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S teams


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S teams

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Teams and Teamwork PSYC 352
  2. 2. Terminology  Dyad: Two-person unit  Group vs. Team  No real distinction  Team: A social aggregation in which a limited number of individuals interact on a regular basis to accomplish a set of shared objectives for which they have mutual responsibility.
  3. 3. Origins of Work Teams  Factors that led to the use of teams:  Information age  Educated and trained population  Rate of change in work activities  Teams are not always better than individuals
  4. 4. Level of Analysis Individual vs. Team vs. Organization Micro vs. Meso vs. Macro Organization Work Groups Individuals
  5. 5. Types of Teams (Larson & LaFasto, 1989)  Problem Solving Team: A type of team created for the purpose of focusing on the resolution of a particular problem or issue.  Creative Team: A type of team created for the purpose of developing innovative possibilities or solutions.
  6. 6. Types of Teams (Larson & LaFasto, 1989)  Tactical Team: A type of team created for the purpose of executing a well-defined plan or objective.  Ad Hoc Team: A type of team created for a limited duration that is designed to address itself to resolving one particular problem.
  7. 7. Types of Teams (Larson & LaFasto, 1989) Broad Objective Dominant Feature Process Emphasis Example Problem Resolution Trust Focus on Issues CDC Creative Autonomy Explore possibilities and alternatives IBM PC Team Tactical Clarity Directive, highly focused tasks, role clarity, well- defined operational standards, accuracy Cardiac Surgery Team
  8. 8. Principles of Teamwork 1. Feedback provided and accepted 2. Backing up team members 3. Collective group 4. Within-team interdependence 5. Leadership makes a difference
  9. 9. Team Structure  Structure of a team includes:  Number of members  Demographic composition  Experience of members  Diversity in teams:  Information diversity  Value diversity
  10. 10. Team Processes: Stages of Development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning
  11. 11. Team Structure: Roles Leader Shaper Worker Completer- Finisher Creator Resource investigator Team Facilitator Monitor- evaluator Diversity within a team is reflected in the members filling different roles. Effective teams are composed of members who serve different roles on the team and their roles are defined by possession of selected mental abilities and personality characteristics. Belbin, 1981
  12. 12. Team Processes: Socialization  Socialization: process of mutual adjustment that produces changes over time in the relationship between a person and a team.  How socialization works (Moreland & Levine, 2001):  Evaluation  Commitment  Role transition and phases of membership (investigation, socialization, maintenance, resocialization, remembrance)
  13. 13. Team Processes: Interpersonal Processes  Communication  Conflict  Cohesion  Trust
  14. 14. Team Processes: Shared Mental Models  Shared Mental Model:the cognitive processes held in common by members of a team regarding how they acquire information, analyze it, and respond to it.  What is shared (Cannon-Bowers & Salas, 2001)?  Task-specific knowledge  Task-related knowledge  Knowledge of teammates  Shared attitudes and beliefs
  15. 15. Team Processes: Shared Mental Models  Groupthink:a phenomenon associated with team decision making in which members feel threatened by forces external to the team, resulting in a deterioration in the cognitive processing of information.  3 Causes:  High level of cohesion  Structural organizational flaw  Proactive situational context
  16. 16. Groupthink Example A board of directors of an international air freight service must decide whether the company should enter a cost-cutting war with their competitors. The board begins its decision-making meeting with the chairperson’s loaded questions: “Should we enter into this foolish price war or just keep rates the way they are?”
  17. 17. Team Processes: Decision Making  Multi-level theory of team decision making (Hollenbeck, LePine, & Ilgen, 1996):  Team informity  Staff validity  Dyadic sensitivity
  18. 18. Improving Team Decision Making  Assign the devil’s advocate role  Be open to dissenting points of view  Seek outside opinions  Break up into smaller groups  Rethink issues before making final decision  Use brainstorming
  19. 19. Virtual Teams  Virtual teams: Task-focused teams that meet without being physically present or working at the same time.  Defining Characteristics (Avolio et al., 2001):  Communication takes place electronically  Team members are dispersed geographically  Members may interact synchronously or asynchronously
  20. 20. Virtual Teams  Challenges:  Development of shared mental models  Evaluation of team results  Achievement of team cohesion  Problems with leadership
  21. 21. Intergroup Conflict  Causes:  Lack of resources  Goal incompatibility  Time compatibility  Influence tactics
  22. 22. Intergroup Conflict  Consequences:  Conflict changes group members’ perceptions of each other  Group becomes more cohesive  Strained interaction between the two groups  Argumentative behavior  Attitudes passed on to new members  Goals focus inward, away from organization as a whole
  23. 23. Overcoming Intergroup Conflict  Superordinate Goals: goals that both groups endorse and that often require cooperative intergroup behavior to be achieved  Getting 2 conflicting groups together by itself will not reduce conflict  Conflict can be reduced if members cooperate to achieve superordinate goals.
  24. 24. Overcoming Intergroup Conflict  One problem occurs in conflicting groups is that they do not communicate.  One strategy to overcome the conflict is to plan a negotiation between the 2 groups.  Negotiation:facilitates communication and is usually seen a a fair method of dispute resolution.
  25. 25. Overcoming Intergroup Conflict  Member exchanges: members of conflicting groups role play each other.  Intergroup team development: team activities to improve relationships between groups.
  26. 26. Overcoming Intergroup Conflict  Reducing need for intergroup interaction:  Create conditions in which two groups have little or no need to interact  Reduce interdependence among groups  The resource allocation process:  Ensure groups have similar resources  Allocate resources fairly
  27. 27. Special Issues in Teams  Personnel Selection  Training  Performance Appraisal
  28. 28. Personnel Selection in Teams  Traditional individual personnel selection methods may not take the social context of teams into consideration.  Selection of team members requires best mix of personnel.  Establishing team requirements involves identifying and assessing the congruence among members with regard to personality and values.
  29. 29. Personnel Selection in Teams Prieto (1993) asserts that 5 social skills are critical for an individual to enhance group performance: 1. Gain group’s acceptance 2.Increase group solidarity 3.Be aware of group consciousness 4.Share group identification 5.Manage others’ impressions
  30. 30. Team Training  Logic of team training is similar to individual training, although mechanism is somewhat different.  Team task analysis provides information about knowledge, skills, and attitudes the team members must possess to be successful.
  31. 31. Team Training Team Performance Cognition Knowledge Behaviors Skills Attitudes Affect Think Do Feel
  32. 32. Team Performance Appraisal  Major issue: extent to which individuals will slacken their performance within the team.  Social loafing: a phenomenon identified in groups or teams in which certain individuals withhold effort or contributions to the collective outcome.
  33. 33. Team Performance Appraisal: Social Loafing Three types of social loafing: Free riding Sucker effect Felt dispensability Share the same characteristics: • Concern with impact of individual contributions on team performance. • Expectation of return on effort • Teamwork can weaken individual effort-team success- individual outcome link
  34. 34. Team Activity