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Effective Listnening


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Effective Listnening

  1. 1. Interpersonal Conversations
  2. 2. Conversations <ul><li>A locally managed sequential interchange of thoughts and feelings between two or more people. Interactive and extemporaneous. </li></ul>Microsoft Photo
  3. 3. Conversations (cont’d) <ul><li>Locally managed : only those involved in the conversation determine the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequentially organized : have openings, middles, and closes. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive : Involve at least two people. </li></ul><ul><li>Largely extemporaneous : Participants have not prepared or memorized what they will be saying. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Spontaneous interactions between people, with no planned agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational episodes in which at least one participant has a communication goal </li></ul>Casual Social Conversations Pragmatic Problem- Consideration Conversations
  5. 5. Pragmatic Problem-Consideration Conversations Skipping a stage may provide less satisfaction <ul><li>Greeting and small talk </li></ul><ul><li>Topic introduction and statement of need for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Information exchange and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing decisions and clarifying next steps </li></ul><ul><li>Formal closing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rules A prescription that indicates what behaviors are required, preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts
  7. 7. Examples of Communication Rules <ul><li>If your mouth is full of food, then you must not talk. </li></ul><ul><li>If someone is talking, then you must not interrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are being spoken to, you should direct your gaze to the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>If you can’t say something nice, then you don’t say anything at all. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discuss what communication rules you think are important.
  9. 9. Cooperative Principle Conversations will be satisfying when the contributions made by conversationalists are in line with the purpose of the conversation.
  10. 10. Conversation Maxims Politeness Be courteous Morality Meet moral/ethical guidelines Manner Specific and organized Relevancy Related to the topic Quantity Not too much or too little Quality Truthful information
  11. 11. Effective Conversationalist <ul><li>Present quality information. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide free information to enable others to talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions that are likely to motivate responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice turn-taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain conversational coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice politeness. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Politeness <ul><li>Politeness -- relating to others in ways that meet their need to be appreciated. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive face needs– desire to be appreciated and approved, liked and honored. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative face needs – desire to be free from imposition or intrusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Face-threatening acts (FTAs) – behavior that fails to meet positive or negative face needs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Engage in Ethical Dialogue <ul><li>Authenticity - direct, honest, straightforward information and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy – understanding another’s point of view (without giving up yours) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation – affirming others as unique individuals (does not imply approving of their behaviors) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Engage in Ethical Dialogue (continued) <ul><li>Presentness – taking time, avoiding distraction, being responsive, risking attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Equality – treating conversational partners on the same level regardless of status differences </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive climate – encourage participation by praising efforts </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cultural Variations <ul><li>Low Context Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Include categorical words such as certainly, absolutely </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant comments that are directly to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking one’s mind </li></ul><ul><li>Silence is seldom good </li></ul><ul><li>High Context Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Include qualifiers such as maybe, perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect, ambiguous and less relevant comments </li></ul><ul><li>Creating harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Silence indicates truthfulness, embarrassment, disagreement </li></ul>