Teamskills training


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Teamskills training

  1. 1. Authored by Andrea White, PhD and Valerie West, EdD for the C3 Initiative
  2. 2. Teaching Team Skills: Goals for Today Introduction to Team Competencies/ Content for teaching Team exercise – as an example Observation and Feedback Review Handbook Contents Questions and evaluation
  3. 3. What is a Team? •Two or more individuals with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task. •Teams make decisions, solve problems, provide support, accomplish missions, and plan their work.
  4. 4. How is a Team Different from a Group or Committee? • Teams embody a collective action arising out of task interdependency • Members of the team agree on the goal • Members agree that they must work together to achieve the goal • Each member is viewed as having one or more important roles to play to successfully achieve the goal • There is less hierarchy within the unit than in most work groups
  5. 5. Why is Teamwork Important in Healthcare? While our healthcare delivery system has the potential to be outstanding, our system currently is not as safe, effective, or efficient as it should be. Promoting teamwork and good communication among health professionals can dramatically improve healthcare delivery, resulting in much better outcomes for our patients. How do we know this?
  6. 6. There are Many Types of Teams Examples of Teams: Athletic Team – people working together to win a game Natural Work Group – people working together every day in same office with similar processes and equipment Business Team – cross-functional team overseeing a specific product line or customer segment Improvement Team – ad hoc team with responsibility for improving an existing process Healthcare Team – several healthcare professionals working closely together for the benefit of a patient or group of patients
  7. 7. When to use a team? Quality and Acceptance Low Quality/ Low acceptance Flip a coin High Quality/ Low acceptance Ask an Expert Low Quality/ High Acceptance Group decision High Quality/ High acceptance Team Consensus
  8. 8. Understanding group behavior Group Content - what is being said, the words, the discussion Group Process - how the group works, methods, ways of making decisions, how people participate
  9. 9. Aspects of Group Process: Communication Who talks to whom? Who interrupts and how is it handled? How are quiet members treated? High and low participators? Shifts in participation levels? Do people look at each other when they talk? How are new members treated?
  10. 10. Aspects of Group Process: Decision -making What process does the group use to make decisions? Is the process agreed upon by everyone? Does the process change as group proceeds? Does anyone make a decision and carry it out without agreement from the others? Is there evidence of a majority pushing a decision Are minority opinions heard?
  11. 11. Aspects of Group Process: Problem-solving Does the group take time to understand the problem? Is the problem well articulated? Is there time for brainstorming creative solutions? Can the group move to from problem identification, identifying possible solutions, to selecting solutions and implementation?
  12. 12. Group Problem Solving •Listen for common Themes • Organize ideas •Evaluate alternatives • Manage conflict •Involve people •Get information • Develop plan •Generate ideas •Assign responsibilities • Find resources •Monitor progress •Motivate •Details/Finish •Presentation •IDENTIFY PROBLEM
  13. 13. Recognizing Dysfunctional Behavior Blocking Aggression Dominating Withdrawing Out of field behavior
  14. 14. Team Roles: Task • Initiating • Seeking and Giving Information • Clarifying • Summarizing • Consensus Taking • Accountability
  15. 15. Team Roles: Relationships • Communication Gatekeeping • Encouraging • Resolving Conflict • Acknowledging Feelings • Setting Standards/Norms • Openness
  16. 16. Attitudes for Effective Teamwork Appreciation for value of team decisions Respect for team members Mutual trust Openness to feedback Reflection on group process and interest in improving Shared vision
  17. 17. Team Exercise Instructions for Observers Instructions for Team members Team Exercise Scoring, Team members and Observer comments Discussion
  18. 18. What are Characteristics of Effective Teams? Members have a clear goal The focus is on achieving results There is a plan for achieving the goal Members have clear roles Members are committed to the goal Members are competent They achieve decisions through consensus There is diversity among team members Members have effective interpersonal skills They know each other well and have good relationships
  19. 19. More Characteristics Each member feels empowered to act, speak up, offer ideas Each member has a high standard of excellence An informal climate and easiness exists among members The team has the support of management The team is open to new ideas There is periodic self-assessment There is shared leadership of the team The team is a relatively small size There is recognition of team member accomplishments There are sufficient resources to support the team work
  20. 20. Effective Team-Building Takes Time There must be frequent and prolonged contact Team members come together around a specific goal or project Effective teams go through four stages of team development
  21. 21. What are the Four Stages of Team Development? Forming Storming Norming Performing Every effective team goes through these life cycle stages
  22. 22. Forming Team members are introduced and begin getting to know each other Goals and tasks are established Generally polite behavior among members Norms are not understood
  23. 23. Storming Members are sizing each other up and may feel more comfortable and voice their views Members may compete for team roles May argue about goals or how they should be accomplished May choose sides against other members
  24. 24. Norming Once issues are resolved, agreement occurs around team norms and expectations Trust and common interests are developing Roles and objectives are clarified and understood
  25. 25. Performing Members make contributions and are motivated by results Leadership is shared according to members’ knowledge and skills Norms and culture are well understood Tasks get accomplished effectively and efficiently
  26. 26. References  Thiagarajan, S. and Parker, G. (1999). Teamwork and Teamplay. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.  Dean, P., LaVallee, R., & McLaughlin, C. (1999). Teams at the core of continuous learning in McLaughlin, & Kaluzny, A. (eds.) Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care: Theory, Implementation, and Applications, 147 – 168.