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Directing is the 3rd spet in the management process.... this is said to be the heart of management... Included are collaboration, communication, etc.

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  1. 1. DIRECTING NCM 105 Nursing Leadership & Management<br />
  2. 2. Directing<br />Getting the work done through others.<br />Giving orders and directions to others to attain quality patient care.<br />It is the issuance of orders, assignments and instructions that enable the nursing personnel to understand what are expected of them.<br />
  3. 3. Elements of Directing<br />Delegation<br />The process by which a manager assigns specific tasks/ duties to workers with commensurate authority to perform the job.<br />Two Criteria – ability of the worker to carry-out the task & fairness not only to the employee but to the team as a whole.<br />
  4. 4. Principles of Delegation<br />Select the person to whom the job is delegated.<br />Delegate both interesting and uninteresting tasks.<br />Provide subordinates with enough time to learn.<br />Delegate gradually.<br />
  5. 5. Delegate in advance.<br />Consult before delegating.<br />Avoid gaps and overlaps.<br />
  6. 6. Matters that cannot be delegated<br />Overall responsibility, authority and accountability for satisfactory completion of all activities in the unit.<br />Authority to sign one’s name is never delegated.<br />Evaluating the staff and / or taking necessary corrective or disciplinary action.<br />
  7. 7. Responsibility for maintaining morale or the opportunity to say a few words of encouragement to the staff especially the new ones.<br />Jobs that are too technical and those that involve trust and confidence.<br />
  8. 8. Elements of Directing (cont)<br />SUPERVISION<br />comes from the word “supervide” – “to oversee or view directly.<br />It is providing guidelines for the accomplishment of the task or activity with initial direction and periodic inspection.<br />
  9. 9. Qualities of Good Supervision<br />Good technical, managerial and human relation skills;<br />Ability to communicate well in both spoken and written language; ability to listen;<br />Firmness with flexibility to adjust to the needs of the situation;<br />Fairness in dealing with employees<br />
  10. 10. Familiarity with hospital and nursing policies that affect patient care;<br />Good decision-making skills;<br />Willingness to grow and develop;<br />Ability to accept changes and consider them as challenges;<br />
  11. 11. Dignified and pleasing personality;<br />Ability to motivate employees and provide opportunities for continuing professional growth and development and<br />Advocacy for nurses and nursing.<br />
  12. 12. Principles of Good supervision<br />Good supervision required adequate planning and organization which facilitate cooperation, coordination and synchronization of services;<br />Good supervision gives autonomy to workers depending on their competency, personality and commitment.<br />Good supervision stimulates the worker’s ambition to grow into effectiveness.<br />
  13. 13. Good supervision creates an atmosphere of cordiality and trust.<br />Good supervision considers the strengths and weaknesses of employees.<br />Good supervision strives to make the unit an effective learning situation.<br />Good supervision considers equal distribution of work considering age, physical condition, and competence.<br />
  14. 14. Techniques in Supervision<br />Participatory Management<br />Leading<br />
  15. 15. 3. STAFF DEVELOPMENT<br />The Three C’s<br />Communication<br />Collaboration<br />Culture<br />
  16. 16. Sustaining the Change Initiative Through Communication<br />Effective communication is essential to the change process.<br />Develop and articulate specific plans, the preparation and public presentation of the plan signals the significance.<br />What’s monitored gets done.<br />Questions posed communicate priorities and give direction.<br />People communicate most effectively through their actions.<br />Time devoted to an issue tells people what is really valued.<br />Progress towards the vision must be made apparent.<br />Those who violate the vision and values must be confronted.<br />Keep it simple (KISS)<br />
  17. 17. Communicate the importance of issues by:<br />Identifying the criteria with which it will monitor the advancement toward its vision, the presence of its values, and the accomplishment of its goals.<br />Systematically gathering information on those criteria.<br />Sharing data with the entire staff.<br />Engaging the entire staff in collective analysis of the information that is gathered.<br />Developing new strategies for achieving its objectives more effectively.<br />Carefully monitoring the results of implementing those strategies.<br />
  18. 18. Sustaining the Change Initiative Through Collaboration<br />Transforming a school into a professional learning community is a collective endeavor.<br />Collaboration by invitation does not work.<br />
  19. 19. Collaborative Teams<br />Schools must create structures to ensure that every staff member is assigned to a team that works together on important issues.<br />Implement the team concept by:<br />Grade Level<br />Shared Students<br />School Wide Task Force<br />Area of Professional Development<br />
  20. 20. Collaborative Teams<br />must create structures to ensure that every staff member is assigned to a team that works together on important issues.<br />Implement the team concept by:<br />Level<br />Shared Workforce<br />Area of Professional Development<br />
  21. 21. Collaborative Teams<br />Effective teams are characterized by:<br />Shared beliefs and attitudes.<br />High levels of trust that in turn result in open communication, mutual respect for people and opinions, and a willingness to participate.<br />The belief that they had the authority to make important decisions and a willingness to assume responsibility for the decisions they made.<br />Effectively managed meetings with clear operational norms or ground rules, agendas developed with input from all, defined roles for members, and minutes to pro vide continuity<br />Ongoing assessment of and discussions regarding the functioning of the team.<br />
  22. 22. Collaborative Teams<br />Prerequisites:<br />Time for collaboration must be built into the school day and year.<br />The purpose of collaboration must be made explicit.<br />School personnel need training and support to be effective collaborators.<br />Educators must accept their responsibility to work together as true professional colleagues.<br />
  23. 23. Sustaining the Change Initiative Through Culture<br />The culture is founded upon the assumptions, beliefs, values, and habits that constitute the norms of that school.<br />The most effective strategy for influencing and changing culture is simply identifying, articulating, modeling, promoting, and protecting the shared values.<br />
  24. 24. EVALUATION<br />Evaluation is carefully collecting and analyzing information in order to make decisions. There are many types of evaluations in organizations, for example, evaluation of marketing efforts, evaluation of employee performance, program evaluations, etc. Evaluations can focus on many aspects of an organization and its processes, for example, its goals, processes, outcomes, etc.<br />
  25. 25. Evaluation is carefully collecting information about something in order to make necessary decisions about it. There are a large number and wide variety of evaluations. Evaluation is closely related to performance management (whether about organizations, groups, processes or individuals), which includes identifying measures to assess progress toward achieving results.<br />
  26. 26. THE CHANGE PROCESS<br />
  27. 27. Three Phases for Managing Change<br />Unfreezing phase - old ways are no longer appropriate and that change is needed <br />Changing phase - select an appropriate and promising approach<br />Refreezing phase – the new approach is implemented and it becomes established<br />
  28. 28. Conditions for successful change<br />dissatisfaction with the status quo<br />people have the necessary knowledge and skills <br />tools needed to are available<br />implementers have time to learn, adapt, integrate and reflect on change<br />rewards or incentives exist for participants<br />participation in process is expected and encouraged<br />have support for innovation by key players and stakeholders <br />
  29. 29. Useful Strategies<br />establish a sense of urgency<br />create a guiding coalition<br />develop a compelling vision and strategy<br />communicate the change vision widely<br />empower stakeholders for broad-based action on the vision<br />generate short-term wins<br />consolidate gains and produce more change<br />anchor new approaches in organizational culture<br />
  30. 30. Resistance to change<br />lack of trust<br />perception that change is not necessary<br />perception that change is not possible<br />relatively high cost<br />fear of personal failure<br />loss of status or power<br />threats to values and ideas <br />social, cultural or organizational disagreements<br />resentment of interference<br />
  31. 31. Conflict Management<br />As inevitable as change in any organization because of the complexity of relationships within the organization, the interactions among its members or their dependence on one another. <br />
  32. 32. Leadership Roles associated with conflict resolution<br />Is self-aware and conscientiously works to resolve intrapersonal conflict.<br />Addresses conflict as soon as it is perceived and before it becomes felt or manifest.<br />Seeks a win – win solution to conflict whenever feasible<br />
  33. 33. Relationship Roles (cont)<br />Lessens the perceptual differences that exist between conflicting parties and broadens the parties’ understanding about the problems.<br />Assists subordinates in identifying alternative conflict resolutions.<br />Recognizes and accepts the individual difference of staff.<br />
  34. 34. Leadership Role (cont)<br />Uses assertive communication skills to increase persuasiveness and foster open communication.<br />Role Models honest and collaborative negotiation efforts.<br />
  35. 35. Management Functions associated with Conflict Resolution<br />Creates a work environment that minimizes the antecedent conditions for conflict.<br />Appropriately uses legitimate authority in competing approach when a quick or unpopular decision needs to be made.<br />When appropriate, formally facilitates conflict resolution involving subordinates.<br />
  36. 36. Management Functions (Cont)<br />Accepts mutual responsibility for reaching predetermined supraordinate goals.<br />Obtains needed unit resources through effective negotiation strategies.<br />Compromises unit needs only when the need is not critical to unit functioning and when higher management gives up something of equal value. <br />
  37. 37. Management functions (cont)<br />Adequately prepared to negotiate for unit resources, including the advance determination of a bottom line and possible trade-offs.<br />Addresses the need for closure and follow-up to negotiation.<br />Pursues alternative dispute resolution when conflicts cannot be resolved by using traditional conflict management strategies. <br />
  38. 38. Latent Conflict<br />Perceived Conflict<br />Felt Conflict<br />Manifest Conflict<br />Conflict Resolution <br />Or<br />Conflict Management<br />Conflict Aftermath<br />THE CONFLICT PROCESS<br />
  39. 39. Sources of Conflicts<br />Competition<br />Domination<br />provocation<br />
  40. 40. Conflict arises from<br />Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Values<br />Interests<br />Scarcity of resources<br />Unacceptable leadership styles<br />Intergroup rivalry for rewards<br />Role ambiguity<br />Unworkable organizational structure<br />Shift in org. power base and climate<br />
  41. 41. Factors that provoke Conflict<br />Failure to provide assistance & complete info on patient care;<br />Varying perceptions of work situations<br />Unstable staffing and work schedule<br />Highly differentiated work positions or role change;<br />Disagreement over policies and procedures; and<br />Competition for scarce resources.<br />
  42. 42. Evidences of Conflict<br />
  43. 43. Types of Conflict<br />OVERT or COVERT<br />VERTICAL or HORIZONTAL<br />BEHAVIORAL or PROCESS STANDPOINTS<br /> - intrapersonal, interpersonal, intragroup, intergroup<br />
  44. 44. COMPROMISING<br />
  45. 45. COMPETING<br />
  46. 46. Cooperating<br />
  47. 47. SMOOTHING<br />
  48. 48. AVOIDING<br />
  49. 49. collaborating<br />
  50. 50. withdrawing<br />
  51. 51. forcing<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. LEARNING EXERCISE<br /> You are a male unit supervisor of a pediatric trauma unit at Children’s Hospital. Three years ago, you ended a serious romantic relationship with a nurse named Susan, who was employed at a different hospital in the same town. The break up was not mutual and Susan was hurt and angry. <br /> Six months ago, Susan accepted a position as a unit supervisor at the Children’s Hospital. This has required you and Susan to interact formally at department head meetings and informally regarding staffing and personnel issues on a regular basis. Often, these interactions have been marked by either covert hostility on Susan’s part, non-verbal aggression, or sniping comments. When you attempted to confront Susan about her behavior, she stated that “she didn’t have a problem and you shouldn’t flatter yourself to think that she does”.<br />
  54. 54. The situation is becoming increasingly more difficult to “work around” and both staff and fellow unit supervisors have become aware of the ongoing tension. You love your position and do not want to leave Children's Hospital, but it is becoming increasingly apparent that the situation cannot continue as it is. <br />ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS<br />How might gender have influenced the latent conditions, perceived or felt conflict, manifest conflict and conflict aftermath in this situation?<br />What conflict strategies might you use to try to resolve this conflict? Avoidance? Smoothing? Accommodation? Competing? Compromise? Collaboration?<br />Would the use of a mediator be helpful in this situation?<br />
  55. 55. "It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but rather the one most responsive to change."---Charles Darwin---<br />
  56. 56. Thank you for listening!<br />