Vietnam profile

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Vietnam profile

  1. 1. Ho Chi Minh City, June 3, 2011<br />VietnamProfile<br />Course: Population, Migration and Urban Development<br />Lecturer: Prof. Rod Burgess<br />
  2. 2. Outline & Assignment<br />
  3. 3. General info.<br />Map & Location<br />Area : 331.051 km2<br />Population (2009) : 86.024.600<br />Density : 260 pp/km2<br />Location : Southeast Asia<br /> N 16 ° 10 '- E 107 ° 50'<br />Borders: China, Laos, Cambodia,<br /> South East Sea<br />Climate: tropical monsoon<br />Summer monsoon: May-October<br />Dry season: Dec - Apr<br />High humidity: Average 84%<br />Annual rainfall: 120-300 cm p.ann, <br /> 90% in summer<br />Overview – Geographical background<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>111BC-938AD: 1,000 years ruled by China
  5. 5. 938AD-19th Century: Early independence
  6. 6. 19th century: French colony
  7. 7. 1945-1954: Indochina War
  8. 8. 1954: Independent
  9. 9. 1954-1975: Vietnam War
  10. 10. 1975: United North & South
  11. 11. 1986 : DoiMoi policy
  12. 12. 1995: Member of ASEAN
  13. 13. 2007: Member of WTO</li></ul>Overview – History: Socialist Republic of Vietnam<br />
  14. 14. 64 Provinces<br />Districts<br />Communes<br />In 8 Regions<br />Urban division<br />05 centrally governed cities<br />Provincial cities<br />Towns<br />Overview – Administrative Division<br />
  15. 15. Demographic Profile<br />
  16. 16. Distribution of population <br />Population growth rates<br />Population density<br />Ethnicity<br />Population Pyramids <br />Sex ratios<br />Life expectancy<br />Households<br />Demographic - Profile<br />
  17. 17. Outline: (Duration based on the last 2 cencus in Vietnam 1999-2009<br />Compare 05 countries on the following aspects:<br />Part 1. Size of total population (mil.)<br />Population growth rate is a basic indicator reflecting the level of <br />population increased or decreased during a year as the result of the natural increase or migration in comparison with average population in the year.<br />Annual population growth rate (% p.a.)<br />Birth rate & death rate (per 1000)<br />>> work out the natural growth rate: live births – deaths<br />4. Distribution of population by sex (% total population)<br />Part 2. Also compare 05 countries<br />Population structure by age groups and sex<br />Life expectance from birth<br />Demographic - Indicators<br />
  18. 18. High population: 85,5 million people (in 13th world population ranking level)<br />Rapid Growth but getting slowdown.<br />Irregular distribution of population.<br />Demographic - Population Growth Rates.<br />
  19. 19. Demographic - Population Distribution <br />Irregular distribution population:<br />Plain, midland, mountain<br />75 % ppl in plain<br />25 % ppl in midland and mountain<br />Urban and rural<br />26,9 % ppl Urban<br />73,1 % ppl Rural<br />
  20. 20. Demographic - Population Density<br />Average density: 261 ppl/sqkm one of the highest levels in the world.<br />High concentrate in two main economic region: Red river delta, Mekong delta.<br />Hung Yen Province: 1221 ppl/sqkm<br />Can Tho Province: 420 ppl/sqkm<br />Lai Chau Province: 40 ppl/sqkm<br />
  21. 21. Demographic - Ethnicity<br />High diversity: 54 ethnic groups<br />But Almost is minorities <br />53 Minority Ethnics have 13, 4 % population.<br />3,2 million Vietnamese are living abroad. <br />
  22. 22. Demographic - Population Growth (1980 – 2020)<br />Sources: www.CIA.gov ; www.aseansec.org<br />
  23. 23. Demographic - Population growth (1980 - 2020)<br />Sources: www.CIA.gov ; www.aseansec.org; http://data.un.org/<br />
  24. 24. Comparison of Population Pyramid <br />Age and sex distribution (1990 - 1995):<br />Demographic - Population Pyramid<br />
  25. 25. Demographic - Population Pyramid<br />Comparison of Population Pyramid <br />Age and sex distribution (2000):<br />
  26. 26. Demographic - Households<br />
  27. 27. Demographic - Households<br />
  28. 28. Demographic - Sex Ratio<br />Sex ratio: Imbalance, especially in Red river delta.<br />BacGiang province: 128 boys/100 girls<br />Ha Giang province: 96 boys/100 girls<br />In ethnicity minority communities: More Girls than Boys<br />In Plain, Kinh ethnic: More Girls than Boys<br />
  29. 29. Demographic - Life Expectance<br />Life expectance: (in world ranking)<br />Cambodia: 178th<br />Vietnam: 129th<br />Malaysia: 112nd<br />Thailand: 113rd<br />Japan: 5th<br />
  30. 30. Economic Profile<br />
  31. 31. <ul><li>Size & Growth of the Economy
  32. 32. Structure and Growth of Output
  33. 33. Saving & Investment
  34. 34. Import & Export
  35. 35. Foreign Direct Investment
  36. 36. Foreign Trade
  37. 37. Unemployment Rate
  38. 38. Inflation Rate
  39. 39. Government Budget
  40. 40. External Debt
  41. 41. Lending & Borrowing
  42. 42. ODA Mobilization over 2006-2009
  43. 43. Energy Infrastructure
  44. 44. Transport Infrastructure
  45. 45. Access to Information Technology
  46. 46. Labour market trend
  47. 47. Employment and Unemployment trends
  48. 48. Wages and income
  49. 49. Social protection and Workplace safety and health
  50. 50. Labor productivity and competitiveness</li></ul>Economic - Profile<br />
  51. 51. <ul><li> GDP (Current Prices, US Dollars) for Vietnam in year 2010 is US$ 103.574 Billion. This makes Vietnam No. 59 in world rankings
  52. 52. The world's average GDP (Current Prices, US Dollars) value is US$ 1403.50 Billion; Vietnam is US$ 1,299.93 less than the average.</li></ul>Economic - Size Of Economy - 2010<br />Source : World Bank<br />Year 2010<br />Source : IMF<br />Source : IMF<br />
  53. 53. Source : World Bank<br />Economic - Size, Growth Of Economy - 2010<br />
  54. 54. Economic - Structure & Growth<br />Source : ADB - Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific<br />
  55. 55. Economic - Saving & Investment - 2010<br /><ul><li>Investment of Vietnam in year 2010 is 38.077 % of GDP.This makes Vietnam No. 14 in world rankings according to Investment (% of GDP) in year 2010.
  56. 56. The world's average Investment (% of GDP) value is 21.70 %; Vietnam is 16.38% more than the average.
  57. 57. In the previous year, 2009, Investment (% of GDP) for Vietnam was 38.13 % . Investment for Vietnam in 2010 was 0.14% less than it was in 2009.</li></ul>Gross National Savings (% of GDP) for Vietnam in year 2010 is 34.285 %. This makes VN No. 19 in world rankings according to GNS (% of GDP) in year 2010. <br /><ul><li>The world's average Gross National Savings (% of GDP) value is 18.64 %; Vietnam is 15.65% more than the average.
  58. 58. In the previous year, 2009, Gross National Savings (% of GDP) for Vietnam was 31.56 % Gross National Savings (% of GDP) for Vietnam in 2010 is 8.62% more than it was in 2009.</li></ul>Source : IMF<br />
  59. 59. Value of Oil Imports ( Billion US Dollars)<br /><ul><li> Value of Oil Imports for Vietnam in year 2010 is US$ 6.846 Billions</li></ul>This makes Vietnam No. 42 in world rankings according to Value of Oil Imports in year 2010. <br /><ul><li>The world's average Value of Oil Imports value is US$ 9.94 Billions; Vietnam is US$ 3.09 Billions less than the average.
  60. 60. In the previous year, 2009, Value of Oil Imports for Vietnam was US$ 6.77 Billions. Value of Oil Imports for Vietnam in 2010 is 1.12% more than it was in 2009.</li></ul>Source : IMF<br /><ul><li> Value of Oil Exports for Vietnam in year 2010 is US$ 4.958Billions</li></ul>This makes Vietnam No. 49in world rankings according to Value of Oil Exports in year 2010. <br /><ul><li>The world's average Value of Oil Exports value is US$ 10.16 Billions; Vietnam is US$ 5.20Billions less than the average.
  61. 61. In the previous year, 2009, Value of Oil Exports for Vietnam was US$ 6.20 Billions. Value of Oil Exports for Vietnam in 2010 is 19.97% less than it was in 2009.</li></ul>Value of Oil Exports ( Billion US Dollars)<br />Source : IMF<br />Economic - Import & Export<br />
  62. 62. Economic - Foreign Direct Investment<br />Source : General Statistics Office of Vietnam<br />
  63. 63. Source : World Bank<br />Economic - Foreign Trade<br />Import & Export of Goods, Services as % of GDP<br />
  64. 64. Economic - Foreign Trade (Cont)<br />Origin of Merchandise Imports, 2009 (%)<br />Destination of Merchandise Export, 2009 (%)<br />Source : ADB- Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific<br />
  65. 65. Economic - Unemployment Rates<br />The unemployment rate in Vietnam was last reported at 2.9 percent in 2010 (Unemployment rate is defined as the level of unemployment divided by the labor force)<br />
  66. 66. Economic - Inflation Rates<br />The inflation rate in Vietnam was last reported at 17.5 percent in April of 2011(Inflation rate refers to a general rise in prices measured against a standard level of purchasing power ) <br />
  67. 67. Economic - Government Budget<br />Vietnam reported a government budget deficit equivalent to 7.70 percent of the GDP in 2009. Government Budget is an itemized accounting of the payments received by government (taxes and other fees) and the payments made by government (purchases and transfer payments). <br />
  68. 68. Economic - External Debt<br />Debt – External: <br />$33.45 billion (31 Dec 2010 est)<br />$27.84 (31 Dec 2009 est)<br />Vietnam’s external debt position has historically been robust, but has been negatively affected by the global crisis and domestic macroeconomic instability since late 2008.<br />Vietnam remains at low risk of external debt distress, but debt indicators have deteriorated due to the negative impact of the global crisis and the increased<br />macroeconomic risks in late 2009 (IMF Report, Sep 2010)<br />source: IMF<br />
  69. 69. Economic - Lending & Borrowing - 2010<br /><ul><li>Total Government Gross Debt (% of GDP) for Vietnam in year 2010 is 52.847 % (3.30% more than it was in 2009). </li></ul>This makes Vietnam No. 62 in world rankings according to Total Government Gross Debt (% of GDP) in year 2010. <br /><ul><li>The world's average Total Government Gross Debt (% of GDP) value is 46.17 %; Vietnam is 6.68% more than the average.
  70. 70. Total Government Net Lending/ Borrowing (% of GDP) for Vietnam in year 2010 is - 6.414 %</li></ul>This makes Vietnam No. 144 in world rankings. <br /><ul><li>The world's average Total Government Net Lending/ Borrowing (% of GDP) value is -1.89 %; Vietnam is 4.52 less than the average.</li></ul>In the previous year, 2009, Total Government Net Lending/ Borrowing (% of GDP) for Vietnam was -8.99 %. Total Government Net Lending/ Borrowing (% of GDP) for Vietnam in 2010 was 28.68% less than it was in 2009.<br />Source : IMF<br />
  71. 71. Economic - ODA Mobilization over 1993 - 2009<br />Distribution of ODA by Sectors & Areas<br />ODA by periods<br />UNIT: Million USD<br />Commitment<br />Signed<br />Disbursement<br />Source: Ministry of planning & Investment <br />ODA commitment, signed agreement and disbursement – Comparison among different periods Unit: Million USD <br />
  72. 72. Economic - Energy Infrastructure (1/3)<br /><ul><li>1990 – 2008: Electricity production increase 88%, average annual growth rate of 4.9% pa
  73. 73. 1990 – 2008: Electricity consumption increase 90.6%, average annual growth rate of 5.0%pa
  74. 74. 80% households are supplied electricity</li></ul>Source: World Bank<br />
  75. 75. Economic - Energy Infrastructure (2/3)<br />Source: World Bank<br /><ul><li>Electricity production from natural gas, hydroelectric and coal increased normally
  76. 76. Electricity production from oil decreased </li></li></ul><li>Economic - Energy Infrastructure (3/3)<br />Source of Electricity, 2007<br />(percentage distribution)<br />Increase in Electricity Production(Ratio: 2007/1990)<br />Massive increase in electricity production. Vietnam’s ratio of 8,0. Countries in Southeast Asia recorded large increases: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, & Thailand. <br />Most electricity is generated in Asia by carbon fuels. <br />Source : ADB- Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific<br />
  77. 77. Economic - Transport Infrastructure (1/2)<br /><ul><li>Total road network: 163.647km
  78. 78. Road network density: 46km/100km2
  79. 79. Motor vehicles per 1000people (2007): 13. Singapore: 149; Japan: 595; Laos: 21 </li></ul>Source: World Bank<br />
  80. 80. Economic - Transport Infrastructure (2/2)<br />Average Annual Percentage Growth in Road Networks, 1990 to Latest Year<br />Source : ADB- Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific<br />
  81. 81. Economic - Information Technology<br />Distribution of Mobil phone network<br />Employment<br />Source: World Bank<br /><ul><li> Technology information has developed strongly within 10 years
  82. 82. Ex: Internet, cell phone networks, 3G</li></li></ul><li>Economic - Labor Market Trends<br />Distribution of population by age, 2000 – 2010 (10%)<br />From 2000 to 2007, The labour force increased by an average of 1.06 million people annually<br />In Year 2000 : 38,4 millions people and 46, 7 millions people in 2007, (24.1 million men and 22.6 million women), rate of 69,7 %.<br />The rate for females is higher than those for males in this period.<br />The labour force remains mostly unskilled as 65.3 per cent did not have any technical education in 2007<br />
  83. 83. Economic - Labor Productivity & Copetitiveness<br />Output per worker, 2000 and 2008 (constant 1990 USD)<br /><ul><li> From 2000 to 2007, labour productivity in Viet Nam increased remarkably from VND 7.1</li></ul> million to VND 10.1 million, an annual average increase of 5.1 per cent.<br /><ul><li> In those, Industry remained the leader in terms of productivity at nearly VND 22 million,</li></ul> more than 50 per cent higher than productivity in services and more than six times<br /> the level in agriculture.<br /><ul><li> Measured in constant 1990 USD, Viet Nam's average output per worker was USD 5,702 in</li></ul> 2008, or equal to only 61.4 per cent of the ASEAN average, 22 per cent of productivity in<br /><ul><li> Malaysia and 12.4 per cent of the level in Singapore.</li></li></ul><li>Economic - Wages & Income<br />Average monthly wages type of enterprise, 1998, 2002, 2004 and 2006<br /><ul><li>From 2002 to 2006, worker’s income had increased continously.
  84. 84. Monthly income per capita increased by 78.7 per cent, with rural income growth (83.8 per</li></ul> cent) outpacing the rise in urban income levels (70.1 per cent)<br /><ul><li>The fluctuation between top richest and top poorest got from 8,2 % to 9,7%.</li></li></ul><li>Economic - Social Protection<br />Participation in the compulsory social insurance scheme, 2001 - 2008<br /><ul><li>Only 8.5 million people, or less than one-fifth of the total workforce joined the insurance activities and represents about 80 per cent of those who were eligible.
  85. 85. Almost employees in rural areas and household did not join insurance
  86. 86. The voluntary system has also been weak in attracting working youth.
  87. 87. Compulsory programmer
  88. 88. In 2008, The social assistance scheme, the voluntary social insurance scheme and old-age pensions program have been built</li></ul>Workplace safety and health <br /><ul><li>From 2006 through 2009, there were more than 6000 reported occupational accidents each year in the formal sector and approximately 500 fatal accidents.
  89. 89. In 2008, only 53.8 per cent of the 496 labor inspectors nationwide were professionally trained. There are more than two thousand handicraft villages producing or processing recycled metals, paper and other materials.</li></li></ul><li>Economic - Labor force growth<br />Labor force growth in ASEAN, 2000 – 2010 & 2010 - 2015<br /><ul><li> Viet Nam's labour force will continue to expand significantly from 2010 to 2015, at</li></ul> an estimated 1.5 per cent each year, or by 738 thousand.<br /><ul><li> In the Period of 2000-2010, Vietnam’s labour force growth in absolute terms will be</li></ul> among the highest in the ASEAN region, trailing only Indonesia and the Philippines.<br />
  90. 90. Social Profile<br />
  91. 91. Social - Profile<br />1.Poverty<br />2. Education<br />3. Access to housing & services<br />4. Health & nutrition<br />
  92. 92. Population Below National Poverty Line<br />Population Below International Poverty Line <br />Social - Provety<br />
  93. 93. Total NET enrolment ratio in primacy education<br />Adult literacy rate<br />Social - Education<br />
  94. 94. Comparing between 5 Countries Improved Sanitation & Water:<br /><ul><li> Vietnam is the third position amongst these countries, higher than Cambodia, Lao PDR about 20-30% and lower than Thailand about 30-40%.
  95. 95. The number of improved Sanitation increased faster than other countries.
  96. 96.  Vietnam pay attention more in improving people’s living conditions.</li></ul>Social - Houses & Services (1/2)<br />
  97. 97. Social - Houses & Services (2/2)<br />
  98. 98. Social - Health & Nutrition (1/3)<br />
  99. 99. Social - Health & Nutrition (2/3)<br />-1945 Vietnam had 70 hospitals with a total of 3,000 beds, and it had1physician /180,000 popular.<br />-1979 there were 713 hospitals with 205,700 beds<br />- Quality of public health care and the level of medical technology remained inadequate, however, and authorities were increasingly concerned about such problems as nutritional deficiency, mental health, and old-age illnesses. <br />
  100. 100. Social - Health & Nutrition (3/3)<br />PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH 2001 (% GDP): 5.1%<br />HEALTH EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA 2003 (PPP US $) : $134<br />INFANTILE MORTALITY RATE per 1000 live births 199039.1200919.5<br />UNDER FIVE MORTALITY RATE (per 1000 live births)1990 202 200923.6<br />TOTAL FERTILITY RATE ( births per woman )(MDG) 1990 3.7 20092<br />MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE (per one hundred thousand live births adjusted) 2001 :56<br />
  101. 101. Environmental Profile<br />
  102. 102. Land Use<br />Biodiversity<br />Water<br />Energy<br />Emissions<br />Disasters<br />Commitment<br />Environmental - Profile<br />
  103. 103. Source: PAD<br />http://www.mekong-protected-areas.org/index.htm<br />Source: World Bank 2010 Table 3.1 & 5<br />Environmental - Land use<br />
  104. 104. Environmental - Biodiversity<br />Source: World Bank 2010 Table 3.4 <br />
  105. 105. Environmental - Deforestation (2007)<br />Forest area: 134 thousand sq.km<br />% of total land: 43.3 <br />Average annual deforestation (% change)<br />Source: World Bank 2010 Table 3.4 <br />
  106. 106. Environmental - Water Using & Consumption<br />Supply<br />Freshwater Resources 2007: 4304 m3 per capita<br />Demand<br /> Annual Freshwater Withdrawals<br /> Total: 71.4 billion m3<br /> % of total resources: 19.5<br />Distribution of Withdrawals (%)<br />Irrigated land (% of cropland)<br /> 1979-1981: 24.1<br /> 1994-1996: 29.6<br /> 2001-2003: 33.9<br />Source: World Bank 2000, 2008, 2010 <br />
  107. 107. Environmental - Energy in General View<br />Energy consumption<br />(Sectral Energy: 2006)<br />Energy distribution<br />(Fuel Energy: 2006)<br /><ul><li> about 65% of population lives in rural areas where firewood, straw, and wood are used as the energy source for cooking at homes.
  108. 108. Most of the biomass energy is utilized in rural areas as home energy.</li></ul>http://www.asiabiomass.jp<br />
  109. 109. Vietnam Forecast of power generation mix % by fuel from 2009 – 2015 (source BMI – Industry Forecast Scenario, Q1 2011)<br />Environmental - Energy in General View<br />
  110. 110. Environmental - Energy – Petroleum<br />Total Oil Production<br />Crude Oil Production<br />- Now: Vietnam is an export country of petroleum (crude oil).<br />- In the future: Vietnam is an import country of petroleum (crude oil)<br />- In 5 countries group (2009):<br /><ul><li> Vietnam produced less Total Oil and Crude Oil than Malaysia (highest production).
  111. 111. Vietnam used less Petroleum than Japan (highest consumption), Thailand and Malaysia.</li></ul>(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />Petroleum Consumption<br />
  112. 112. Environmental - Energy – Oil Refinery<br />DUNG QUAT oil refinery <br />NGHI SON oil refinery <br /><ul><li> Before: 100% refined petroleum production were import (from Chinese, Singapore, Taipei…)
  113. 113. In 2009: DUNG QUOC Oil Refinery Plant operated and has provided 30% refined oil production for demand inner Vietnam.
  114. 114. In 2015: NGHI SON Oil Refinery Plant will be finished and will provided 80%</li></ul>refined oil production for demand inner Vietnam.<br />
  115. 115. Environmental - Energy – Natural Gas<br />Natural Gas Production<br />Natural Gas Consumption<br />- In 5 countries group (2009)<br /><ul><li> Vietnam produced les Natural Gas than Malaysia (highest production) and Thailand.
  116. 116. Vietnam used less Natural Gas than Malaysia, Thailand and Japan (highest consumption)</li></ul>(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />
  117. 117. Environmental - Energy – Coal<br />Coal Production<br />Coal Consumption<br />- Vietnam's coal reserves are very large (about 10.5 billion tons of Quang Ninhmine-source).<br />- In 5 countries group (2009):<br /><ul><li> Vietnam produced a highest Coal production
  118. 118. Vietnam used less Coal than Thailand and Japan (highest consumption)</li></ul>(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />
  119. 119. Environmental - Energy – Electricity<br />Electricity Net Generation<br />Electricity Net Consumption<br />- Vietnam's electricity generation mostly from hydropower.<br />- In 5 countries group (2008):<br /><ul><li> Vietnam generated & used less Electricity than Malaysia, Thailand and Japan (highest production)</li></ul>(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />
  120. 120. Environmental - Energy – Electricity<br />- Vietnamese’s hydropower resources are being develop to provide clean, renewable and low cost energy for growth.<br />- This makes sense as Vietnam seeks to curb carbon emission to mitigate predicted negative impacts of global warming<br />Trung Son Hydropower Project – Source: WB<br /><ul><li> Generator: Vietnam Electricity (EVN)
  121. 121. Cost: US$380 million.
  122. 122. Supporter: World Bank (financial and technical).
  123. 123. Loan: from International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). </li></ul>(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />
  124. 124. Environmental - Total Primary Energy<br />Total Primary Energy Consumption<br />Total Primary Energy Production<br />In the 5 countries group: Vietnam produced and used less primary Energy than Malaysia, Thailand and Japan (highest production and consumption-world rank: 3)<br />(Source: EIA-Energy Information Administration)<br />
  125. 125. Environmental - Emission: CO2 & Methane<br /><ul><li>Vietnam’s CO2 emissions are lower than regional and global levels.
  126. 126. National CO2 emission: 14 million tons (1980), increased to 80 (2005)
  127. 127. Rapid of Co2 in transport sector (14% to 25%)
  128. 128. Methane Mainly from Agricultural: decreased 70% (1990) to 67% (2005)
  129. 129. Industrial increased 10% (1990) to 18% (2005)</li></li></ul><li>Environmental - Emission: NO2, other Greenhouse Gas<br /><ul><li> Nitrous oxide Mostly from Agricultural: increased 83% (1990) to 95% (2005).</li></li></ul><li>Environmental - Disaster<br />Source : Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2010 EMDAT 2010<br />Vietnam is not in top ten countries in term of disaster mortality, victims and damage<br />
  130. 130. Environmental - Government Commitments<br />Source : World Bank World Development Indicator 2010<br />
  131. 131. Urbanization Profile<br />
  132. 132. Urbanization - Profile<br /><ul><li>Urbanization
  133. 133. Urban System
  134. 134. Cities’ Profile</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Urban Population<br />Source: Global report on Human settlement 2009 – table B.2<br /><ul><li> The number of population in Japan is highest in 5 countries, the second is Vietnam, and the Last one is Cambodia
  135. 135. The number of urban population in Vietnam and Japan is higher than other countries. The smallest number is Cambodia.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Urban Population<br />Source: Global report on Human settlement 2009 – table B.2<br />
  136. 136. Urbanization - Lever of Urbanization 2000 - 2030<br />GDP per capital 2010<br />Source: World bank<br />Level of urbanization 2010<br /><ul><li> The levels of urbanization in these regions are related with GDP per capital.
  137. 137. The level of four countries (Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand) are increasing as they enter the second phase of curve “S”. However, Japan is increasing slowly as enters in the fourth phase of “S” curve (flatten off)</li></ul>Source: Global report on Human settlement 2009 – table B.3<br />
  138. 138. Urbanization - Rate of Urbanization 2000 - 2030<br /><ul><li> The urban growth rate decrease from 3.1% to 2,69%, although the national population growth rate increase. The rural growth rate also decreases from 0.77% to -0.32%.
  139. 139. Thus, the Tempo of urbanization increase from 2.33% to 3.01% over 3 periods.</li></ul>Source: Global report on Human settlement 2009 – table B.2 – B.3<br />
  140. 140. Urbanization - Tempo of Urbanization<br /><ul><li> The Tempo of urbanization in Thailand, Malaysia, and Cambodia decrease, The others in Vietnam, Japan increase over 3 periods.
  141. 141. Cambodia is the country which has the highest percentage of Tempo of urbanization over 3 periods. In contrast, Japan is the country which has the smallest percentage of Tempo of urbanization over 3 periods
  142. 142. It mean: there is a big difference between the rate of growth of the urban and rural population in Cambodia, a small ones in Japan from 2000 to 2030.</li></ul>Source: Global report on Human settlement 2009 – table B.1 – B.3<br />
  143. 143. Urbanization - Rural - Urban Migration<br />Share of net migration to urban growth<br /><ul><li>The big change in contribution of Migration to Urban growth in Vietnam in the periods of time from 1275 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2025.
  144. 144. The rate of migrants in the first 25 years was just one fourth but it increased rapidly to over a half ò total urban population in t he next 25 years. The speed of urbanization in Vietnam higher an higher.
  145. 145. The rate of migrants in the comparison with the rate of nature increase population proved that migrants keep the main role in contribution to Urban Growth in Vietnam.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Rural - Urban Migration<br />Urban slum Dwellers in Vietnam<br /><ul><li> The data indicate a growing deterioration in a key urban issue during the 19th, the percentage of urban population living in slum is nearly 50% of the population in Vietnam</li></ul>Source: Global report on human settlement 2005<br />
  146. 146. Urbanization - Urban Network (>100.000 Populations)<br /><ul><li>Understand urban systems in terms of urban hierarchies. When settlements are grouped together in different size classes (e.g. cities over one million; cities between I mill and 500,000; cities between 500,000 and 250,000 and so on) planners have identified urban systems as being organized as urban hierarchies.
  147. 147. The Table of Urban Hierarchy in Vietnam in 2010 in the next lin. </li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Urban Hierachy<br />
  148. 148. Urbanization - Urban System - Rank Size Distribution<br /><ul><li>Identify how urban growth is distributed amongst cities of different sizes. The rescaling of urban systems has occurred historically: spatial efficiency; spatial equity and social justice; spatial division of labor; the friction of distance.</li></ul>(Source: VN Demographic Yearbook 1998, Table 8) <br />
  149. 149. Urbanization - Urban System - Urban Primacy<br /><ul><li>Urban primacy exists when the difference in the size of the largest city and other cities in the urban system is much greater than that predicted by the rank size rule.
  150. 150. Urban primacy is not measured in terms of size alone.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - The City‘s Profile<br />Hanoi<br /><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh city is the most populous city, is also the importantly economic, cultural, and educational centre of Vietnam.
  151. 151. The city was formed in 1698 by the southern exploration of The Nguyen Dynasty.</li></ul>Ho Chi Minh city<br /><ul><li>Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam, it is in the center of Hong river delta. Hanoi is the second most populous city and important centre of politic, culture, economy, and education of Vietnam.
  152. 152. Hanoi became the capital of Vietnam after moved the capital by the first king Ly in 1010.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - The City‘s Profile - Population & GDP<br />Source: General Statistic Office; Statistical Year Books<br /><ul><li>Urban Population density of Hanoi is estimated around 6509 p/km2. The highest density area is up to 35341 people/km2 – Dong Da district. Population density of Ho Chi Minh city in 2009: 3399p/km2. In 1999: 2410 p/km2
  153. 153. In 2010, Hanoi contributed around 12% National GDP, while HCM city contributed nearly one third GDP of whole country.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - The City‘s Profile - Urban Housing<br />Source: General Statistic Office<br /><ul><li>Quality of housing in Hanoi is considered better than Ho Chi Minh city by the census of population and housing in 2009. In Hanoi, permanent houses occupied the majority of Hanoi houses with the number of 86.40%, while the majority of houses in Ho Chi Minh city if semi permanent with 77.48%.
  154. 154. In 2010, Hanoi contributed around 12% National GDP, while HCM city contributed nearly one third GDP of whole country.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Fragmentation<br /><ul><li>Fragmentation in urban area
  155. 155. Inequality in Ho Chi Minh city is very evident by the contrast of rich areas and slums in the urban space. The gap between the rich and the poor is bigger and bigger.
  156. 156. Spatial structure inner urban is broken by the imbalance development. Fragmentation is occurring in Ho Chi Minh city.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Ho Chi Minh City ‘s Services<br />Source: http://www.medinet.hochiminhcity.gov.vn<br /><ul><li>Health care
  157. 157. The number of Medical doctor for every 10,000 resident in Ho Chi Minh city up to the year of 2008 is 8.2. It is much lower than the international standard that is around 25.
  158. 158. HCM city is the medical centre of the whole country, so all the hospitals and health care centre were overload.
  159. 159. Number of population which was provided safe water in Ho Chi Minh city was lower than the demand
  160. 160. Fresh water</li></ul>Source: SAWACO: 2009<br />
  161. 161. Urbanization - Ho Chi Minh City ‘s Infrastructure<br /><ul><li>Transportation
  162. 162. The transportation system in Ho Chi Minh city at the current time is inadequate. Ratio of landuse for transportation is only 4.87% of total urban area.
  163. 163. The invasion of motorbikes and complicated road system leads congestions inside the city.
  164. 164. Transportation planning was established and the first line of metro system is under construction to solve transport problem in Ho Chi Minh city.</li></li></ul><li>Urbanization - Ho Chi Minh City ‘s Infrastructure<br /><ul><li>Drainage
  165. 165. Sanitation
  166. 166. The poor infrastructure of drainage system causes flooding in some location inside Ho Chi Minh city which is one main reason leading to the terrible traffic congestion.
  167. 167. Canal system is seriously polluted by untreated waste water and garbage</li></li></ul><li>The end!<br />

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