Ngoc anh hcmc_mitigation


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Ngoc anh hcmc_mitigation

  1. 1. Course: Climate Change and UrbanizationLecturer: Dr. Dirk HeinrichsStudent: Nguyen Ngoc AnhDate Submission: June 30, 2011 Improving Integrated Solid Waste Management in Ho Chi Minh City to Support Climate Change MitigationI. Introduction - Ho Chi Minh City and Climate ChangeHo Chi Minh City (HCMC) is the largest primate city of Vietnam with the population of 7.4million people in 2010, and the average annual population change is 3.1% 1 . HCM citycovers the area of 2,095 km2, including 24 districts and in which there are 322 wards insmaller administrative division. The annual temperature is 270C and average annual rainfallis 1,800mm. In 2007, the average temperature in HCMC is 0.8-1.3 0C higher than 1931-1940, and 0.4-0.50C higher than 1991-2000 2 .The projected information of sea level rise is based on the officially used medium emissionscenario (B2), 30cm increase by 2050 and 75cm by 2100 3 . With 75cm increased sea level,10% of HCMC areas will be in threat of inundation, this could be even higher due toinappropriate land use planning 4 . This paper proposes one climate change mitigationmeasure in waste management sector, short description and some discussions on reasonsof selection are included.II. Green House Gases (GHG) Inventory in Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh CityVietnam signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 andratified it in 1994, signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1998 and ratified it in 2002. Under theUNFCCC, Vietnam completed five national green house gases (GHS) inventories since1990, two of which are under UNFCC and conducted in 1994 and 2000.Total CO2 emission in Vietnam increased significantly, five times in the period of 1990-2007,and gradually increase in 1994-2000. Although GHG emission from waste sector contributeto only 2.4-5.3% of national GHG, it increase significantly from 2.6 to 7.9 million tons (threetimes in six years) 5 .1 Ho Chi Minh City Statistic 2010, MONRE 2008, National Strategy to Climate Change3 MONRE 2009, Climate change, sea level rise scenarios for Vietnam4 Stotch, H. 2008 Adapting Ho Chi Minh City for Climate Change. Urban Compactness: a Problem orSolution?, 44th ISOCARP Congress 20085 Vietnam’s Second National Communication under the UNFCCC 2010 1
  2. 2. Table 1: Summary of GHG emission in 1994, 1998 and 2000 6As agriculture contribute only 1.3%, industry 44% and services 54.7% in HCMC’s economicsectors, it is assumed that GHG emission in agriculture is low, and higher proportion of GHGemission is primarily from industry, energy, and waste sector.III. Proposed Mitigation Measure: Improving Integrated Solid Waste ManagementSolid waste has not been sorted at source, therefore everyday HCMC produces 7,500 tonsof solid waste, of which 6,200 tons are collected and sent to landfill 7 . The high proportion ofwaste to landfill shows the waste in resources for recycling, pressure on landfill capacity,pollution and increased GHG emissions. The proposed program for an integrated solidwaste management to mitigate climate change impacts in HCMC includes: - Separate waste at source for better waste treatments - Increase the waste recycling through organic fertilizer production - Improve landfill waste treatment through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)Participant for segregating solid waste at sources are mainly at households, therefore theawareness and communication program are very important. This needs to be stronglyorganized in wards and district level. Pilot projects can be carried out firstly in some districts,and propaganda/communication program should be focused. Moreover, the waste collectionsystem should be also re-organized. Landfill improvement may include the improvement insanitary landfill. GHG emission can be reduced by improving the landfill quality, capture andutilize the emissions under CDM.The leading agencies are: Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DONRE),municipalities of HCMC, funding agencies (WB, ADB, etc.), CDM committee, CarbonFinance Agency (Prototype Carbon Fund, WB), NGOs and CBOs.6 United Nation 2011, Climate Change Factsheet: Greenhouse gas emissions and options formitigation in Vietnam, and the UN’s responses7 MONRE 2010, State of Environment Vietnam 2010 2
  3. 3. For monitoring and evaluation, some indicators can be: number of districts improved insorting waste; % of total waste are sorted; volume & percentage (of total) organic waste tofertilizer; changes in waste volume to landfill; reduced in GHG emissions; volume andchanges of GHG capture; energy generated from GHG emission; carbon traded.IV.Reasons for selection Reduce GHG emissions:GHG emission from urban waste sector contribute has increased significantly from 2.6 to 7.9million tons (three times in six years) due to the high urbanization rate and economic growth.Moreover, in HCMC, as a largest city in Vietnam, waste management can contribute to morethan 10% of GHG emission. Thus, reducing GHG emission in waste sector is an importantmitigation measure. It is estimated that the CDM project in improving landfill in Cu Chi andDong Thanh can reduce 3.13 million tons CO2 equivalent during the crediting period 8 . Theincrease in urban solid waste is also very significant (about 10-16% annually), expecting thevery high increase in GHG emission in this sector if no sufficient management and treatmentmeasure are implemented. Sustainable development:Solid waste has not been sorted at source, therefore it is an crucial task for wastemanagement sector in HCMC in order to improve the its effectiveness and efficiency. Thecurrent urban solid waste is far beyond the city treatment capacity, which then create highrisk of environmental pollution, community health and unsustainable development. Thisproposed CC mitigation measure in solid waste sector can also support the sustainabledevelopment strategy of HCMC. Through the segregating waste at source at the community,increasing the community awareness, some expectations can be: (1) the improvement in thecurrent situation- waste recycling and treatment, (2) the improvement in communitysustainable attitude/behavior- reducing the waste volume and increasing waste recycling. Link to climate change adaptation:The proposed mitigation measure for climate change can be linked to adaptation measure.Urban to city migration has been significant in recent years, with the urban populationincreasing by 78% from 1990 to 2007 9 , and the increase in population from migration inHCMC is 20.7% annually. As projected that Southern Vietnam (in Mekong Delta and HCMC)will be highly affected by sea level rise, the migration issue can become even moresignificant as the consequences of climate change. By that way, urban solid wastemanagement is very important. The projection is for 2020 and/or 2050, not very far future,that is why the concern and action at this present is significantly essential.8 Hoang, H 2005, Potential CDM Projects in Vietnam, Workshop on the Financing Modalities of CDM,Indonesia 20059 Ho Chi Minh City Statistic 2010 3