes may be discovered.  Definite and precise provisions for appeal and review of all disciplinary actions should be expressly mentioned in the employees’ handbook or collective agreements.
    73. 73. ASPECTS OF DISCIPLINE:- Positive aspect: Employees believe in and support discipline and adhere to the rules, regulations and desired standards of behaviour. Discipline takes the form of positive support and reinforcement for approved actions and its aim is to help the individual in moulding his behaviour and developing him in a corrective and supportive manner. This type of approach is called positive approach or constructive discipline or self-discipline.
    74. 74. Positive discipline takes place whenever the organizational climate is marked by aspect such as payment of adequate remuneration and incentives, appreciation of performance and reinforcement of approved personnel behaviour or actions etc. which will motivate employees to adhere to certain rules and regulations or exercise self- control and work to the maximum possible extent.
    75. 75. Negative aspect: Employees sometimes do not believe in and support discipline. As such, they do not adhere to rules, regulations and desired standards of behaviour. As such, disciplinary programme forces and constraints the employees to obey orders and function in accordance with set rules and regulations through warnings, penalties and other forms of punishment. This approach to discipline is called negative approach or corrective approach or punitive approach.
    76. 76. • This approach is also called autocratic approach as the subordinates are given no role in formulating the rules and they are not told why they are punished. Punishment, penalties, demotions and transfers provide or establish a climate which demotivate and delead the employees.
    77. 77. The highest level and most effective form of discipline is self-discipline. Ideally, all employees should have adequate self-control and should be self- directed in their pursuit of organizational goals.
    78. 78. Definition: Self discipline is best defined as the ability to regulate ones conduct by principle and sound judgment, rather than by impulse, desire, or social custom. Self discipline can be considered a type of selective training, creating new habits of thought, action, and speech toward improving yourself and reaching goals.
    79. 79. The Five Pillars of self discipline Acceptance Willpower Hard work Industry Persistence. If you take the first letters of each word you get the acronym “A WHIP”- since many people associate self discipline with whipping themselves into shape.
    80. 80. To be self disciplined: • Get yourself organized • Don’t constantly seek to be entertained • Be on time • Keep your word • Do the most difficult tasks first • Finish what you start • Accept correction • Practice self denial • Welcome responsibility
    81. 81. Health Care Education Associates (1987) identified four factors that must be present to foster a climate of self-discipline. • Employee awareness and understanding of rules and regulations that govern behaviour- The rules and regulation must be clearly written and communicated. Young and Hayne (1988) stated that the most common reason for unsatisfactory work performance is that the employee thinks they are performing satisfactorily. In other words the employee does not know there is a problem.
    82. 82. • There must exist an atmosphere of mutual trust- Manager must believe that employees are capable of and actively seeking self-discipline. Likewise employees must perceive the manager as honest and trustworthy. Employees lack the security for self-discipline if they do not trust their manager’s motives. • Formal authority must be used judiciously- Approximately one-half of grievance cases appealed before an arbitrator by labour unions involved disciplinary action. In about one-half of those cases, management either reversed or modified its decision when the individual’s appeal was upheld. • Employees should identify with the goals of the organization- When the employees accept the goals and objectives of an organization, they are more likely to accept the standards of conduct deemed acceptable by the organization.
    83. 83. DICIPLINARY PROCEDURE:- The following steps should be taken into consideration: • Accurate statement of the problem- The first step is to ascertain the problem by seeking answer to the following questions: – Does this case call for a disciplinary action? – What exactly is the nature of the violation or offence? – Under what condition did it occur? – Which individual or individuals were involved in it? – When or how often, did the violation occur? • Collecting facts bearing on the case- Before any action is taken in a case, it is essential to gather all the facts about it. A thorough examination of the case should be made within the stipulated time limit.
    84. 84. • Selection of tentative penalties- The kind of penalty to be imposed for an offence should be determined beforehand. • Choice of Penalty- When a decision has been taken to impose a penalty, the punishment to be awarded should be such as would prevent a recurrence of the offence. • Application of the Penalty- The application of the penalty involves a positive and assured attitude on the part of the management. If the disciplinary action is a simple reprimand, the executive should calmly and quickly dispose of the matter. • Follow-up on disciplinary action- The ultimate purpose of disciplinary action is to maintain discipline, to ensure productivity, and avoid a repetition of the offence. A disciplinary action should, therefore, be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness after it has been taken.
    85. 85. BASIC INGREDIENT FOR A DISCIPLINARY ACTION:- The principle ingredients of a sound disciplinary system are: Location of responsibility Proper formulation and communication of rules Rules and regulations should be reasonable Equal treatment Disciplinary action should be taken in Private Importance of promptness in taking Disciplinary action
    86. 86. Innocence is presumed Get the facts Action should be taken in cool atmosphere: Natural justice After a disciplinary action has been taken the Supervisor should treat his subordinate in a normal manner Don’t back down when you are right Negative Motivation should be handled in a positive manner
    87. 87. TYPES OF PUNISHMENT:- When the delinquent employee is going to be punished, the type of punishment should be a commensurate with the severity of the omission or misconduct. Different types of punishment resulting from various types of omission or misconduct are as follows: – Oral warnings – Written warnings – Loss of privileges and fines – Punitive suspension – Withholding of increments – Demotion – Termination
    88. 88. THANK YOU.....