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  1. 1. COPAR Concept of Community
  2. 2. Community <ul><li>It is a social group of people, interacting with each other, determined by geographical boundaries, living together to attain certain and common goals and sharing the same interest. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of a healthy community <ul><li>The members are aware of their own health and biologic status. </li></ul><ul><li>Members give credit to the governing authority. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural and biological resources are open for everybody but consumption is controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a strong and reliable governing body. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The people work together to attain independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and physiologic needs are sustained by the communities and families. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and guardians serve as role models for their children. </li></ul><ul><li>The people are concern with their health status. </li></ul><ul><li>Health needs are accessible and affordable to the public and free for the indigents. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is working to attain healthy citizenry. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification of Community <ul><li>Rural or Open Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Urban or City </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban or the Capitals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Development of the Community and Society <ul><li>Every human community has institutions for the socialization of its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of community requires sanction of group members. </li></ul><ul><li>A community is a reflection of all the functional relationships that occur among its individual members. </li></ul><ul><li>A community or a group can change because of conflict among members. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Family is the primary group. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer groups help youth to establish norms of behavior and assist in the rites of passage from the family group to society. </li></ul><ul><li>Group membership helps individuals achieve goals that are not attainable through individual effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of leadership in a group depends on the needs of group members as well as the personality of the leader. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Leadership styles <ul><li>Authoritarian leader – rigid and uses leadership role as an instrument of power. The leader makes all the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Leader – fair and logical, uses the leadership role to stimulate others to achieve a collective goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Leader – reflects the feeling tones, norms and values of the group. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Laissez – faire – passive and unproductive; usually assumes the role of a participant – observer and exerts little control or guidance over group behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic Leader – rigid and assumes a role that is determined by a formal criteria or rules that are inherent in the organization and frequently unrelated to the present group. </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic leader – can assume any of the above behaviors. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Type of roles assumed by the members of the group <ul><li>harmonizer </li></ul><ul><li>questioner </li></ul><ul><li>deserter </li></ul><ul><li>Tension deserter </li></ul><ul><li>encourager </li></ul><ul><li>monopolizer </li></ul><ul><li>clarifier </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion giver </li></ul><ul><li>initiator </li></ul><ul><li>listener </li></ul><ul><li>negativist </li></ul><ul><li>energizer </li></ul><ul><li>aggressor </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Community is a social organization that is considered the individual’s secondary group. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Role of the Community <ul><li>Care for their members when they are ill. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives high priority in health maintenance and the prevention of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for health maintenance. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Health Agency as a Social Institution <ul><li>Has a bureacratic structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, rules and regulations governing behavior of its member. </li></ul><ul><li>An impersonal viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>A status hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>An increasingly specialized subculture. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Hospital as a Subculture of the community <ul><li>Employees develop both written and unwritten hospital policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes the presence of folklore and folkways. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital has several functions </li></ul>
  15. 16. Delivery of Health Service : Responsibility of the community <ul><li>Members of society becomes active participants in prevention of illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Community health centers care for the ill in the home rather than in the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended care facilities are established with a more community and homelike atmosphere. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Local community leaders take active role in establishing health policy for society. </li></ul><ul><li>Lay members of the community become involved with health agencies’ policies and decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Health maintenance and treatment are no longer considered a privilege, but the right of all members of society. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Culture and Health <ul><li>General Influence </li></ul><ul><li>- cultural background influences the way in which people view both health and disease. </li></ul><ul><li>- the cultural influences seem to be derived from the areas of nationality and religion rather than race. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Specific Influence <ul><li>National Culture may influence an individuals: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Response to illness, pain and its tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>b. Need for superstitions and rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Acceptance of dietary change both in type or in consistency of food. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Need of support and comfort from the family. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Ability to communicate in understandable terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Response to loss of independence </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings about loss of privacy and exposure of parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings about loss of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Need for specific rites and rituals associated with dying. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Religious Culture may influence an individual’s: <ul><li>View about conception, birth and child care. </li></ul><ul><li>Views about meaning of pain and suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings about meaning of death </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for guidance from the clergy. </li></ul>