Vietnam Water resources.

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Short description of water resources in Vietnam.

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  • Câu in đỏ để chuyển đề sang surface water and ground water :D
  • The total average annual surface water discharge in Viet Nam7 is about 830 billion m3.Nearly 57% of this flows in the Cuu Long river basin, and more than 16% in the Red - Thai Binhbasin, and more than 4% in the Dong Nai basin ….
  • The total average annual surface water discharge in Viet Nam7 is about 830 billion m3.Nearly 57% of this flows in the Cuu Long river basin, and more than 16% in the Red - Thai Binhbasin, and more than 4% in the Dong Nai basin ….
  • Chưa tìm ra được các thống kê về hồ (tự nhiên, và nhân tạo) cho Việt Nam. Nhưng có generalize rằng có các hồ tự nhiên to tại các national park, cũng nhắc tới rất nhiều hồ có quy mô nhỏ hơn nằm rải rác, kể cả các hồ trong nội thành như ở Hà Nội, Đà Lạt …Còn những vùng nông thôn thì có các hồ là hố bom, cũng là nguồn nước dùng, ngoài ra, đó cũng là nguồn từ nước mưa …
  • NA thinking: Normally rainwater is not calculate in surface water distribution, as it is an income source TO rivers and groundwater. Không thể tính % của lượng nước mưa đóng góp vào water natural resourse vì nó thật ra là chiếm 80-90 nguồn nước mặt (mưa xuống) và ngấm vào mạch nước ngầm. Khi mình trình bày phần rainwater này là bổ sung thêm giới thiệu việc sử dụng nguồn nước đa dạng thôi, ngoài dùng nước mặt (nếu thiếu, hoặc bị nhiễm mặn) hoặc ngoài dùng nước ngầm (bị mặn, ô nhiễm) người ta mới trữ nước mưa dùng riêng. Arid area (highlands, central)Saline water (Mekong delta)Polluted groundwater (Arsenic pollution, Red River Delta)
  • Vẫn chưa biết other well là gì, có thể là loại combine, vừa dùng tay vừa dùng máy? Hay là đây là loại giếng đào, không sâu, nhưng vẫn dùng máy để lấy nước, để tách biệt với các loại giếng rất sâu mới có nước?
  • Vẫnchưabiết other well làgì, cóthểlàloại combine, vừadùngtayvừadùngmáy? Hay làđâylàloạigiếngđào, khôngsâu, nhưngvẫndùngmáyđểlấynước, đểtáchbiệtvớicácloạigiếngrấtsâumớicónước?Là Giếng nông đấy chị, để phân biệt với giếng Sâu có độ sâu hơn 100m.Giếng Sấu thì sạch hơn, vệ sinh hơn.
  • Surface water is abundant, especially in Red River Delta and Mekong River Delta. Water is a bit limited in Central Coast and Central Highlands.Some issues related to water availability is listed and highlighted in red. For example, Flashflood (we are having this problem every year, this time, we call storm and flood season. Drought is an issue in the central, and intensive ground water over-exploitation is an issue to be concerned.
  • Water for irrigation gets the largest portion, (xxx %). As we see before, water is extracted from groundwaterThe example of water use in industry:Water usage for industry is expected to double in 2015
  • The need for water will double in 10 years !
  • Sẽ hiện ra theo nhóm để trình bày và strong discusion/statement kết bài cho hay:Budget for water resources development and management is limited and has not met the demand of the sector.1. Conflicting among different stakeholders for water usage, The lack of water sharing policies at a river basin scale is becoming increasingly problematic in Viet Nam. No limits to the amount of water that can be extracted from surface water or groundwater systems have been established.2. climate change itself is a critical issue for Vietnam, country that have the impact. 3. We need monitoring the resource and extraction, ONLY form that we can have plan for an sustainable levels of extraction. With 11 of the 16 river basins classified as stressed in the dry season, there is now an urgent need to define the sustainable limits of water extraction in each basin, and to manage total extractions to within those limits.4. Impact assessment of projects. Currently the assessment of the water resource and environmental impacts of projects is poor.5. State water management capacity is currently very limited. For both surface water and groundwater, at state and provinces level (nhân lực quản lý còn yếu kém :D)
  • Sẽ hiện ra theo nhóm để trình bày và strong discusion/statement kết bài cho hay:1. Conflicting among different stakeholders for water usage, The lack of water sharing policies at a river basin scale is becoming increasingly problematic in Viet Nam. No limits to the amount of water that can be extracted from surface water or groundwater systems have been established.2. climate change itself is a critical issue for Vietnam, country that have the impact. 3. We need monitoring the resource and extraction, ONLY form that we can have plan for an sustainable levels of extraction. With 11 of the 16 river basins classified as stressed in the dry season, there is now an urgent need to define the sustainable limits of water extraction in each basin, and to manage total extractions to within those limits.4. Impact assessment of projects. Currently the assessment of the water resource and environmental impacts of projects is poor.5. State water management capacity is currently very limited. For both surface water and groundwater, at state and provinces level (nhân lực quản lý còn yếu kém :D)
  • Nếu còn thời gian thì hãy giới thiệu 3 tài liệu mình tham khảo, nếu hết giờ thì thôi :D
  • Vietnam Water resources.

    1. 1. Vietnamese German University WATER RESOURCES IN VIETNAM Ho Chi Minh City, October 04, 2011
    2. 2. OUTLINE1. Vietnam Overview2. Natural Water Resources  Surface Water  Ground Water  Water Availability & Quality3. Water Resources Usage4. Natural Water Resources – Major Issues5. ReferencesPage 1 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    3. 3. VIETNAM OVERVIEW Area : 331,690 km2 Population (2011) : 87,375,000 – the 13th most populous country Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands) Land boundaries: 4,639 km  Laos 2,130 km  China 1,281 km  Cambodia 1,228 km Climate: tropical monsoon Rainfall:- Annual average rainfall 2,050 mm(highest 2,640mm and lowest 1,600mm)- 90% in summerPage 2 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    4. 4. SURFACE WATER – OVERVIEW River run-off per Region (bill.m³/year) Source: National Water Sector profile, 2002 The total average annual surface water discharge is about 830 bill.m3 per year; More than 60% of Vietnam’s surface water generated outside the country; Only 309 bill.m³ per year generated within Vietnam; Source:www.ask.com/wiki/Regions_of_VietnamPage 3 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    5. 5. SURFACE WATER – OVERVIEW Uneven distribution, not only spatially, but over the year Low water availability per capita in Southeast Asia: 4,170m³/person (4,900 m³/person in Southeast Asia and 3,300m³/person in Asia); 5% 3% 11% Irrigation Aquaculture Industry Urban 81% Surface water usage by sectorPage 4 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    6. 6. SURFACE WATER - RIVER Dense river network with 2,360 rivers more than 10 km length;  Red River: The largest river in Vietnam  Mekong River: The longest river in Southeast Asia Mekong River Source: www.chinapage.com/river/river.html Red River Basin Source: www.wikipedia.org Page 5 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    7. 7. SURFACE WATER - RIVER 13 major river systems with the area over 10,000km² 2% of the total river flow in the world Providing an abundant supply of water – 255 bill.m³ annually; low utilization ofonly 53bill.m³ per year; NO. River Total volume (km³) Percentage (%) 1 Me Kong 500 59 2 Red 126,5 14,9 3 Dong Nai 36,3 4,3 4 Ma, Ca and Thu Bon 20 (for each river) 2,3 – 2,6 5 Ky Cung, Thai Binh and Ba 9 (for each river) 1 6 Others 94,5 11,1 Water resources from river (per year) (Source: Department of Water Resources Management)Page 6 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    8. 8. SURFACE WATER – LAKE, LAGOON Having 460 lakes with large and small size; Having several major natural lakes;Ba Be lake- Ba Be National Park (Bac Kan Province)  The largest natural lake  Surface area : 4.5km²  Water volume : 90 million m³ Cau Hai Lagoon: • Area: 52 km²; • Length: 24km; Source: InternetPage 7 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    9. 9. SURFACE WATER – RESERVOIRS Having about 3,600 reservoirs and dams with various sizes; The total reservoir active storage volume is about 37,000 million m3 (about 4.5% of the total average annual surface water discharge) Most are more than 20-30 years old; Purposes:  Hydropower  Flood control  Agriculture irrigation  Water supply  River flowa management Hoa Binh ReservoirPage 8 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    10. 10. SURFACE WATER – RAIN WATER Annual average rainfall 2,050 mm - 90% in summer (from July to September) which is the abundant supply source of fresh water added to rivers and groundwater. Some areas with less water accessibility, rainwater is the main water supply: Arid area, Saline water, Polluted groundwater (Arsenic pollution) Storing rainwater in Vietnamese rural areasPage 9 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    11. 11. GROUND WATERExploitable Ground Water (bill.m³/year)Source: National Water Sector profile, 2002The total potential exploitable reserves of the countrys aquifersestimated at nearly 60 bill. m³ per yearPage 10 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    12. 12. GROUNDWATER (cont.) Having abundance of groundwater reserves; Less than 5% of the total reserves are exploited, for the country as a whole; The abstraction of groundwater also varies in different regions; Providing 35 – 50% of total water supply for urban; The groundwater is generally of good quality, suitable for drinking with little or no treatment; Although less than 5% of the total ground water reserves are extracted, in some areas is causing problems of falling water tables, land subsidence and salinity intrusion. Source: ADB Water Sector ReportPage 11 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    13. 13. GROUNDWATER (cont.) RURAL AREA: Handle Pumping well The commune well  Multi purposes:  Washing  Drinking  Cooking Well in rural areasPage 12 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    14. 14. GROUNDWATER (cont.) Small diameter size No. Provinces Small well Volume (m3 /per day) 1 Northern mountainous regions 8,080 45,331 2 Red River Delta 551,157 1,634,399 3 North Central Coast 21,125 61,100 4 Central Highlands 2,592 9,003 5 Central Coast 60,835 245,609 6 Northeast of Mekong 136,363 1,308,941 7 Mekong River Delta 62,798 302,164 TOTAL 842,950 3,606,547 The number of small wells of Vietam Source: ADB Water Sector ReportPage 13 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    15. 15. WATER RESOURCES AVAILABILITY Surface Ground Region Issues Water WaterNorthwest Flashfloods, floods, seasonal drought +++++ +++Region Reservoir siltation and constructionNortheast Region ++++ +++ Flashfloods, floods, seasonal drought Floods, Cross-sectoral water allocation and useRed River Delta +++++ +++++ Intensive agriculture, groundwater over-exploitationNorth Central Flashfloods, floods, Seasonal Droughts +++ +++Coast Low river flow during prolonged dry season in South of region South Central Flashfloods, floods, Severe Seasonal Droughts ++ +++Coast Low river flow during prolonged dry season entire region Central Flashfloods, Seasonal droughts ++++ ++++Highlands Groundwater over-exploitation for irrigation, Reservoir construction Floods, Seasonal drought.Northeast of ++++ +++++ Sector wise water allocation and use, Groundwater over-exploitationMekong (HCMC)Mekong River Flood, cross-sectoral water allocation and use +++++ +++++Delta Intensive agriculture/aquaculture, groundwater over-exploitation (A high score (+++++) means water is abundant or good quality, a low score (+) they are scarce or the water quality is unacceptable and out of range of standards.) Source: http://www.wepa-db.net/ Page 14 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    16. 16. WATER QUALITY – OVERVIEW SURFACE WATER:  The upstream water quality remains good;  The downstream pollution mainly from urban areas and industries;  Most lakes and canals in urban areas are fast becoming sewage Exploitation of mineral along river sinks; Source: Vietnam State of Environment 2010  Evidence of pollution from:  Mainly from industrial waste water  Untreated municipality water;  Garbage dumping; Discharged directly into river basin Source: Vietnam State of Environment 2010 Page 15 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    17. 17. WATER QUALITY – OVERVIEW GROUND WATER:  The quality of ground water remains good;  There are some pockets of contamination;  Having some salinity intrusion;  Evidence of pollution from: To unclog the flow  Poorly maintained septic Source: Vietnam State of Environment 2010 tanks;  Garbage dumping;  Industrial effluent;  Over-exploitation; Garbage dumpingPage 16 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    18. 18. WATER QUALITY – BY REGIONS Rivers Ground Coastal Region Up- Down- Issues Waters Waters stream streamNorthwest Region +++++ ++++ +++++ – – Urban pollution, Saline intrusion, MarineNortheast Region +++++ ++ ++++ +++ transport pollution risks. Urban and Industrial pollution, SalineRed River Delta ++++ ++ +++ +++ Intrusion Agrochemical pollution, transport pollution risksNorth Central Coast ++++ +++ +++ ++++ Urban pollution, Saline intrusionSouth Central Coast +++++ ++ ++++ ++++ Urban pollution, Saline intrusionCentral Highlands +++++ ++++ +++++ – – Urban and industrial pollution, SalineNortheast of Mekong ++++ + +++ ++ intrusion Saline intrusion, Low pH in rivers (AcidMekong River Delta ++++ ++ +++ +++ soils) Agrochemical pollution, transport pollution risks Water quality deterioration is probably the greatest environmental issuefacing Vietnam; Source: http://www.wepa-db.net/Page 17 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    19. 19. WATER RESOURCES USAGE Domestic Irrigation Fisheries Services IndustryDistribution of Water Usage by SectorSource: State of Environment 2010 In Vietnam, 70% of water for daily life comes from surface water and 30% from ground water. Source: ADB Water Sector Report Page 18 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    20. 20. WATER RESOURCES USAGE Urban Water Requirement to 2020Page 19 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    21. 21. MAJOR ISSUES - OVERVIEW Population increase; Rapid urbanization and industrialization; Climate change; Monitoring the resource & extractions Sustainable levels of extraction Impacts assessment of projects (eg. hydro power projects) State water management capacity; Inadequate physical infrastructure; Budget for water resources development and management is limitedPage 20 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    22. 22. MAJOR ISSUES (cont.) SURFACE WATER:  To be susceptible to water resource decisions made in upstream countries;  Dams built at the upstream problems;  Climate change (natural disaster risks of floods, typhoons, coastal attack and drought)  Drought in dry season;  Flood in rainy season; GROUND WATER:  Lacking ground water protection plans;  Lacking ground water drilled plans;  Over-extraction;  Due to polluted surface water; Dams on the Mekong RiverPage 21 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    23. 23. REFERENCES Vietnam State of Water Environment Issues, Water Environment Partnership in Asia, http://www.wepa-db.net/ Vietnam State of Environment 2010 ADB Water Sector Review – Sector Status Report, 2008Page 22 ▌Natural water resoures in Vietnam
    24. 24. Vietnamese German University THANK YOU!

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