DAI HQC DAN LAP THANG LONGBAI GIANG CONG TAC XA HOI    LI THUYET VA THliC HANH   CONG TAC XA HOI TRVC TIEP          Chu Mo...
Ma 86: 01.02.7/40 DH 2006
myc LycLèln6i4u 	                                                          5Lai moat/ 	                                   ...
Lai Si Idu 	  Viec giang day cong the xa hei (CTXH) tuy da chinh thfic có lich sit  hang tram nam ii nhUng qugc gia khac; ...
Chung toi hi vong rang khi cu6n sach nay duac tai ban sau nay se co    nhigu minh hoo vg thvc to CTXH a Viet Nam va qua do...
Lai me au  Tithe hanh cong tac xa hei true tigp la phen cdt loi chi ygu cna thue  hanh ding tee xa hei. N6i thkic hanh ton...
nang xac dinh van de caa del Wong, ki nang lap kg * hoach can thiep,    ki nang thac hien can thiep, Id nang h6 trl khach ...
Chucng 1     KT NANG NHAP CUOC VOI KHACH HANG      Trong tam cim chucing nay nham dg cap den nhfing ki nang giao tipca ban...
Khong chii Si rang nghe          Nghia la ngudi nghe klaing chu nghe vi nhu khi ban vita nghe vita     chuyen kenh vO tuye...
be nhUng thong diep tit phia khach hang, Ire ca thong diep bang Edi not vathOng diep phi nen tii, vi du nhu giong nal, bie...
Giong mai           Giong noi nen phii hdp voi lei noi hay nhung bieu hien dude dung.     "Giong noi ka ban IA tong cu gia...
Vigo chti y din cach khach hang the hien minh thong qua ngo.chi cif the gifip ban hieu nhiing y nghia cast nhitng thong th...
loan tam li, tang thang, met mOi trong tong viec... Bat Ice van de nao neu tren dau co the din den nhang kho khan nhat din...
Khi nhan vien CTXH lam viec a met trung tam td van cho sinhban phai pluing van ve tinh hinh hien tat caa khach hang va xay...
5. Mat nhin-tiep xbc qua     anh mat, nhin chhm chhm,     Owen Bong cCia mat     6. Bleu hien caa khuon     mat-pha hdp vd...
KT nang tao digu kien thuan Ili (Facilitative conditions)      Nhfing dieu kien than loi la nhilng dieu kien vg pham chat ...
clang tim giai phap cho van de va khi do khach hang se tin rang ho dang  dude long nghe, dang throe thou higu.        Cach...
NIUTing phan ling thuang la khong de Y den then khach hang trinh bay, hoacla nhung phan ling thien ve chi triak khach hang...
Clip di;, 2: Ban dang cam thgy that yang vi ban van kWh-1g the lama viec dude ke to khi tai nan say ra.       Cgp do 3: Ba...
1. Khach hang: Tot rat bue minh vdi anh trai UM, mg toi khOng baogib. bat anh ay ta chiu trach nhiem vg nhilng hanh Ong cu...
8. Met co be 12 tuth bi anh trai quay rth khi dang nga. Chau noi:"Chau thac day khi thSy anh ay se vao nguai chat, chau rS...
tam tich cue c6 the duce dinh nghia la Mu § tdi nhring phan tieh cue tronglai not hay eau chuyen cim khach hang va chti tr...
1. Khach hang: Gan day tai cam thgy to lang. That la kh6 	        thite day va di lam nhung du sao tai clang da co" de lam...
da nghi ca hai chang UM se clang nuOi nang chting. DEng nghi sai   cho t6i. Tai yeu cfic con tot. TOi chi mong mugn có it ...
9. Khach hang: Chgng tea co van de vg nghien ritou va toi so rang          anh ay se mat viec Lan MM. DO la li do Lei phai...
each gitip do kik nhtt nggai gidp gia dinh la phai hilt het vg van de eimkhach hang sau do duo ra met loot the each chga t...
cang da tang trai qua nhung dieu Wong 41, co earn gide Wring to vA do do co the tao dUng mei quan he On gni, hdp toe hdn v...
3. Khach hang: TOi bat qua tang con gai tbi dang eb can sa va met itgiAy otter. TOi da nghi ng6 tit mita he nay khi no di ...
Khi nhan vien CTXH nghe eau chuyen cua khach hang, th yang thi cakhach hang va nhan vien CTXH dgu bat data cam thky lo sq....
cho met ngttoi khac. Yeu eau khach hang gill thich y nghia cim viec hiachon nem tit cO the ghlp ho hieu at/ Iva chon nen t...
• Nen dat cau hOi tap trung vao nhang van de thu but sy quan tam        cim khach hang. Nghia la cau hOi dat ra phai dua v...
Cau hOi ma. Loai can hoi nay cho cho phep khach hang tra lai theoea laa chon, chta ra nhang thong tin chi tigt ma khach ha...
3. Khach hang: "Anh ta sa vao nhung elle kin caa tor.       Nhan vien CTXH: "Chi co the noi them ve thai gian va dia diem ...
6. Khach hang: TM InIta IA toi se lien be. TM vita mdi trai qua haiWan MI6 khan va diking nhu chang tien tridn chtyc gi.  ...
Cau hOi theo trial hoc Socrat      "Khong co gi dac trong cho Socrat bang tranh luan, va khong có gi dactrong cho tranh lu...
Cau hed giai thich. Loai cau hOi nay nham kham pha mgi quan hegtha cac su kien, da kien va y Wang. Cu thd, nhan vien CTXH ...
thong tin vg met chu diem cu the de kith hoat nhan thfic tit duy cUa khachhang. Theo Overholser (1993), viec nay co the th...
Giai doan 3. Lap ra muc tieu va tim each can thiep tot nhat trongviec tre giup khach hang dat dude muc Lieu      Qua trinh...
Cau hai dank gia de khach hang din ra danh gia cua minh. Trongtwang hop nay la met danh Ma vg kg hoach va viec thin hien l...
D. CALI hot dein dichVe ban la gi khi not man cam thay tat hem?Giai doan 3. Thigt 15p muc tau va quygt dinh can thiepA. Ca...
Ban danh gib mOc dO hobn thanh nhilth6 nao?          Ban se lam gi khac hoac giang ngu   c6 the lam !pi In sau?          B...
4. Miit ngtidi lai xe tai 50 tudi: TOi                                            khOng Met tai sao Uoi phai den          ...
Cau tra lei cam thong matt: Ban dang thfic mac vi nha tri lieu nam ngodi noi rang moi this trong gia dinh ban deu On, va b...
Cau tra ldi cam thong Mau: Em dang tae gian vi ban gai coy dinhbe em. Khi ban gai em vg nha, em dang dinh lam cho co ta ca...
Cau tra Itli quan tam tich cite malt: DO qua la mat thanh tich dang kg. Anh nen cam thgy to hao.       6. Met phu nit 46 t...
12. Mat ngag6 cha 32 toga Md.: "Chi se lam gi nett chi     a vao vi tricfm tOi?"      Cau tra IM quan tam tich tee Mau: To...
Can tra ldi quan tam tich ciic ma. u: C6 le la khO khan khi phai song trong nhUng nha nth-A tre khan nhau, nhung quan tron...
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1286940426

  1. 1. DAI HQC DAN LAP THANG LONGBAI GIANG CONG TAC XA HOI LI THUYET VA THliC HANH CONG TAC XA HOI TRVC TIEP Chu Mon: GS.TS. Pham Huy Dung Tham gia bien soon: TrOn Hai Binh Hoang Thi Thu Dung Cao Thi TO Hoai Trthn Thi Thanh Ht.tOng TrOn PhiMng Thu TrOn Thu Trang Zlk A24 V11. NHA XUAT BAN BA] HQC SU PHAM
  2. 2. Ma 86: 01.02.7/40 DH 2006
  3. 3. myc LycLèln6i4u 5Lai moat/ 7 Chuang 1 9 Kr NANG NHAP CUOG VOI KHACH HANG 9 Ton tat 54 Chuang 2 55 KIN THUG VA KT NANG DANH GIA 55 Ióntk 88 Chuang 3 89 Kl6N THUG VA Kt NANG LAP K HOACH 89 TOm tAt . 128 Chuang 4 129 KIN THUG VA KITHLIAT CAN THIP 129 Tam tat 171 Chuang 5 172 !HAT TRIghl KINANG 981 r H6 GOA KHACH HANG 172 Tam tAT 214 Chuang 6 215 THUG HANH PHAT HUY NO LUG VA THE MA NH . 215 Ibntk 240 Chuang 7 242 TANG CLONG VtG THUG HIgN CHUG NANG GOA GIA191NH 242 Tom tat 280 Chuang 8, 282 TANG CLONG VI€C THUG HO CHUG NANG TRONG NH6M 282 T6m tAt 320 Chuang 9 321 CAN THIfr VAG CAC H THONG LON HON 521 Chuang 10 359 KIN THUG VA Ki NANG DANH GIA HIED QUA GONG TAG IRV GOP.. 559 TOm At 397 Tai IiEu than kftio 398 3
  4. 4. Lai Si Idu Viec giang day cong the xa hei (CTXH) tuy da chinh thfic có lich sit hang tram nam ii nhUng qugc gia khac; song viec giang day nay a Viet Nam co thd nal la con mai. Quan niem vii giang day CTXH cling chua that sti dude th6ng nhat. Tuy Be Ciao due va Dao tao da dtia ra khung chUang trinh day CTXH a bac cu nhan, sach day hoc ye CTXH a Viet Nam van rat higm hoi. Vi vay viec xual ban cu6n sach Bea gicing Gong tdc xd hOi — Li thuyet met Owe hanh cling tdc xd hOi true tigp cua nh6m giang vien Twang Dai hoc Thang Long la mot this nghiem clang khuygn khich. CuSn each nay dttac nhom giang dm Hai hoc Thang Long sit dung cho cac dgi Wong sinh vien khoa Cling the xa hei a giai doan chuyen nganh. Cu6n each se sung cap nhting nei dung non tang, co he thgng ve ca dia hat li thuygt va thitc hanh cim m6n hoc nay. Tai nhigu qugc gia, cac linh vue CTXH nhu cling tac xa hei vdi ca nhan, cling the la hei v6i nhem, t6 chile ceng &Ong, quan tri CTXH, nghien cim CTXH, v.v... da va dang dude nghien thu, phat trign sau va reng, vol thuc to cOng tac xa hoi phong pha. Trong do, dale hanh CTXH true tiep la met phan hgt sue quan trong. Viet Nam, cac not dung thue hanh cling tac xa hei true tigp con mdi me, mac di" hoat deng nay cling da dude Tin g dung It nhieu tai met so cd sa W van thuec cac pham vi gia dinh tre em, HIV/AIDS v.v... Do do cueen each nay cling chtta thd phan anh thue to thuc hanh CTXH a Viet Nam. Cugn sach nay chic yell la tap hop kinh nghiem quec t6 mang tinh tham khao cho viec flute hanh CTXH trip tip a Viet Nam. Cu6n each nay g6m hai -phan: phan thuygt va phan thuc hanh voi nhung kinh nghiem qua° to ve thue hanh CTXH. 5
  5. 5. Chung toi hi vong rang khi cu6n sach nay duac tai ban sau nay se co nhigu minh hoo vg thvc to CTXH a Viet Nam va qua do phan 1i thuyet cling se c6 the dude nang cao vOi an &Mg gap cila each nhin Viet Nam, cua thvc tg Viet Nam, voi each nhin hau hien dai hien nay vg CTXH. GS. TSKH Hodng Xutin Sinh Pho Chu tich Mat tran T6 Quek Viet Nam Chu Lich H6i ding Quail tri Truang Hai hoc Thang Long6
  6. 6. Lai me au Tithe hanh cong tac xa hei true tigp la phen cdt loi chi ygu cna thue hanh ding tee xa hei. N6i thkic hanh tong tee la hei true tigp co nghia la con e6 thuc hanh tong the xa hOi gian tigp. Vay, Una hanh gang tac x5 hei true tigp la gi va th4c hanh tong tac xa hei gian tigp la gi? Thuc hanh cong tac xa Mil true tigp la viec ngUdi lam cong tac xa hOi si dung tri thde va ki nang da c6 &Arc thong qua dao tao a true tigp hd tru cac ca nhan the nh6m, cac gia dinh va can cong &Ong. Con tithe hanh ding tan xa hei gian tigp la ngudi lam cong tac xa hei Mixing true tigp voi cac ca nhan, cac nhem, cac gia dinh va cong Bong, nhung hog thing cia ho co yr nghia h6 tro gian ti4p. Thi du vg nhung ngudi thue " hanh cong tac xa ho, i gian tigp có the ke nhu quan 11 hanh chinh cong the x5 hqi, plant trien chinh sach cling the x5 MX, giam sat thuc hien chinh sach xa het v.v... Tuy that hanh cong the xa hei gian tigp den hOi e6 them Id Ming rieng, song ggc cia thlic hanh cling tac xa hOi chuyen nghiep van IA thue hanh cong the x5 hei true tigp. Song song vol khai them thilc hanh cong tan xa hei true tigp va Uric hanh gian tigp, ngubi to con cO khai niem cling tac xa hei vi enO, eOng tac xa hei vi mo va gong tac x5 hei trung me. Tithe hanh cong the xa hei vi mO la thkie hanh true tigp vol cac ca nhan, trung mO la thip hanh vdi cac nit va gia dinh, va vi mo IA thile hanh vdi the t6 chic Ira ceng Thuc hanh lam sang thuang dude col la thtfc hanh vi me. Song trong thtic hanh lam sang doi khi bao ggm ca gia dinh va nh6m. Tithe hanh CTXH vi ma bao g6m gee hoat ding c6 ding cho nth:Mg chinh sach xd. hei. Doi khi ngVdi to cho rang thuc hanh cong tac xa hei vi me cling IA thuc hanh ding tee la hei gian tigp. Song, dal khi gida cling ten xa hei gian tigp va thuc hanh cling tac xa hei true tigp cling en nhung khoang Chung trong linh vue nay. Thuc hanh cong tac xa MI true tigp tren dug te" la qua trinh hex trq den tUOng nang cao nang hie "giai quygt van de" a to giai quygt vgn de cia minh. Qua trinh hO tro bao g8m ki nang tigp can dgi ttiOng, 7
  7. 7. nang xac dinh van de caa del Wong, ki nang lap kg * hoach can thiep, ki nang thac hien can thiep, Id nang h6 trl khach hang giai quyel van de caa minh, ki nang tang cudng nang lye cua dgi ttiOng can he tre, ki nang tang Wong chic nang gia dinh, ki nang tang along chile nang caa nh6m, Id nang tang curing chic nang cua cac he thong 16n hdn, ki flung danh gia kat qua can thiep va ki nang kgt thtic can thiep. Thuc hanh cong talc xa hei true tip co the chap thuc hien trong cac vai tre sau day caa cong talc xa Tri lieu va to van — Gido duc — Gi6i thieu, chuyen tuygn xa li — Giai guy& &tieing hop — Ung he trueng hap — Lanh dao nh6m — v.v... Tri lieu to van la cling vies dal dien nhift, caa cong talc xa hei true tip bao gem hau hgt cac giai doan dm qua trinh he tro: • Kay ding quan he vol khach hang • Da.nh gia nang hie va nhu can cua khach hang • My dung kg hoach can thiep phn hap vta khach hang • Thuc hien kg hoach can thiep • Theo del vi danh gia tign trim caa khach hang va cac hoat deng theo kg hoach can thiep • Kett thilc quan he khach hang va tri lieu8
  8. 8. Chucng 1 KT NANG NHAP CUOC VOI KHACH HANG Trong tam cim chucing nay nham dg cap den nhfing ki nang giao tipca ban thiet thuc cho giai doan nhap cuac va lam viec vdi khach hang. Cuthe nhiing ki nang nay bao gem cac ki nang Lang nghe, ki nang tao ra cacdigu kien thuan loi va mot se cac ki nAng co ban khac can thiet de tao dungmoi quan he gin gin vdi khach hang h6 tra cho cac giai doan nhap cuac, xacdinh ve:n dg, Lim hieu tinh hueng, xac dinh phttong phap atria tri va danhgia lien tile. Ki nang ling nghe Nham dat duct hieu qua trong danh gia, phat trien mat kg hoach haydui ra nhiing lai khuyen, ngu6i lam ding Lac xa ho, i pith luen san sang rangnghe cau chuyen cua khach hang, phai tap trung chti 4 ling nghe nhiingdiem quan trong, phai co gang hieu khach hang Ma gi va phai nhay cam vdicau chuyen caa khach hang. Ki nAng Lang nghe da hau het moi ngt.trii dadinc ren luyen to nha. Tuy nhien, thong thttong thi nhung ki nang nay bimai met hay kern hieu qua do chting ta khOng tap trung town be, de y Ira quan tam dgn nhung digu ngora khac noi. Trong cac et* not chuyen thong thang, ngttoi ta Fang nghe ngttaikhac deng thai vdi viec nghi xem ho nen tham gia noi chuyen nhtt the naothong qua viec Chia se kinh nghiam ban than tudng tq. NI4c du day khOng phai IA met phuong phap Lieu cue trong ndi chuyen thong thilong, chUng ta kh6ng de xuat lam nhtt fly trong khi tip xile de gitip da. Nguiii nhan vien CTXH nen chit 9 tdi va tap trung vao viec nghe va hieu dieu khach hang dang Ma. Cue ki6u ring nghe Long cho rang c6 nam kieu nghe co ban bao gem "khOng chit Y Tang nghe, gia vrt ling nghe, ling nghe co chon loc, Lang nghe chi quan va ling nghe long cam vdi ngttdi MA". Long, V.0 (1996). Communication skill in the helping ralation: A framework for facililating personaln growth. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 9
  9. 9. Khong chii Si rang nghe Nghia la ngudi nghe klaing chu nghe vi nhu khi ban vita nghe vita chuyen kenh vO tuyen va tra lai: "The a?" mot Mt eau ban có the hOi lai ngudi noi: "Anh dang nth gi nhi?" Gra ye rang nghe Thong tu nhu tren ngudi nghe khong linh hei nhung dieu Wide noi ra. , Ngtrai nghe có the nhin thong vao ngudi noi nhung tam tri thi khOng he tap trung vao ngudi noi. Lang nghe co chip !cc Mari nghe co nghe it nligt met phan nao do duct noi ra. Tuy nhien phan it nhigu nghe dude do co the dan den nhung ket luan sai lam do chna hieu het va bleu thing Y cua ngudi noi. Ket titan sai Mm con co the do ngudi nghe chi tap trung vao phan Ma dung hoac phan cam the. Ngudi nhan vies CTXH khong the cho pilot) minh thigu chti hoac thien kien dAn den suy then khi cm tv $7 sang be nhung thOng tin can thief nhung khOng phu hap vdi kien cua minh. Lang nghe ttf tap trung Ngubi nghe co nghe thong diep cua khach hang, tuy nhien lai to ra qua set sang d6" tap trung tim cau tra lai cho nen co the ho qua met phan thong diep cua khach hang. Lang nghe co dong cam Mac dich cua ngudi lam cling the xa het la phai phat trien cac ki fangnghe de tra thanh met ngudi nghe hi& d6ng cam, nghia IA phai biet chinhxac khach hang cua minh dang cam nhan thaty gi, ha dang suy nghi gi vaphai de y. dgn cac chi tiet hen quan khac. Nhting hanh vi phi ng6n ter hong ki nang lag nghe Th6 hien nhfing hanh vi tich cue trong khi tang nghe IA ki nang thietyeti Op phan tao dung long tin vdi khach hang. NhUng hanh vi tich cuenay khong chi la nghe nhung lei noi to phia khach hang ma no dOi tuaingudi lam tong tac xa hoi Mon no hp tim tOi de hieu them nhiing nghia,cam gist va hoan canh gan li gn von lai noi cua khach hang. De dat dime .nhcing ki nang nay, ngudi lam cling tae xa ho i phai chit Sr Lang nghe Wan ,10
  10. 10. be nhUng thong diep tit phia khach hang, Ire ca thong diep bang Edi not vathOng diep phi nen tii, vi du nhu giong nal, bieu hien am khuon mat haynen net co the. Egan (2002) da liet ke ra nhting hanh vi phi nem tit quan trong sauday co the xuat hien khi giao tiep vat khach hang. Nhan vien CTXH Ulf&hgt phai hieu ho the hien ban than minh qua cat hanh vi nhu the nao, sau do can tiep thu cac Id nang quan sat nhfing hAnh vi nay a khach hang, xem nhu met hinh flute danh gia va met phudng phap de hieu ki th8ng diep cna ngUai giti. (Xem them bang 1.1) • Hanh vi, nen ngd cit chi bao gem cac to thg, su di chuyen va cac dieu be • Mat: su tiep xtic anh mat, ants mat nhin, chuyen dOng am mat. • Bleu hien tren khuon mat: mim cudi, nhiu may, nhudng may, blu mei. • Giong nai: de cao, am Wring, curing de, ngat t3, nhan manh, ngUng, im lang. • Phan fang cd the quan sat dttoc: tha gap, xanh xao, ma to mat. nbi • Khoang each: khach hang nggi xa hay gan ngttai khac trong khi chuyen • Nh>ing bleu hien Chung khac nhu An mac, kik toe... Nhang ki nang iang nghe tich cut Ivey va &Ong su (2003) me to bOn ygu t6 quan trong sau gop phan hinh thanh cac ki nang nghe tich cue: tiep xuc anh mat, giong nth, lai Ma, va nen ngii eU chi. Ti6p dm qua anh mat St tap Thong thttang drill mat nhin thich hop la phai bleu hien ski ehd trung den nhiing gi ngttai to dang muOn n6i. Nhan vien ding tac xa hei thtiang phai nhin khach hang nhigu lam trong khi ngtiai noi lai hay co xu huong Fang tranh nhin true tiep. Vi vay nguai nghe khong nen nhin lau, nhin cham cham khach hang ma dth hie nen nhin qua axe khac. Tigp vie qua anh mat ea the co nhiing anh huang nhaI dinh vg van hoa, vi vay n6u khOng hieu r5 vg met hanh vi nao do thi nen hai nhilng ngttai than can hoar nhEing ngtidi có ding truyen thOng, thai quen hay quy dinh trong gia dinh. 11
  11. 11. Giong mai Giong noi nen phii hdp voi lei noi hay nhung bieu hien dude dung. "Giong noi ka ban IA tong cu giao tip v & truygn tai cam giac cem ban tdi . ngttei khac hay tai tinh hugng nao do". Nen lAng nghe am ludng va trong am khach hang dung khi me to tinh hueing vi nhang yeti t6 nay thudng clan den su hieu biet thgu dao van de ben trong cua ski viec. Tim hi‘u qua lei n6i (Theo dais lei nbi) Nghe met each chi tiet phai bao gem viec tim higu qua lei noi. Nghia la ngudi nghe phai theo htidng khach hang da vach ra do vac, nhung thong tin da dude truyk tai to trttac. khi rift nhigu Inking hay tinh hueng cUa van dg dude dat ra. Tuy nhien, nen ngttai nghe biet chi Y den nhung gi da dude truygn tai thi ho co thg dien giai va tom cat dude nhung thong tin nay va nave dich IA a giup khach hang a; the quyet dinh dude plmang hieing nao IA quan trong dgi vdi ho trong giai doan hign tai. Nhan vien tong tac xa hOi có the xem xet nhung eau hai sau khi gitip dd khach hang: "Dieu gi la quan trong del vdi khach hang? Khach hang muk minh va nhung ngttai khac hieu gi? Khach hang man digu gi xay ra?". Khi ban tin la minh da hieu nhung fitting diep cua khach hang hay trinh bay flitting thong tin do vdi khach hang nhung phai san sang thay dei quan digm dtia vao nhung phan h6i có (Woe to phia khach hang. Ngem ngirc& chi sa dung nen net cei chi la met clang giao tik va co nhung anh huangnhit dinh vg van hoa. Chit ST den viec khach hang the hien ban than hethong qua ngon ngfi cei chi co thg gitip ban higu y nghia cua thong diep.Nhung nhan vier tong tac xa het cling phai hieu khach hang plain ling nhuthe nao del vdi nen nga cif chi cita ho. Met digu can km y la nein ngu eft chi chiu anh huang nhigu caa van -hoe. Chang han, nam gidi ngudi Y nen IA ban be than co the khoac tay nhaudi be, trong khi a met s6 an van hoa, su gen gui nhu vey bi hieu la d8ngtinh luyen ai. O my, thieu nien có thg ngei vat to the thoai mai khi noichuyen vdi ban be hoac ngtibi Ian, du nhung at chi nay lai the hien stt thieuton trong, va khong plan hdp a nhien ilk van hoa khac. Ivey. A.E.. & Ivey. M.B (2003). Intentional interviewing and conseling (5 th ed) PacificGrove. CA : Brooks/Cole.12
  12. 12. Vigo chti y din cach khach hang the hien minh thong qua ngo.chi cif the gifip ban hieu nhiing y nghia cast nhitng thong then nay. i.hang co the nhin di, rOi quay 10 khi ho cam thay tei 16i hay rclu he. Khicao hung, ho co the dung len khoi ghg, chow ngtiai yg phfa trtteic. Buongthong vai xulng khi di có the bao hieu met cam giafe suy sop hoac tuyetvong. Nhan vies CTXH nen nhan Hi& dude each khach hang phan (mg 10nen ngil di chi dm nhan Aden CTXH. Ho co cam thay kern thoai mai khi toghe nguii vao wan hay ho có cam thly to dang thigu chit y khi ngoi yea tothg chia dam khong? Vdi tat ca nhling Id nang nghe neu tren, mite (hell cuato la phai hieu ban chat nhling digu throe dien dat. Thong thUring thong digp ena khach hang dude truygn tai dtiOi danggang nhu met eau de nghia la chi (Ilia ra met phan thong tin nao de. Nhuvay de có mth quan he thuan loi vei khach hang, nhan vien cong tac xa heirat can phai nghe va hieu tang nhigu tang tot phan thong tin sung cap baikhach hang, vg nhiing kinh nghiem, cuec sing caa ho va gitip khach hang a lien kat cat thing tin co met bilc tranh rd han ve digu ho man giao ti6p. Cac y6u t6 han ch6, sao lang khi Fang nghe Viec Lang nghe co the bi han che do tieng on, bi sao lang, nhcing yOu t6nay co the lam lech di hoac then vao giVa thong diep dang dude truygn tai.Tigng On va nhiing ylu to lam sao rang c6 the bao g6m nhung am thanhxung quanh, vi du nhu tigng trg con kink, tiOng chuong dien thoai, tigng go tigng TV, dal... Hau het nhiing loaf tigng on nay cif) the tranh dude nguco kg hoach gap go khach hang a mot nth kitting bi nhung phien toai tren. Nhung ygu to khac &An din sft han chg khi nghe xugt phat to chinhnguoi tigp nhan thong tin do ho có nhung dinh kiln hay thanh kiln nhitdinh nao do ve ban than khach hang hay chinh tit eau chuyen cim khachhang. Digu nay thtiang clan din viec ngudi nghe chi nghe met phan thongtin dine truygn tai va sau do ei yang dua ra kit luan ve th6ng diep criakhach hang hay vg chinh ban than khach hang. Nhan vien cong the xd hth cong phai tranh khong de bi anh huangtieu cue to nhUng van de ca nhan cha minh khi Fang nghe khach hang. Vidu vg nhUng van clg ca nhan nhu trong mth quan he hen nhan, quan henam-nci, quan he giva b6 me yeti con cai, chu, nhan vien, hay van dg lienquan den tam trang hay nhiing rol loan tinh cam, cac va dg Nig ruou, rli in 13
  13. 13. loan tam li, tang thang, met mOi trong tong viec... Bat Ice van de nao neu tren dau co the din den nhang kho khan nhat dinh cho ngttai nghe khi phai nghe them ve nhung van de &la ho. Nhan vien tong the xa NI co the bi anh hltang W chinh nhang van de ca nhan caa ho va hay c6 nhang ket luan vei yang hoar chi nghe met phan nao do trong cau chuyen cua khach hang. it nhat thi nhan vien ding tac xa hai cang bi anh huang nhat dinh nao do to chinh nhang van de dm ho va do do co the xao nhang khi nghe. Doi vai nhan vien cling the xa hei, viec gat nhung van de ca nhan sang met ben khi nhep cuec voi khach hang la dieu can thigt phai ran luyen. Mat triSn ki !fang nghe Dual day la met sellai khuyen nham phat trign ki nang nghe tich eve: • Tap trung vao van de dang &roc trinh bay • Chu Y ca cac bieu hien nen to va phi ngon W • Khuyen khich khach hang not bang each gat deli hay dung cac cum to nhit "the a, a ..." • ring xit phi hop yeti tam trang, bleu hien cUa khach hang. Vi du: Neu khach hang to ra burin, hay to ra quan tam den ho. Nett khach hang vui, hay vui eutli ciing ho. • Diing c6 doan thi khach hang dang muen not gi bang caqh not ho ho • Ditng bet deu giai guy& van de ngay cho ho • Dung qua M. ngai khi e6 khoang thai gian im Fang • Ditng vei yang ket luan • Tranh to Hit do ke ea, ngao man khi gap ga khach hang. Thuc hanh Khi doe xong nhang lai khuyen tren, hay Chia cac thanh vien eila lopthAnh cac nhom 2 hay 3 noted. Met noai &Mg vai mot khach hang timkiem su giup do de vuot qua stress. Co the khach hang la met sinh vier dadang ki hoc 24 trinh trong ki nay, va phai hoc 15 den 20 gia m6i Wan vavita midi met sinh vien khac cang trong tinh canh nhu vey. Khach hangcam thay kiet site, qua tai, ban loan va nan chi vi ca hai con it nhat metnam nua mdi ra trtiang dude va ca hai dgu co ye khong the c6 thai giandanh cho nhau.14
  14. 14. Khi nhan vien CTXH lam viec a met trung tam td van cho sinhban phai pluing van ve tinh hinh hien tat caa khach hang va xay dung mOiquan he yea ho de ho cam they &Jac khich khi quay ve. De lam duct viesnay ban can the hien ki nang nghe caa minh. De danh gia dune mite do, kinang nghe clan ban, ban có the ad dung he thOng nhd trong bang 1.1.Nguaidanh gia eb th5 la khach hang, ngdoi this ba quan sat, hoac chinh la ban.Viec ren luyen ki nang lAng nghe trong 5 den 10 phtit va thao luan vgnhcing hanh vi co hieu qua hoar nhting hanh vi can rem luyen them. Im 14ng Trong moi quan he v6i khach hang, nhan vien tong the xa hei nen tora thoai mai hoac nen clYip nhan phai co khoang im lang. Khi bat dau yeanghe nghiep nay, ho thudng tti dat ra cho minh met you eau khOng thdc t6la phai cO cau trg ldi cho mgi van de cita khach hang. Vi vgy khi co s>t imlang, ha bat dau cam that lo tang. D5 tranh bi cho la nguoi khong thg ) duera gigi phap, ho vei yang ngat Im tang c6 th5 la do nhieu nguyen nhan, va khi co ski im lang, nhanvien CTXH thdang bat dau suy then g nghia cim ski im Tang nay, xem ski imlang nhu la "TM khong mtiOn a day" "That la tuyet vong" "De tei met minh""TM khong tin anh/chi" "Anh/chi co the nghi anh/chi dang tp cho nhunganh/chi khong the lam toi n6i dude". Ngoai nhting khg nang nay, ski im langcling con c6 the hi hieu met each trung lap hoac Lich ctic hdn, chang han:"Do la met eau hai hay va tea dang khong bled nen tra tat nInt the it" "Tat& day chin ai tong hOi tai nhd vey, a toi nghi them met philt nth" "Cuol cling tad cling cam they tot hdn, cho toi nghi met chat" hay "C6 tit nhigu van de de noi, de toi sap xgp lei da". Cat hanh vi Kh6ng c6 den bg hen C6 Han bg Kha Rit Lien by ye the! dg nghe 66 1. Khong bi phan tam, sao lang 2. Thong digp cue khach hang khong glen doan 3. Khang co dinh kin khi nghe 4. Hanh vi, cg chi-tit the", chuyen Ong aim co thg 15
  15. 15. 5. Mat nhin-tiep xbc qua anh mat, nhin chhm chhm, Owen Bong cCia mat 6. Bleu hien caa khuon mat-pha hdp vdi tam tang, cau chuyen cila khach hang A. The hien qua mac B. Khong the hien 7. Gong nokarn lacing, - nhan manh, ngang. 8. Phan (mg tam If-nhip trio, au tang thing, thoai mai 9. Khoing cach-qua gin, qua xa, vita phai 10. Sgtheo sat-phan (mg dm nmrdi trcr giCip del vdi cau chuyen cua khach hang, kha nang torn tatBANG 1.1. Bang clanh gia cac hanh vi va thai d5 nghe Lai khuyen tot nhal la khong nen to suy then. Nen hidu rang khach hang cling can co thai gian de suy nghi ye eau Mk, xem nen co thai do the nao, trai nghiem lai nhung § nghi, hinh anh cua cau chuyen, xem xat anh huang caa mei quan he tri lieu ho dang co... Doi khi ski im lang lai co. lien quail den van hod. DO co thd la bieu Men eim Si kinh treng dea vdi nguai dang tim each gni) do minh (nhit trong van hol cua ngttai Nhat). Dd tao kh6ng khi thoai mai, ban phai hidu rang im lang khang nhdtthiet la bidu hien tieu ckte hay lam de doa den uy tin cim nhan vien cling tacxa hei. Im lang có the la khoang thai gian dd this gian, va de tim hi@u quandiem caa khach hang va y nghia (rang sau sg im Fang. Khi da có the hidudude y nghia clang sau sa im lang, hay hei trip tiep khach hang: "Anh/chidang nghi gi vay?" hay "Anh/chi dang cam th‘y the nao?". Hoac neu bannghi ban có the hidu y nghia dkng sau ski im tang, ban ce the noi thanhfling ski suy dien nay va t6 ra cam thong nhtt: "CO ye la qua tai doi vdi bankhi ban phai del mat WS St ea nhung yin de nay clang met hic."16
  16. 16. KT nang tao digu kien thuan Ili (Facilitative conditions) Nhfing dieu kien than loi la nhilng dieu kien vg pham chat hay meiquan he co hieu qua ma nhan vien CTXH can phai the hien &loc i . Gila recaa nhUng digu kien nay la 11 thuyet tam h hoe nhan hoc caa Carl Roger(1951). Li thuygt nay, trUoc day ddoc goi la tri lieu Inking tdi khach hang,da phat tries thanh tri lieu hudng tdi con ngdoi 2 . Nen tang ciaa trj lieu haang tali con ngutli la nigm tin rang con ngUdico kha nang thay khai them to than, thai de caa ho dgi vOi ngttai khac,va hanh vi caa ho ding vol viec co nth-Mg each de td hieu minh. Theo thuyetnay, nhan vien CTXH cung cap met mei trailing cho phep nhilng nang lyenay xukt hien. Viet nay dtkic thde Men thong qua vice, c the hien ba nang heco ban: su thku cam (hieu thou), su quan tam tich cue (su ton trong) va su thich hcip (tinh xac thuc, tinh than thtte) Sy thgu cam (Accurate understanding) Su thku cam la kha nang caa nhan vien gong the xa het cO the hieumet each chinh xac nhfing gi khach hang caa ho dang trai qua tit he quychiku caa khach hang. Khach hang co the dien giai eau chuyen eim ho bang each me to camgiac, suy nghi cua ho, hoar bang each sa dung cac gine quan (thi giac, khdugiac, thinh giac, xtle giac va vi giac) hay them chi la su kgt hop caa tat eanhung hanh Ong neu tren. Khi nhan vien tong tac xa hei hieu ddee eauchuyen caa khach hang, thi su hieu Met nay phai dude d6i chigu hoae kiemtra lai vei khAch hang. Theo Egan (1998), qua trinh nay se gillp to dungmet m6i quan he ben chat gifia ngttai ghip do voi ngttai can lime gidp dd.Hon nda, khi nhan vien gong the xa hei ething to dive sit thou hieu cua minh ve van de caa khach hang, thi chinh ho dang tao ra nhiing anh hdang tich cue den su cai and cua khach hang trong vise sung cap nhfing thong tin quan trong. Khach hang phai dttoc cam thky rang ho dang &we quan tarn theo each khong bi dinh kien, bi phe phan, chi trich va nInt vay ho tang cal su cdi ma khong e de. Nhan vien gag the xa het nen the hien rang cal hai dang e6 Collins, D., Jordan, C. & Coleman, H. (1999). An introduction to family social work. Itasca, IL: Peacock. 2. Raskin. N. I. & Rogers, C. R. (1995). Person centered therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D. - Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5th ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca, II: Peacock. 17
  17. 17. clang tim giai phap cho van de va khi do khach hang se tin rang ho dang dude long nghe, dang throe thou higu. Cach co ban de the hien tang nghe co thong cam la viec sit dung ding thric eau. Hay bat dau bang cau: "Anh/chi cam thay..." tiep theo va viec dtta vao tit chi cam giac ma khach hang dang noi 1.6i, cam giac ban dang nghi khach hang clang co. Khi da noi ra cam the, hay noi tiep Thai vi...", sau do lai dign vac) eau chuyen cua khach hang di keen vdi cam xiic do. VI du: "Son, em dang cdm thdy bi phan bei vi ban than nhat cUa em bi mat hen hO vei ban gal cua em," hay la "Minh, em dang cdm the& lo long vi khOng the dung len trtiOc lop then thuygt trong vong 7 phut v6 bao gia dinh". Co met so each khac nhau de the hien rang minh da hien khach hang. a cap do co ban, co" the the hien bang each thong bao bang cac hanh thing phi nem tit rang khach hang dang dude tang nghe. Cac hanh vi Lang nghe the hien su quan tam va su chi" y den nhung dieu khach hang dang noi. Nhiing hanh vi nay bao gem to the ng6i hci Nolan v6 phia tritec, mat tap trung nhin khach hang (frit khi khach hang den to met nen van hoa coi tiep themat khong phii hop), va dei khi gat dau a dap lai nhiing digu dang dude nth. ViOc sit dung the hien net mat Ming quan trip -1g va nen the hien si.tquan tam. Met net mat the hien s9 thong that khOng phii hop, hay sV kinkso hay s9 ttic gian se mang lai thong diep rang ban that vong hay so khachhang hoac eau chuyen ctia ho va lam khach hang nan chi hay lam can Eraqua trinh gin) do. Carkuff2 da tim ra va dao to cac ki nang the thien phan ang d cacnuac do cam thong va khong cam thong dio nguai can be. De lam don gianme hinh nay, cluing toi theo nhang dg xuat cim Ivey va Ivey va sU dung bacap de pilau ung nhu sau: Cap d9 1. NhUng phan iing a cap dQ nay the hien rang nhan viersCTXH clnia nhan ra, data hieu dttoc nhUng then ma khach hang trinh bay. Egan. G. (2002). The skilled helper: A problem-management approach to heping (6 6 ed.)PacifGrov,CA:Bks/le. 2 Carkuff. R. R. (1969). Helping and human relations. Vol. Practice and research. NewYork: Holt, Rinehart. and Winston. 3 Ivey, A. E. & Ivey, M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5 1h ed,)Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.18
  18. 18. NIUTing phan ling thuang la khong de Y den then khach hang trinh bay, hoacla nhung phan ling thien ve chi triak khach hang. Cgp da 2. Meng tin nghe dUcic dtiOc nhAc lai chinh xac voi khachhang. a cap do, nay, nhan vien CTXH thtiong nhAc lai nhfing thOng tinkhach hang da nOi truac dO. Nhung phan frog cling co the the hien giong nOiva cac yeti t6 phi nem tit dm khach hang. Doi khi nhan vien CTXH con guy& dinh nhan manh phan ling dm ho de &Cm khach hang nhan thayrang thong tin ho trinh bay la da dude hiked ban. Cip da 3. Nhung phan ling a cap do nay khong chi cho thgy thong diOp khach hang mu6n truyen tai da dine nhan vien CTXH hien ma con bao ham ca ski danh gia, su nhay cam oda 119 voi nhUng suy nghi caa khach hang. Dieu nay co the xay ra la do nhan vier CTXH da rat chti Fang nghe nhiing di6u khach trinh bay va dpa vao nhang trai nghiem time te, flitting kien thite chung v6 hanh vi cim con ngUai, stf tang hop cac du lieu ma khach hang da trinh bay. alai day la mot so cac vi du vg cac cap dO phan ling v6i cart chuyen cfm khach hang. 1. Khach hang: TOi da thtfc ski cam thgy that vong vg diem mon Sinh hoc. T6i can it nhat la diem B+ hoac MM. NhAn vien CTXH: Cgp do 1: Nhu vay, ban va ngtiai ban cling phong dang On thi nhuth6nao? Cac ban ciing a trong ki alit xa hoc ki nay phai khong? Cgp da 2: Ban dang cam thay that vong vi diem mon Sinh hoc cluOidiem B+? Cgp do 3: Vi ban da dat mac tieu phai vao chtqc trtiong dai hoc, bancam thgy bi ap he phai duy tri diem B+ trong tat ca the men hoc trong do c6men Sinh hoc. Hien nay diem sinh hoc caa ban (MA diem B+ va bay gia bandang ban khoan lieu ban c6 dude chap nhan vao trUang dai hoc khOng. Va nett khOng dive chap nhan, ban se calla Hay minh da hohn toan that bai. 2. Khach hang: Toi bi tai nan trong khi dang lam viec. Chan cim toi bi thudng. Chuyen do xay ra each day met nam va tOi van cam thay dau nhiett Nth khOng lam vies duos, them ncia Gen bao hima lien tro cap dang sap het. NhAn vier CTXH: Cap da 1: Toi chat rang neu ban not chuyen vai ngtiai chiu trach nhiem truang hOp nay thi moi chuyen se 6n. 19
  19. 19. Clip di;, 2: Ban dang cam thgy that yang vi ban van kWh-1g the lama viec dude ke to khi tai nan say ra. Cgp do 3: Ban van cam thgy rat dau don of khi hi tai nan. Vi digu do ban da kheng the lam viec dime va bay gia ban thay rang tin fro cap dang hgt dan. Ban lo tang ve viec se chu cap cho gia dinh nhu the nao va dieu do khien ban se hai. Viec the hien kha nang thau cam tang nhu bat ki ki nang nao khac can phai ap dung met each hap Li. Ngtibi mai vao nghe thuang co xu hitting dung ki nang nay qua nhieu. Hay de cho khach hang dm ban co ed hei bee 10 vg ban than ha, ve nhang kinh nghiem caa ho, ve nhung ctieu quan trong dgi Arai ho va vg nhang van de ho dang phai dei mat voi. Khi ban Fang nghe nhung cau chuyen cua ho va quan sat cif chi caa ho, ban se cam nhan dude nhUng gi IA quan trong del vOi ho, hic do ban se c6 the truyen tai dude ski cam thong dea vii ho. Tranh to ra cam thong d&i v6i moi van de caa khach hang vi digu dO khign cho ban tra thanh met cai may có the nghe dude nhung kheng thtic ski thgu hien khach hang. Met lei thUang thay khac da nmiei mei vac) nghe la dat cau hai ma khong c6 ski lien quan doi vai van de caa khach hang. Van de nay dude minh hoa d vi du 1 not tren khi nhan vien CTXH hei vg tinh caa noel ban cling phong sau khi nghe qua ye van de caa khachhang. Loai hanh vi nay cho thgy nhan vien CTXH kheng he Lang nghe khach hang hoac cho Fa nhung gi nguai nay hai la khang quan trong. Cang co nhung truing hip xay ra khi nhan vien CTXH kheng bigt lam gi v6i mgi quan tam caa khach hang va do dO be qua no. Cling có nhang taking - hop khac say ra khi nhan vien CTXH lo Fang ve nhung viec phai lam trong thai gian bieu cua ho hdn La quan tam den nhUng van de caa khach hang. Met nguyen tac hien qua la phai the hien kha nang than cam khi met khach hang trinh bay yin de cUa ho ma ban nhan thgy la quan trong. Thvc hanh phat tri4 ki slang Dudi day la met s6 cac van de cua khach hang. Trong met tinh hu6ngdong kith, met nguai la khach hang, ngliai kia lam CTXH, khach hangnhac lai nhang cat nbi dudi day, sau dO nhan vien CTXH tra lai theo mehinh the hien kha nang thgu cam. Muc dich la phai tra lei it nhat la o 2 capdo va khi ban cam thgy to tin, chuyen sang cap do 3 de lam tang chitludng va de sau caa eau tra lai:20
  20. 20. 1. Khach hang: Tot rat bue minh vdi anh trai UM, mg toi khOng baogib. bat anh ay ta chiu trach nhiem vg nhilng hanh Ong cua anh gy. 2. Khiteh hang: Trong 22 nam qua, chting toi da c6 it nhat mot dfiacon sang a nha, day la Fan dau tien chi eld hai cluing toi sling cling nhau. Toicam they khac thang. 3. Khach hang: Hitt met it thac thi et) van dg gi dau. Moi ngai deuthe ca).. B6 my t6i da khong hik v6 tu6i thanh thieu then, cluing toi khonglam ton thucing ai ca, cluing tOi chi man vui ye mot chilt. 4. Helena Kosovic, mot ngttai ti nan tit Bosnia not dude rat it tigngAnh, co dang c6 tim mot tong viec va van chtta cam thay 6n dinh trong meitrueng mdi. Co noi: "Toi khong bigt tim viec o dau. Ted can tik, tei can atign cho be me toi. a day rat kho khan, toi lan cam thgy met mai va ngakhong ngon. 5. Mdt ca gai 17 tuai dude than down la mac benh r6i loan an u6ng, lan clan tien gdp ban vdi to each la nhan vien CTXH. Co n6i: "Ho man toi la nguoi hoan hao. Toi phai dat chide tat ca the di6m A au khong ho se khong cho phep tot diing Bien thoai, toi phai tap danh dan piano met gie at ngay. Them vao ntta. ho con muen ten quan tam cham soc hai dua em sinh dOi vi h9 can phai nghi ngdi. Vey con khi nao thi toi c6 th6 dude nghi? 6. La Toya la mot ba me 24 tu6i song mot minh voi hai dila con, 5 tuei va 3 tu6i. Co dang tim trd gulp va ndi a. CO chi c6 25 dela va rat lo set vg st.t an toan caa ban than. Co ndi: "Ngttoi ta not la ban cid the giap toi va con tea, chUng tei can mot ch6 a. Mc eon tOi bi day ra kh9i nha ban trai tea tea qua va chi:mg tea phai nga a tren xe o dd. Se la qua nguy tam ngu quay tra lei voi anh ta va tea khong tin tang anh ta ntia. Anh ta lam tea sd khi anh ta ang say. Anh ta not la anh ta mat viec chinh la 161 tai tea, va anh ta khding the nuea dude mot nguei phu n>t vdi hai dila con". 7. Jimmy la mot ding nhan gang thep nghi httu sang trong rat nha clang lao. Tien luring huu va tign trd cap y t6 co the da da tra cho nha dang lao va Ong chi nhan duck khoAn trd cap hang thang la 88 Dela. Ong tied (rat tut gian): Montell bao la Ong ay se dua tei den ngan hang vao sang nay. Ong ay dau? Da la tign caa toi va tei man so tign do. Toi khong muen ddi them chat nao nVa. Toi se goi cho con gai tea va a se dua toi ra khoi cai nha ta nay ngay horn nay n6u toi khOng nhan dude tien caa tOi. 21
  21. 21. 8. Met co be 12 tuth bi anh trai quay rth khi dang nga. Chau noi:"Chau thac day khi thSy anh ay se vao nguai chat, chau rSt so va khongbiet phai lam gi. Chau gia ve nga va Ian qua phla ben kia givang". 9. Manny la cha throng cria 4 dila tre 17, 15, 12, va 7 tuei. Ong cuoiLupita 6 thang trtiac. Ong n6i: "Toi phai lam viec vat va. Toi phai cham sacnhUng chaa tre nay trong khi be cim cluing chang lam gi cho chting. Nhungtat ca nhfing gi red nhan chap tit chting chi la su thieu ton trong. CluingkhOng gitip gi viec nha va me cila cluing cling cho chting lam nhu vay.Neu m9i thlt khong thay dei, toi se 66 di". 10. Khfich hang: Antoine la nguai tei da hen ho chtoc met nam. Anhay la ngttai clau tien thuc su rat tot v.% ten. Anh Sy vita mai thong bao vai raila anh ay mai dude nhan met cling viec tl alit do Washington, anh Sy muentOi di ding nhting toi khOng biet phai lam nhu the nal). Toi rat bth rth. Stt quan tam tich cctc (Ski ton trong) Khi khach hang duck dap lai bang thai do chSp nhan, itch cue, khonghi phe phan thi nhang thay dei trong quan he tri lieu la c6 the dat dttOc.Dieu nay ded hOi nhan vien cling tac xa hei phai san sang de cho khachhang ben to nhang cam gide tuc thai vi du nhu cam giac boi nth, tuc gian, so Khi nhan vier]. CTXH danh gia khach hang met each t6ng the thikhach hang co the lien gar, hal l . Su quan tam cUa nhan vien CTXH del vaikhach hang khOng nen bi tac deng bai "su hia chop, dac tinh va ket quamong muen khach hang" 2. Su quan tam tich clic la met dieu kien (kha nang) ma nhan vien dingtac xa hei có the chuyen tai ski tan thanh, su n6ng hau va su quan tam dennhiing trai nghiem caa khach hang . Su quan tam tich cup, con duct goi la st/ ton trong, la kha nal -1g danhgia khach hang nhu la met nguai co phem hanh va gia tri. Theo Ivey quan Rogers, C. R. (1986). Client-centered therapy. In I. L. Kutash & A. Wolf (Eds.),Psychotherapists cookbook: Therapy and technique in practice (pp.I 97-208). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. 2 Raskin, N. J. & Rogers. C. R. (1995). Person-centered therapy. In R. J. Corsini & D.Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5 ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca, II: Peacock. Ewen, R. B. (2003). An introduction to theories of personality (6 1" ed.). Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaurn. 4 Ivey, A. E. & Ivey. M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5" ed,)Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.22
  22. 22. tam tich cue c6 the duce dinh nghia la Mu § tdi nhring phan tieh cue tronglai not hay eau chuyen cim khach hang va chti trong dgn chUng. Cac bigu hign cua stt quan tam tich cgt Egan dinh nghia c6 bon bieu hien dm su quan tam la cam ket voikhach hang, khong chi trich, co gang higu khach hang va chung to sv quantam va nang Cam kgt dude the hien Wang thai do lain a been canh khach hangtrong moi hoan canh vui ban. Them nOm no eon throe the hien a thai dequan tam chti y tdi nhiing digu khach hang dang Khong chi trich la thai de khOng eó nhiing phan xet, chi trich khachhang, vg y nghi, cam giac, hanh vi cUa ho. Digu nay Mk hai nhan vien cOng the xa hOi can phut trign nhan thile ye gia tri ea nhan cim ban than, cac kinh nghiem ban than a phut trign ki Mang the hien bang nem tir va phi nen t t dgi yin dieu khach hang dang truygn tai. De higu khach hang, nhan vien ding tae xa hei phai rat t2p trung vao dieu khach hang the hien ea bang nem t3 va phi nein Hi. Nhung cau hei cim ngtrdi trd gitip nen duo sau Um tea da hieu nhung digu khach hang dang not hon va da elnang to vdi khach hang la ho dang c6 gang hien a Mang cam giae, suy nghi nhan thilc va can chuyen cua khach hang. Chiang to nang life la kha Ming c6 the" lam dude vier trong pham vi nang lip dude duo tao, ki nang va nang hie, Phai dam bao vdi khach hang rang ho dang co &roc su quan tam tot nhgt, kh6ng phan biet ton giao, cluing tee, giai tinh va dia vi xa hei. MOt pinking phap danh gia kha nang quan tam Mn khach hang eim nhan vien CTXH la xgp hang nhung eau tra lbi cim nguai do theo kha Mang phan anh the bigu hien dm su quan tam tich cue dal vdi khach hang — vdi can chuyen eim khach hang, vol kha nang va dim manh cim khach hang. HUM day la cac vi du sit dung thang 3 alp de lam phudng phap danh gia Id nang nay: Egan. G. (2002). The skilled helper: A problem-management approach to heping (eh ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 2 Ivey, A. E & Ivey. M. B. (2003). Intentional interviewing and counseling (5" ed,) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 23
  23. 23. 1. Khach hang: Gan day tai cam thgy to lang. That la kh6 thite day va di lam nhung du sao tai clang da co" de lam dove digu da. Tea thay a nhA con tai to hdn. Cgp (10 1: Doi khi ban phai mien Wong lam digu do. Can du 2: Mae du ban thay that la kh6 de day va di lam, ban da lam &roc digu do. Can .10 3: Ban eo ye nho la rat higu ban than va sty lo Tang anh khong dgn ban nhu thg nao. Ban nhan thay rang di lam vigc, rot cue ban secam thay tot hdn cho nen ban da gang sac a day va di ngay ca khi bankhong hg muein. 2. Khach hang: Lilo nao tea cling phai tv len day cot. Moi thu taidOng dgn clau clan dgn that bai. Gia dinh roi be tea va tai chuan bi mat viecvi Ong chit khOng tin COL Ted can c6 the lam hang nhcing gi nth. Digu t8i togi co the xay ra nUa? Can di? 1: Ban can tham gia vao nhorn tro gitip. Can c1.5 2: Mac du có rat nhigu digu quan trong trong cuee song cuaban da dien ra khOng tot dep song it nhat la ban da dung cam dgn day vatim kigm sv gitip do. Can do 3: Vai tat ca nhung digu tai to nay xay ra trong cuQc sag dmban, BM thgy ban c6 the mugn to be moi thu nhung ban da khong lam nlntvay. Thay vao do ban da san sang tim kigm so gitip do va ea tim each dggiai quygt van de. Ban phai la noel rat dung cam mdi co the lam dune diguJO, va vi thg tai ton trong ban.Luyen tap Lam viOc ding mot ban khac d tao ra phan ling than cam a cap do 2va 3 cho nhung van dg sau &in khach hang: 1. Dave la mat Chang trai 30 tugi. Anh duct than down IA bi benh qua lo lang, can benh nay anh da trai qua trong slat 15 nam qua. Anh nOi: "Toi qua met mOi vi lac nao cling cam thay lo au. TIM lo Fang vg tete the, nhung tea mugn anh bigt rang tea khong to bO. Toi san sang thil bat ki gili phap nao anh din ra". 2. Khach hang: Ching tai la ngoei nghign cOng vigc. Chung tOi co hai dila con. Toi phai cham son chting va lam tat ca cOng vigc nha. Toi24
  24. 24. da nghi ca hai chang UM se clang nuOi nang chting. DEng nghi sai cho t6i. Tai yeu cfic con tot. TOi chi mong mugn có it ALI b.() gitip nao do.3. Mat eau be 15 tuei &toe me clan den phOng guilt] da bang tri lieu. Can rat vat va vdi vise hoc tap a tniang nhung rat giOi the thao. Cau noi: "Toi chi khong mugn hoc, no chang giap Ich gi cho tea trong cac hop &Ong bang chay. T6i thich di dgn phOng tap. TOi se khoe manh hon va nhanh hon. Trtibng hoc chi danh cho nhitng ngt.thi nghien may tinh. T6i can nhiing thii do de lam gi?".4. Khach hang cila ban vita trai qua met vu li hon en ao each day 18 thang, va ba vo anh ay van con tut gian vdi anh ta. Anh ta not: "TM kh8ng the gap con t6i thtidng xuyen trong 10 thang qua. Vo tot khong ang he tai. Tai thus ski nhd cac con tai va tai mugn gap chting".5. Ban dude tuyan vao trudng lam vdi vi tri la nhan vLen CTXH. Met trong nhung nhiem vu ena ban la phai gitip nhung (Ma tre co bg me li hOn hoac li than. Khach hang ena ban la met co be 10 tual. Chau be noi: "Chau cam thgy bun khi b6 chau chuyen di. Chau nhd b6. Chau cha 66 goi rn6i tat Chau monglagchau se ye va sSng cling voi chau. Chau nghi 1/6 chau rat c8 dal". 6. Khach hang cila ban bi ham hip vao ban ngay. CO ay mugn dgn to van ye nhung t6n thddng tam than. CO ta not: "Chuyen da xay ra qua nhanh va t6i khong hi& phai lam gi. Na kh8ng gigng rdni nhiing gi xay ra truck day. TM so digng nguoi. Bang ra tai phai lam gi?" 7. Ban la nguoi to van Ara met khach hang mai den noi vdi ban nhung chuyen nhti sau: "TM bi that nghiep hon met thang r6i. Kheng ai mu6n thus toi. CU nhu the kh8ng con mot ding viec nao nua. Tat ea nhung gi tai co the lam la lai xe xugng ph6 va ghe xem moi noi". 8. Ban lam vise cho t8 chile thanh thigu nien. Met ea be 17 tu6i k vdi ban: "Chau nghi chau da ob thai. Chau so noi voi 1)6 my, ban trai chau kheng bigt. B6 my chau se rat that vong vg chau. Ho co kg hoach cho chau vao dai hoc tit khi chau con hoc tieu hoc. Hien tai dita ft-6 la quan trong nhlt". 25
  25. 25. 9. Khach hang: Chgng tea co van de vg nghien ritou va toi so rang anh ay se mat viec Lan MM. DO la li do Lei phai girt cling viec Mm them. T6i they sO khong bigt digu gi co the? thy ra khi tei them chi khong con kigm dude khoan tien Mo. 10. Ban vOi vat trO IA nhan vien CTXH tai phOng kham sue khoe. Khach hang: TOi d cling anh ay trong ba deem lien. Khi anh 6y binh . tinh va thigp ngu, anh ay lai co gist. Tea can gidp do. Ca hai chting tOi deo can Tinh hop li (Tinh xac thuc va chart thuc) Tinh hop li nghia IA tinh than than kien dinh. Khi gitip dd khachhang, tinh kien dinh lien quan den viec ngudi tro giup cam thdy nhu thenao, suy nghi nhu the nao va cu xU nhu the nao. Neu ba van de tren thgngnhat vdi nhau, ngudi do dude Kern la hop 11. Ngu met trong hai van de trenkhac nhau, nghia la ngudi do killing hop li hay khong kien dinh. Vi dukhach hang co the tin rang nhung not cue nhan vien cong tac xa heinhu: "Ted that su mugn giup anh/chi" IA khOng trung thuc vi cling hic dongtibi nay lai dang quan tam den viec khac, va nhu vay khach hang co thdnghi rang nhung viec khac do quan trong Min hoac it nh6t la cong quantrong nhu viec gap ho. Tinh the thuc hay tinh Chan thOc (genuineness, authenticity) lanhUng khai niem khac dude dung de me to dac diem nay. Khi to ra thanthue, nhan vien cong the xd hei phai chung to dude ho mugn thuc su bleu,th‘tc so lam viec va thtfic su mugn giup cid khach hang. Raskin va Rogercho rang nhan vien CTXH phai dude Kern nhu la met ngudi an tic su mugngitip do ngudi khac va khOng nen bi Kern nhu IA met ngudi ti..tkhodc len chominh met ye bg ngoai nao do va cong viec chink cna anh to la ng61 do delinh ti6n luring. Met each dg the hien su san lOng nay la lam cho khachhang co met quan he cong tac, ca ngudi gitip do va ngudi dttoc gilp do phaicling nhau tim hieu va giai quyet v6n dg. Dieu nay la hoan toan khac so vdi Cornier, S., & Nurius, P. S. (2003). Interviewing and change strategies forhelpers (5 th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 2 Raskin, N. J. & Rogers, C. R. (1995). Person-centered therapy. In R. J.Corsini & D. Wedding (Ed.), Current psychotherapies (5 th ed., pp. 128-161). Itasca,II: Peacock.26
  26. 26. each gitip do kik nhtt nggai gidp gia dinh la phai hilt het vg van de eimkhach hang sau do duo ra met loot the each chga tri ma khong he danhchin thai gian nee) de tim hik dac diem rieng, nhung hoar thnh va vande rieng tha titng ea nhan. Ngoati ra, tinh than thgc con co ngg Y rang nggai ghip tra met eachtrung thgc nhCing tau hal ma killing a all phOng thu. Nhan vien thug bac xahei than thud se tra lai khach hang mot each rat quan tam bang each sitdung nen nga khach hang co the hik &Mc chic killing phai la sit dung thetit chuyen m6n hay t6 ra ye xa each, trich thuong. Cac bieu hien cua su than thus Cormier va Nurius t cho rang ea 5 hien hien caa sg than thgc la "hanhvi nen tit cb tinh khich le, hanh vi clang vai, tfnh kien dinh, tfnh tg nhienva tinh cat ma" (trg. 69). Nhang hanh vi phi ngon tit c6 tinh khich 18 duct the then to athe ng6i hdi Iniong ve phia trgoe va nhin vac) khach hang (Ilk phi hap vanphong tut va van hed). NhiTing hanh vi &mg vai la khi nhan vien CTXH tg cam thay hailong hoac khong hi go be trong vi tr1, vai cita minh va do do thay kh8ng canthigt phai nhan manh vai tro vi tri tha minh. Hon Mita, nhan vien tong taexa hoi khong phai "dong vai" trong khi lam vile bai vi hg thgc sit muon aday a ginp khach hang. Tinh kien dinh la sg thong nit& kik dinh trong hanh vi, cam gineva y nghi cim nhan vien CTXH. Can phai the hien chan thue nhgng camgine cua minh trong khi phOng van khach hang thay vi co/ phai the giauhay phi nhan cam giac caa minh. Tinh nhi8n khong ggIng ep la kha nang phan ling hoc the hien ban than met each to nhien khong hi gO ho. Tuy nhien, trong trtiang hop co . cam giacnhigcamteudlvikhacngtoeb nay ra nlu khong can tra vies gitim do ho. Tinh cat ma la sti son long cai ma mgt each hop li caa nab lam CTXH nham mue dich gitip khaeh hang nhan thay rang nhiing ngttai khac Cornier, S., & Nurius, P. S. (2003). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers (5 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. 27
  27. 27. cang da tang trai qua nhung dieu Wong 41, co earn gide Wring to vA do do co the tao dUng mei quan he On gni, hdp toe hdn vdi khach hang. Tuy nhien, ngu sv cal ma dO co dude dun gian la do nhu eau mu6n dude chia se caa nhan vien CTXH thi khong pha hdp va khong throe khuygn klatch. KT Wang dein giii Dien giai , cling gating nhu ki nang that cam, la su phan ling bang lainot caa nhan vien cang tae xA hei dui vdi khAch hang ma vg ban chat latruygn tai nOi dung caa thong diep nhan dude tii khach hang. Trong khi phan Cing than cam thuang din to su than hiau cam giacvg thong diep, dien giai Hwang tap trung vao viec khach hang dang suynghi gi hay dang lam gi. Dien giai cang có the dude dung a truygn tainhung du lieu co lien quan. Nhung gi nhan vien tong Lac xa hei nghe dude va hieu dude nen doge kiem nghiem lai vdi khach hang theo each khong phai la bat chadc y het. Nhan vien CTXH nen dung nhung tit quan trong ma khach hang da sa dung nham tom tat va lam sang to not dung eila thong diep. Hai vi du dal, dui% day la nhting vi du ye ki nang (lien giai khi lamviec vdi khach hang. Nam vi du tigp theo la tinh hueng cho ban thuc hanh (hen giai. 1. Khach hang: T8i &tang nhu kheing the lam cho moi chuyen emdep. TOi het tign, xe cua tai hang, hog don phai thanh toan cluing chat, va&Ong viec thi Chang di den dau. Toi thue su muen di hoc tra lai nhung khOngdu an chi tra ngay bay gin. . Ca ye nhu tai khOng the xoay sa &Mc. Toimuen co met Ong bac giau co va de lai cho tea thita ke. Nhan vien CTXH: Ban dang thieu tien, hoe dun phai thanh torndang cluing chat, ban muen dude tik tut hoc nhung ban khOng thay co eachnao a lam dude diet do. 2. Khach hang: Ka to khi thong tei gap gd nhau, Lei da lam dudenhieu chuyen tet hon. T8i da cO the not dude vdi vd tOi ve nhung gi da xayra vdi tai twee day. T6i da có the Chu tri cat buei hop nhan vien ma khongbi cam Mac ho se gian du vdi tea. Va tai nhan thay minh khOng con ngaiviec day som vao buei sang a di lam. Nhan vien CTXH: Ban clang thay minh tai and hurl vdi vd va ban dacó the lanh dao dude cac nhan vien trong cling ti.28
  28. 28. 3. Khach hang: TOi bat qua tang con gai tbi dang eb can sa va met itgiAy otter. TOi da nghi ng6 tit mita he nay khi no di ye muon cung maynmiai ban va khi nam hoc bat dau, diem hoc ciM no kern dan. Khach hang: Chung tai vita chuyen den day to Nebraska. Nguai tanOi rang co nhieu viec trong nganh xay dung a day. Hien tai cluing UMkhong c6 chi a. Hai CM truck tea, vd toi va hai con nha phai ngu trong xe tai.Met canh sat noi chung tat co the nhd cac anh glut) da. 5. Khitch hang: Bac si cim tai noi toi can gap ban. Nam truck tbi bitai nan va khong the di lam dude. Toi bi nga khOi thang xueng dat tit trenmet gian khoan dau. Toi bi ran xttdng dui. Toi da co the di b8 dticic chilt itnhung van phai dung nang. Cu khoang 10 den 15 phtit toi lai thAy dau vaphai ng6i xueng. Bac si da cho tea Tenynol 3 nhung chi do chat it. 6. Gap khach hang la met co con gai ca trong met gia dinh. Co ta noi: "Tit khi me toi mkt, be tai cu xu nhu the tai la ngtt6i phaiganh moi track nhiem gia dinh. TOi nAu nhung, rUa bat, gitlp cac em lambai, nku boa trua cho chUng trtioc khi di ngti. Toi biet toi cung phai có trachnhiem lam viec trong gia dinh nhung be tai ding phai vay chit. Be chi noiOng qua met va tot phai lam nlifing viec do". 7. Ban vii to each la nhan vien CTXH trong trttang hoc va ban phai gap khach hang la cO Quitero, met phu nu nguoi Tay Ban Nha, la me cite, met eau con trai. CO ta nOi: "TM khong hien &No. Ngay nao Pepe cling di hoc. Tai chat than ye dieu do. Khi no ye nha, tai hen no co chuyen gi xay ra, no da hoc gi, boa trtta caa no nhu the nao, ye tat ca nhung dieu ma cac be me den muen biet. NO luau brio tei no da lam cac bai tap a trUang, boa trtta cna no tot. Cho nen tOi van nghi moi chuyen deli en ca. Bay gia, anh lai noi vii tOi no da khong lam bai tap va no thi trttOt". Ki !fang tom tit TOm tat cling Wring ti nhu dien giAi chi khac la no bao gem luringthOng tin 16n hen dude cung cap bai khach hang. Ki nang nay co the dudedung hai, ba hay ben lan trong khi phang van nhu la met each de nhac laichU diem, van de, nal dung va rine dich da de cap den. Tom tat cung la agiup khach hang tiep tut noi ye eau chuyen cfm. minh. 29
  29. 29. Khi nhan vien CTXH nghe eau chuyen cua khach hang, th yang thi cakhach hang va nhan vien CTXH dgu bat data cam thky lo sq. Biet each tomrat co thd giup to chtic hap li thOng tin va do do day nhanh qua trinh tim ravan rig, tranh hi lan man hay phAn tan. Duda day IA met vi du tom tat ena nhan vien CTXH. Vi du: Jim, nhu nheing gi nghe chide, toi thdy anh dd xcic dinh chide ba veinde quan trong. Thg nha anh dang cam the!), theit vong, vet tinh hinh dangtra nen tdi to how. Thg hat, anh vet Sue dei tranh cdi ve viec nen di nghi d giadinh co cry hay tdi Nam California. Thu ba, ed hai ngudi dei tranh cal ve tengido va nen di nha the new vi bon tre dd hdi. Vein de new anh they la quantrong nhed digidi quyei My gid? Ki nang lam sang M van dd Khi khach hang chia se nhung cam gine, y nghi, each cu )(if, cauchuyen, hi vong trong Wong lai Qua ho, nhan vien CTXH phai dam bao rangminh co the hidu dude Sr nghia cua nhung nem tit ha su dung, nhung tinhhuSng cau chuyen xay ra, cac mire do cam giac cua khach hang va ea nhungdigu khach hang mong main dat duct Thong thudng thi khach hang se giadinh rang nhang thong tin ho truyan dat la day du, hoac nhan vien CTXHse hidu dude nhung W ho dien dat. Co nhang trong qua trinh phOng vanthtiang IA lan thu nhat, thu hai, thlt ba khi gap gei khach hang, nhAn vienCTXH thttang khong chat cha n vg ban chat, nei dung, nghia caa thong idiep &lac truygn tai. Trong nhang tinh huiing nhu vay, nhan vien CTXHcan phai lam sang to van de via khach hang de dam haa co thd hidu dtingvkn de. Met each thin gian va hieu qua a lam duck digu nay la dat cau" Y anh/chi la gi khi not ?". Myc dick cua viec lam sang t6 van dd Cho khach hang thky rung ban dang nghe nhung nei dung truygn taila chua day di a co the hidu. Vi vay viec clei cung cap them thong tin lacan thiet truck khi di xa hon. Thvong thi khach hang khOng co co hei dd suynghi San ye van dg oua minh. Bang each bi yeu cau lam sang to van de, banthan ho phai tim each Iva chon cach din giai vkn dg cho minh va tV lamsang to vkn de cho minh trtiOc khi ho c6 the giai thich met each chInh xac30
  30. 30. cho met ngttoi khac. Yeu eau khach hang gill thich y nghia cim viec hiachon nem tit cO the ghlp ho hieu at/ Iva chon nen tit c6 the anh huffing clAnsuy nghi va hanh vi cua chinh ho Mang nhr nguai khac. Sau clang, tim each lam fa van dg se gitip thlic day nhanh qua trinhhieu khach hang, hieu each giao Ken, y nghi va earn gine cua khach hang.Vice yeu eau lam sang to van se gulp ban phut hien ra phong each giaotiAp cua khach hang va each suy nghi va cam giac cim ho ve moi digu. Bantang hieu nhanh dtMc phong each cim khach hang, ban tang c6 moi lien hechat the voi khach hang. Ki !fang phiing van Mat trong nhiling Id nang chinh cim nhan vien cling tic xa hei laphOng van. PhOng van la met nghe thuat, khi nhan vien CTXH Tat cau hoiphu hOp, kip thai va nhung cau hoi c6 dinh throng tett, khach hang co thegiai thich cau chuyen, xac dinh van dg thigt lap muc lieu, xac dinh ni6mtin, cam xtic va hanh vi cUa ho to/t hon. PhOng van gulp khach hang hieu bigt vg minh n5 hdn ma khong khignho c6 cam giac bi len lop hay hi liia phinh. PhOng van tang ghat) khach hangtV tim ra giai phap cho van de cua minh chit khang van de cim minh chonguai khac giai quygt. Thong qua phOng va-n, khach hang duoc trang hi metld nang ce the Kau ich trong tming lai va do do khign ho c6 site manh, svthao vat va nghi IVc. Khi nhan vien CTXH moi vao nghg va bat (tau cat moi quan trongtong viec, tan stigt, va loai cau hai cua ho throng hac le sV lo lang. Dieu nayxay ra thurthg xuyen nhAt trong nhiing khoAnh khac im lang hay khi thaoluan mot van de khO. Doi khi nhan vien CTXH hOi den dap va nhay to vande nay qua van de khac, thuang la to nhung van de nhay cam sang nhfingvan de it nhay cam hdn. Cling vai kinh nghiem, nghe thuat dat cau hai phithlp, khich le suy nghi tra nen tv nhien hdn, va nhung nhan vien CTXHsit dung chimg de he trd khach hang thong qua qua trinh dat dude sky sangto va xac dinh cat hta chon giai phap cho van c16. Cach oat au Nil Cormier va Nurius dua ra bOn each co ban eau ghlp cho qua trinhphOng van tra nen co hieu qua va tigt kiern hdn. 31
  31. 31. • Nen dat cau hOi tap trung vao nhang van de thu but sy quan tam cim khach hang. Nghia la cau hOi dat ra phai dua vao nhfing thong tin ma khach hang da cung cap. • Khi da dua ra eau hai, nen de cho khach hang co thai gian tra lai. Hay tam dung khi ket thlic met cau va bat clan met eau mai. • Tranh viec lien tut dua ra the cau hOi nham tranh cho khach hang rtli vao tinh trang bei rei hay king tang. Dieu nay dat biet quan trong khi lam viec vai tre em hoac nguai gia. • Tranh dat eau hOi "tai sao" vi khich hang thtiong coi chang nhtt la met sy dei dau hay mang nghia buOc tel. Them vao do, hay chti § dgn giong not ciia. ban. MOt quy tAc la hayehuan bi hOi nhiing eau hOi cila ban, lya chon chUng sao cho thyc sy phananh sy ton trong va sy quan tam clgn nhang theta khach hang trai nghiemva then dat. Cugi thing, phai nhay cam voi van de van hoh. Tranh dungnhang eau hOi tao ra met an Wong rang ban dang co them van khach hangvi dieu nay co the anh }Wang Mn mot quan he vai khach hang va tao ra metcam giac khong tin cay, byc We hay so hai tit phia khach hang. Mac dau co ye nhtt ki nang hOi la met la nang de, thye tokhong phainhtt vay. Chung to co the thgy trong suet qua trinh gitip da, nhan vienCTXH thudng xuyen phai hOi nhung eau hOi co ki nang. Trong giai doandau (nhap euee vai khach hang), phOng van Ono xay dyng va phat trienmgi quail he vdi khach hang. Trong giai doan danh gia, phong van giupsang loe va phan tich thing tin nham tim ra phan thong tin quan trong cólien quan nhgt tai van de cim khach hang. Trong giai doan len kg hoach,phOng van gitip tim ra mac tieu dUQc tin been phai tim kigm. Trong giaidoan can thiep, phOng van gilip khach hang xem xet cac kign, sy lya chonva giai phap. Trong giai doan danh gia, phOng van giup the dinh dtiqc mitede tign trien va thanh tong cua giai phap can thiep va to do giup khachhang len kg hoach cho Wang lai. Phan sau day xem )(et kI luting hem vg cac loai eau hOi thttang (Iliac sitdung trong qua trinh tro giup.Cac It* cau hoi CO hai loai cau hOi ca ban thong dung trong qua trinh tro giup khachhang: Cau hOi Bong va cau hOi ma.32
  32. 32. Cau hOi ma. Loai can hoi nay cho cho phep khach hang tra lai theoea laa chon, chta ra nhang thong tin chi tigt ma khach hang cho la phu hOpdua tren su hieu bigt cua khach hang ve tinh hugng. Milan vien CTXHthtiang hai nhang cau hal h a chon theo each goi khach hang rang ho cothe din giai 6 mile cIO it hay nhigu tuY thuec vao § mugn caa ho. Cau hOim6 thuang su dung tit a hal nhti tai sao, khi nem, ccii gi... M6i tii nay gal Ykhach hang dim ra thOng tin theo each hieu caa rieng ho. Theo Cormier va Nurius, cau hOi "Cal gi" thaang khuygn khich khachhang din ra thong tin thuc tg: "Ban nghi vo ban milk ntli gi khi "Emda than sting the nay lam rein Cau hOi "The nao" finking di kem voldin bign cam xiic: "Ban cam thy th6 nao khi anh ay nei anh ay da et)ngtiai phu nil khac?". eau hal "Ai" tim thong tin ve con nguai, cau hai "6 dal" va "Khi nao" tim thong tin vg khong gian Ark thai gian: "Horn qua ban dang sung ai khi sit viec xay ra?", "Ban di nho ban dang 6 dau khi dien thoai reo khOng?". Chu hOi "Vi sao" yeu eau khach hang dua ra met li do cho viec xay ra. Nen it sit dung eau hOi "Tai sao" vi thong thaang khach hang thaang suy nghi rang ngilai hoi dang c6 tim ra 18i, hoac co dO 16i hay buec tOi ho vg nhang chuyen da xay ra. Dieu nay khign cho khach hang tra nen phong thu va de chang, do do anh twang deal mai quan he vol khach hang. Cac cau hen bat &Au via "Ban co the ..." h & khach hang vg kha nang . Dili them chol la gi do: "Ban co the not tOi nghe ve nhang gi da xay ra khi ban chang kik tai nan dude khOng?". Nhang cau hoi sau day la nhang bec back caa khach hang va eau hOi ma theo saw 1. Khach hang: Ted time sp lo long vg chuyen dgn day ngay h6m nay. Toi data bao gia sit dung dich vu cling tae xa 114 Nhan vien CTXH: "Anh da nghe gi vg each lam viec vai met nhan vien CTXH khi6n cho anh lo thing vay?" 2. Khitch hang: "TOi dang bac mink vi co ca hei tea lieu t6i co the di tut gian ma van cam thgy en khong". Nhitn vien CTXH: (noi v6i cac thank vien khac): "Gag ban con lai cam thOy the lac, vg each Eta lam viec viii Thu va sa tut gian caa chi ay?". 33
  33. 33. 3. Khach hang: "Anh ta sa vao nhung elle kin caa tor. Nhan vien CTXH: "Chi co the noi them ve thai gian va dia diem xgy ra chuyen nay khong?". 4. Khach hang: "T8i da CO the lam dieu gi do de sita claim nhiing tenthuang net), hem do. T6i time su mat to chit". Nhan vien CTXH: Chi ce the giai thich them Ire su mat to chit kliOng?" 5. Khach hang: "Tea man chgm ditt mei quan he nay ngay". Nhan vien CTXH: (Cau hOi de the hien su thanh thuc quail tam)"Hay noi vi sao ban cam thay manh me ye chuyen cham dot quan he vay?". Cau hni dOng. LA loai cau hOi dac tning bai cau trg lai nOn met tithoac met cau ngan. Loai eau hOi nay thttang dude dimg de thu thap thongtin Cu the met each nhanh thong va co the dot hen khach hang Ghia ra metlua chop (co hay khong). Bai vi nhong cau hen clang thtiang dude sit dung dethu thap thong tin Cu the, cluing dOi hOi nhan vien CTXH co met mite dOkiem coat ]on ye dinh htiOng cga euee phang van. Nguai phOng van nen can trong khi dimg loai cau hOi nay vi khachhang thttang coy nghi rang ho dang phai tra lai theo y muOn cua nguaihai hoac chi can Era lai nhu vay xong, ngttai phOng van se dua ra ngay metgiai phap. flute hanh: Lam theo nhOna hai hay ba nguai, that hanh sit dungnhiing cau Mk ma Cho nhang cau noi sau. Hay nhd hOi mot eau hat lienquan den nhilng dieu khach hang vita mil 1. Met ngttai me Ice vdi nhan vien tri lieu Ira dim con dang Lang ngheeau chuyen. Khach hang: Heim qua no lai op vac rei a trnang. 2. Khach hang: TM da nhu thang ngu vay. Thit nhgt, (Tang le tol dakhong nen den elle; do. 3. Khach hang: Toi kitting the tin dude la tat dude tang hieing T8ichua bao gia chtoc nhu vay, chua bao gia. 4. Khach hang: Anh ta cu dung do ettai tot Anhlchi eu thu nhin taiye do eim anh ta ma xem. Anh ta data bao gia nhu vay. 5. Khach hang: CO ay noi co ay miler chting toi sang Chung.34
  34. 34. 6. Khach hang: TM InIta IA toi se lien be. TM vita mdi trai qua haiWan MI6 khan va diking nhu chang tien tridn chtyc gi. 7. Khach hang: My em bac) la bee me khOng muOn danh em. Nhungkhi b6 me danh em, me lai not d6 khong phai loi tai em. 8. Khach hang: Sang thu ba no di hoc nhu thttang le. Mai den 6h chigu,no van khong ve nha. Toi bat dau thdy lo Fang. Tit do Coi chua thdy no. 9. Khach hang: Toi Bang cam thdy chan nan vg htteng di dm cuec TOi during nhu khong thoat (Wye khOi tinh trang suy sup. 10. Khach hang: Ten lo la no co van de Toi khong hien vi sao toi camtidy nhu vAy. D6 chi la cam giac doi khi thoang qua filth. Cac eau hai dOng thtteng co cau tra ldi la "co" hoac "khong". Cac cauhai thuong la co hoac killing met thong tin Cu thd nhu ten, tail, not sinh,ton giao, dia chi v.v... Sau day la vi du caa nhung cau hOi clang: 1. Nhan vien CTXH: Anh co mien a day haul nay khong? 2. Khach hang: Co. 3. Nhan vien CTXH: Day co phai la chit ki ceia em 4. Khach hang: Khong. 5. Nhan vien CTXH: Ghi chdp caa cluing tOi chi ra rang chi da Lungden day. CO dung khong chi nhi? 6. Khach hang: Vang. 7. Nhan vien CTXH: Chau song vdi b6 hay voi my? 8. Khach hang: V& me. 9. Nhan vien CTXH: Digit my chew nOi co dung khong? 10. Khach hang: Khong. MOt s6 khach hang to nhan trach nhiem giii thich chi tigt nhung eautra lee cho nhung cau hal thing. Chang han trong truing hyp 5 tren day khidityc hOi digu nguei me not co dung killing, can be co the tra lei "khOng"nhung sau do co the giii thich li do vi sao eau nghi digu me not la khongdung. Neu nhan vien CTXH mu6n co ski giao tiep nhigu bun giiia hai benthi nen thing met call hai ma. Theo Ivery va Ivery (2003), sdd. 35
  35. 35. Cau hOi theo trial hoc Socrat "Khong co gi dac trong cho Socrat bang tranh luan, va khong có gi dactrong cho tranh luau cua Ong hon dat can hOi". Theo Overholser (1988),phticsng phap Socrat nlahn manh, viec dat cau hOi la met trong ba ygu t6 coban trong dgi thoai. DO co the la met ki nang hula ich trong ginp do cackhach hang lam sang to hoan canh cua ho. Phudng phap Socrat duck lifthap cu the v6i thuyet tri lieu tinh cam caa, trong tri lieu nhan thac caaBeck va trong during Intong tri lieu ban nga (Stein, 1991). Nhang mac dtiphueng pithy) nay da duce dan ra trong cac diking hiking tren, co rht ft cacchi dhn hoac hU6ng dhn dude dua ra ye nhung y@u t6 thi tic to cua "plumngphap dat cau hOi" trade khi Overholser (1993) mo to chi tiet. Vao thji dai cua Socrat, phuong phap dat eau hoi dude dung de chiingminh su thieu hieu Matt ciia con nguai va su can thiet phai dua vao logic(Schmid, 1983). Trong m61 quan he tri lieu, phOng van dude dimg vi nhigu ifdo. Thong qua pilling van, khach hang va ngUai phOng van clang nhan khampha va cau hOi se gulp thlic day sit suy nghi doe lap to phia khach hang vatilde ddy ho tki tim cau tra lai cho chfnh von de caa ho. Dieu nay co the datdupe la do mei quan he Ong tac giva khach hang va ngtioi phOng van. 7 loai cau hai theo trial hoc Socrat Theo Overholser (1993), Bloom va Sanders da xac Binh va "me to bay loai can hOi gem co: cau hoi ye tri nha, eau dien giai, eau hOi giai thich, cauhOi fing dung, can hai phan tich, eau hOi tang hop, eau hen danh gih" (trg. 67). Cau hOi ve tri rthit Loai cat hen nay del h & ngitai throe hOi phai nh6 .lai nhfing su kien trong qua khft, de tim kigm thong tin chi tigt cu the. VD:"Ban bat dau co nhCing bigu hien nhu thg to khi nao?", "N6 keo dal bao1.au?", "Lan cugi cling chuyen JO xay ra la khi nao?". Cau hal din giai dal hOi ngurii dude hOi phai giai thich, hoac dien(Lich met Y Wang, met so kien, hay met mail thong tin c6 nghia nhu the naodOi veil ho. Can hOi nay &lac hOi de c6 gang lam tang higu bigt cua khachhang hoac de tim them thong tin chtia dude not den. VD: "Dieu do co .7nghia nhu the nao dgi v6i. ban?", "Ban co the giai thich viec do vdi vd nhuthe nao?". Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Birch Lane Press.36
  36. 36. Cau hed giai thich. Loai cau hOi nay nham kham pha mgi quan hegtha cac su kien, da kien va y Wang. Cu thd, nhan vien CTXH c6 thg cogAng trinh bay met hake nhigu y Wang hay da lieu cho phgp khach hangtim mgi lien ket giaa cluing. VD: "Mgi quan he dm ban vei xgp hien taigigng va khac nhu thg nao vdi mgi quan he tra6c day caa ban v6i nhangxgp khac?". Gigng nhu cau hOi din dich, cau hoi giai thich Ming Lim ranghia caa thong tin nao do bang each dat cau hOi. "Dieu do co nghia nhuthe nao dgi voi ban?". Can hai ling dung. Loai eau hOi nay gitip xac Binh nhang Inkinghqp khach hang da nghi dgn (ang dung) hoac tha dua ra bien phap giaiquygt van dg. VD: Dd hien cu thg vg chign lugs giai quygt de caa khachhang, nhan vien CTXH có the hai: "Ann/chi da tha lam digu gi chaa?", "COphuang phan nao co ye c6 hien qua khang?". Cau hoi phan tich. Loai can hOi nay giap khach hang to tim eachgiai guy& vAn de then-1g qua nhang lift Man dua tree" viec thu thAp da cacbang thong. Nhang can hoi nhu the nay khuygn khich nguai dude hOi sadung to duy logic va sp khach quan de cling cg kign hay ket luau eau ho.VD: "Ban co bang chang nao de thong minh nhang ket Man dm ban?","Digu gi khien cho van dg tra nen tOt hon hay t6i to Min?" Cau hen tong 14p. Cac can hOi nay khuygn khich khach hang to duysang tao va gel tim ra nhang giai Aar) khac nhau cho van de caa ho. VD:"C6 the c6 nhang giAi phap nao?", "Ban da bigt each hay tha lam gi aura?".Cfic can hei t&ng hop cling &Ong vai tre gop phan dinh nghia cac to dungtrong nghia thong linking. VD: "Del vdi ban, thgnao la "thAt bar. Cau hOi danh gia. Doi hal khach hang phai danh gia chia tit mettieu chi nhgt dinh. Thy nhat, can phai neu re tieu than danh gia (sa dungeau hen "CM gi"); eau do xac dinh nhang kign hoac hanh vi xem chung Onvdi nhang tieu chuan de dgn mac nao (sa dung eau hOi "Thg nao"). VD:"Ngaoi to phai lam gi de thanh gong?", "Ban pha hOp vol su me to do nhuthe nao?", "VAy vO anh muOn gi to anh?", "Ban dat dude gi to nhang LieuchuAn do?". eau hei Socrat va cac giai down trong m8 hinh giai guy& van de Overholser (1988) dinh nghia rang phong van then he thgng la viec sudung met that cac eau hoi da thigt kg (khong qua nhigu) nham tim kigm 37
  37. 37. thong tin vg met chu diem cu the de kith hoat nhan thfic tit duy cUa khachhang. Theo Overholser (1993), viec nay co the thuc hien duce relit each c6he thgng bang each kgt hap gnu hOi Socrat vao cac qua trinh cua mo hinhgiai quygt van Muc dich IA tra gitip khach hang phat trien cac ki nAng giai quygt vande va kha nang co the dua ra cac chitin luuc giai quygt khac nhau. Cac giai doan ed ban cim phudng phap giai quygt van dg bao Om: 1.Mo to cith khach hang ve van dg cling vOi li do can sit gall) do, 2. Cling danhgift vg van dg 3. Thigt lap mac tieu (ca mue den cha khach hang va cuangttoi khac, va (my& dinh loai can thiep de dat dude mue tieu, 4. im dungcan thiep, va 5. Danh gia ke hoach. Giai doan 1. Khach hang mo to van dg va dua ra li do tai sao can c6sti giup do. Ngttoi phOng van dat cau hOi nham owe inch yeu eau khach hang thedinh va mo to van dg. Nhang loci eau hai danh gia va phan tich co the dudedung. VD: "Tiii co giup gi cho anh?", "Dieu gi khign ban mugn tim kigm skigulp de tai thai diem nay?", "Anh nghi cai gi gay ra van dg?", "Dieu gi khignban cho rang do la nguyen nhan gay ra van dg nay?". Giai doan 2. Cong tae cling danh gia van de Tii nhang cau hai khai quat ve li do can gulp aa cua khach hang, vadigu ma nguoi do nghi la gay ra van de, nhan vien CTXH c6 the chuyensang giai doan hai. Muc dich a giai doan nay la hOi nhung cau hai cu the vachi tigt ye van de va nhang klea canh xung quanh van de. Nhang cau hendanh gia co the tigp tut duct sit dung. VD: "Theo thang danh gia to 0 dgn100, yin de nay dung a cap do nao?", "Theo ban, ban có the tim ra giai phapkilling?" Cau hai nhe cling co the duct s dung. VD: "NO xay ra thieingxuyen nhu thg nao?", "CO bao gia ban lam tinh hinh thay dude killing?Hay co khi nao tinh hinh kha hon khong?, "Co thei digm cu the nao khi vigcnay xay ra killing?", "6 mac do nao?". Ban sung c6 the dung eau hoi phantich de khach hang tit phan tich cac khia canh cua yin de. VD: "Nhang yguto nao tao nen van dg?", "Digu gi giup cai thien/lam toi te, van de hdn?. McMahon, M. 0. (1996). The general method of social work practice: A proble-solvingapprach (3 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.38
  38. 38. Giai doan 3. Lap ra muc tieu va tim each can thiep tot nhat trongviec tre giup khach hang dat dude muc Lieu Qua trinh phi-511g van bat dau thien vg muc dich ma khach hangva/hoac cac co quan, nhung nguei mugn co lien quan (cha me, ban del, cactoa an, nha truang) mugn dat dude. Hay dung eau 116i danh gia de gulpkhach hang guy& dinh ho mu6n dat dude gi va nhung ngvai khac mtten datchive gi. VD: "Ban mugn dieu gi cu the to cube gap ci-la chang to?", "Lam thenao de nhung khac) cfla ban bigt ban co fign be?", "Lam thg nao thiban bigt chting to dang tign be" "Lam the nao ban biet la chung to da hoanthanh wing viec?", hay "Toa an mugn ban lam duoc gi khi ban quay laitoa?". Gang co the dung cac cau 15i nha de giup khach hang va nhan vienCTXH len muc tieu cho Wong lai daft tren nhfing dieu co the trong quakhil. VD: "Ban TA titng lam duct viec do trudc day chug?", "CO viec gi cu theda xay ra trong qua khit lam ban tin la ban có the lam dude no lai trongWang lai?". Cau hai phan tich cang co the giup chia cac muc tieu kin thanhnhtIng muc tieu nh6 va de dat dale hon. NI).ling cau hOi nay sit dung suyluan then dich (Overholser, 1993): "De dat dtteic muc Lieu cna ban thi bttdcdau Lien la gi?", "Muc tieu caa ban la khong con suy sup tam H. Tay thi metviec ban co the lam ngay ngay mai de dat duoc cam giac do la gi?". Giai down 4. Tien hanh can thiep Dun vao mo hinh hoac can thiep ban dimg, cau hOi Ung dung di thegitip tim kigm met bien phap tim nang cho van de. Vi du: "Anh/chi se lamgi cu the trong tuan nay?", "Arm/chi con co the thi lam gi Mia?", "Chinh xac anh/chi co the lam gi de tao ra sitt thay del?". Co the dung cau hai tong hop nharn giup khach hang ma rang phamvi Lim kigm cac giai phap nhu: "CO cach nao khac a lam dieu nay khong?". Cau hei phan Lich co the giup tim ra giai phap da dude ap dung thanhding hoac chia thanh ding tit& do. VD: "Co hie nao khi ban lam dieu nay magiup ich doge, "Prong digu kien nao thi thanh gang? Khong thanh tong?". Giai doan 5. Danh gia kehoach 6 giai doan nay, dat cau hai phan Lich va danh gia la pha hap. Vi du, each &it eau hai phan tich co the la: "Cu the anhlchi da lamnhiing gi eO the" giup fah cho van de nay ref?", "Nhin lai thi dieu gi da giupich dudc nhieu nhat?". 39
  39. 39. Cau hai dank gia de khach hang din ra danh gia cua minh. Trongtwang hop nay la met danh Ma vg kg hoach va viec thin hien lie hoach. Vidu vg each (tat eau 116i danh gia: "Theo thang diem tit 0-100, anhichi danhgia minh dang giao flip o mile dO nao?", "Chi van cho rang el-long chi languyen nhan duy nhgt gay ra van de?". Bang 1.2 la met ma hinh giai quyet van dg vol cac vi du vg vi0c tipdung cau hOi Socrat. Cac ban co the dung m6 hinh nay nha met chi dan vicac bUac clnia hoan chinh. Dan dan, nhan vien CTXH se cam thay quenthuec va thoai mai han trong viec sit dung cac cau hot. Khi dude ad dung eaki thuat, ening giup khach hang xac Binh van dat ra muc Lieu, thamkhao cac lua chin, va danh gia lien trinh. Tel ca cac ki nang tren deu co thedude hoc de sit dung trong Wong lai. Giai doan 1. Meta yen de A. Chu had chinh gin Dieu gi khien ban tai day? Van d6 caa ban la gi? Dieu gi da thay dOi cuOc song ala ban khien ban quygt dinh tim kiem sit giOp dd Et day? Tai co the giUp nInt the nao? B. Call hdi phan rich Theo ban nguyen nhan coa van de la gi? Dieu gi khign ban nght do la nguyen nhan gay ra yin de? Trong tinh hueng nao thi tinh hinh tra nen tat han? Giai doan 2. Cgng tic ding dank gia yen de A. Cau hoi gpl nhd N6 xay ra khi nao, a dau, trong di4u kien So? N6 xay ra thiteng xuyen nha the nao? Ai co lien quan? Khi nao no it xay ra nhat? B. Cau tufa [Man tic!, Ban thay dau la nguyen nhan chinh caa van de? Tmh hudng, dieu kien nao khien no tra nen tett tei to km? Bang Chung So cho thay dieu do? C. Cau bed than gird Van de cua ban c6 gigng Van de caa ban gidng va khac nht.r the nao?40
  40. 40. D. CALI hot dein dichVe ban la gi khi not man cam thay tat hem?Giai doan 3. Thigt 15p muc tau va quygt dinh can thiepA. Cau hot goi nhdTni6c day ban da lam dial.] nay bao gib chita va no có higu qua khong?Sau do &au gi de xay ra?B. Chu hot dont, gidBan mu6n dat duce gi to cu6c gap caa chting ta?Ban có the not 91 khi ban dat duce digu do?Ban cho rang ban muon c6 sct cal thign trong giao tigp, di& gi khien ban cho rangban da co nhErng cai thign nhat dinh? BO me, thgy co... mugn ban lam gi? Lam sao ho bigt ban de dang lam duac (lieu do? C. Cat, hot phan tich Neu ban mu& dat &lac cap do 9 tren 10. Ban dang a cap do 3. Ban co thg lam gi de dat duac cap do 4? D. Cdu heal dien dich Dieu gi khien ban tin rang be; me, thay co muan ban lam khac di? Giai doan 4. Tan hanh can thiep A. Cau heti Ling dung Ban se lam gi cu the trong Wan nay? Ban c6 thg lam 91 khac nUa? Ban nghi digu gi se co the xay nail ban this...? Dieu gi khign ban nghi rang lam nht.t the nay thi tat Ilan? B. eau hal tong hop Ban nhin nhan van de theo each khac khong? 196 co phai la lqa chon duy nhat? Giai doan 5. Dann gia st; tren trignikg hoach A. eau heti phan tich NO tign trign nha the nao? Co khi nao no tatitgi to hdn khong? Dieu gi la hay nhat a kg hoach cua ban? B. Caw hot danh gief V6i thang digm to 0 dgn 100, ban danh gia minh dat &roc muc dich a thang diem nao? 41
  41. 41. Ban danh gib mOc dO hobn thanh nhilth6 nao? Ban se lam gi khac hoac giang ngu c6 the lam !pi In sau? Ban a h9c &sac gi? BANG 1.2. MO hinh huang don ap dung eau hoi Socrat trong cac giai doan giai quyet van de Phan sau day la cac vi du ve cac can not cua khach hang va cac me hinh tra lai theo cac Id nang than cam, quan tam tich cue, cac eau hOi &mg, ma va cac can hdi lam sang CO van de. Nhung vi du nay dude ghi lai de cho phep ban ren luyen m8i Id ning chudn hi cho khi lam viec vdi khach hang. Chung toi gal y ban xem moi ki nang then tha ty mo ta roi luyen tap ding veil met nguai ban va (long vai tra lbi nhilng can not nay vdi ki nang phft hap. San moi can tra lai, hay long nghe phan hdi cita ban mirth ve su tign bo dm ban va so sanh cau Era lai cila ban Nth nhiing eau chide ghi trong phan cau tra lai Wang itng gem ea° cau tra lbi mau. Nhung can tra lai cUa ban khOng nhat thiet phai chinh xac nhtt eau tra ldi mau. Chung dude cung cap chi a lam chi &An hay tham khao. Tigp tuc qua trinh nay cho dgn khi ban cam thay to tin vai viec phat trien ki nang dm ban. Ngu ban khOng the Bong vai, hay luyen tap bang each viec lai nhung cau tra lai cila ban va so Walsh cluing viii nhung eau Era lai m au. r Thyt hanh ki Wang than cam 1. Mbt phy nil 30 Si lam ngha bed ban: TM dang nuoi hai dtia tre nha chi tel.. TM qua met nhung chUng khong thd di dau khac chile. Cita tra led cam thong mita: Viec cham sac hai duo tre con lam ban met mai qua. 2. Mbt ngtati lam cha, me &be than: Toi cam thay that yang voi truang hoe ma con toi dang hoc vi ho nghi moi van de dm no la do tel. Cau tra loi cam thOng man: Ban dang tuc gian bai vi tniang hoc do moi van de ma con ban gap phai cho ban. 3. albt na cong chac 28 Toi dang hen hO met ngttai co ve vaanh ta khong dinh ba vo con anh ta. Toi khong hilt phai lam gi. Cau tra 14% cam thong ma. u• Hen 116 Arai met nguai co ve rat metmoi, Mat la anh ta eft niu gift ve con. Ban dang ban khoan khong hilt bancó tticing lai vdi nguai nay khong.42
  42. 42. 4. Miit ngtidi lai xe tai 50 tudi: TOi khOng Met tai sao Uoi phai den va co ta Kling clang nhd vay.day. TOi chi danh vo met chat thei. Cau tra ldi cam tilting matt Anh khong thich a day va anh khOng thehien vi sao danh vo lai nghiem trong den vay, nhat la vi do to 1$i cna vo anh. Con cim 5. MOt ngtidi me 32 tuOi lam nOi tr./ va dang bitc titc:chi gai tibi rat ngoan va khong bao gib gay chuyen. Cac con tai hien gaychuyen van toi. Toi da tra thanh met nguei me hay b0c bei. Can tra ldi cam thong mau: Chi dang cam thay that bai vi con cnachi hien gay chuyen con chi caa chi &tang nhu co nhung dita tre that ngoan. 6. MOt ngddi 35 tu8i da li hen: T6i mu6n not veil chi ye con trai toi,nhung truck het, toi mu6n biet chi co con chua? Cau tra Wi cam thOng mau: Anh khOng biet than rang tai di thegin]) anh va con trai anh dude kh6ng, frit khi toi ding da có con va toi da conhiing trai nghiem Wang tU nhtt anh. 7. MOt nhan vien himh chinh cOng Ong 40 tuOU Bay gia mei thittoi nOi vdi chi deu la bi mat va chi khOng &Mc not voi ai. Can tra Wi cam thong matt: Chia se nining chuyen rieng ttt van metngdbi khan co le rat clang lo ngai, nhat 11 nal nguai do not voi met ai khanve can van de cua anh. 8. MOt ngddi not tic; 50 -hll da Vet Wm 30 Mum Tin khOng mainve voi Ong ta na. Toi biet la 6ng ta se lai danh t6i, nhung Coi Wiling cam 010 ted có ndi nao de di. Cau tra lai cam thong mau: Bac so phai quay lai voi chOng vi khOng an Loan, nhung bac cam thay khong co Itta chop nao khan 9. MOt sinh Men 18 tu6i tit ming thOn ra thanh thi va dang hoc trtiting co nhiOu sinh vien thanh thi: Em earn thay than vi nguOn got dan que la tai dau tien ngubi ta nhin van em. Cau tra ldi cam thong mau: Em ban vi em mu6n ngubi ta danh gin em vdi nhung li do khan quan trong hdn nguon g6c cua em phai khOng? 10. MOt ba me co ba dith con trong tudi di hoc dang nOi chuyOn vdi ngttai tit van nha tratetng: Nha tri lieu chung tea gap nam ngoai noi rang chting tai that sn la met gia dinh Ii Wang. Tei khong biet vi sao nha trttong lai cho cluing toi la met gia dinh toi to. 43
  43. 43. Cau tra lei cam thong matt: Ban dang thfic mac vi nha tri lieu nam ngodi noi rang moi this trong gia dinh ban deu On, va bay gig moi nguai nei gia dinh ban c6 yen de. 11. Cgu be 16 tuOi coy nghi tinh duc yeti mot clau be khtic: Chau dang c6 nhung y nghi quan he tinh due v6i met thang khac. Chau ban khoan khong biet chat) c6 bi d6ng tinh kheng. Cau tra lei cam thong tn6u: Chau dang co nhung cam giac tinh due fed met cau be khac va chau dang bAn khoan lieu de co nghia la chau bi "gay" killing. 12. MOt the theta tau 35 tuOi: Ngtibi to n6i tOi cue tinh nhung tea nghi Vol chi the hien WTI hue tut caa ten. Tei horn no tOi tut gian den not CM nem mot cai dia vao chi tOi ye dieu do lam tOi lo so. Cau tra lei cam thong milu: Doi khi anh tut gian den n6i met het binh tinh, vice nem cai dia vao chi anh lam anh thue sy lo Fang. 13. Met ngiteti lam cha my 60 tuOi bi dau tim: Toi cam thay ethic dal lei nhu da cham &it. TM chi có the nam day tren ginang va cha chit. Can tra lei cam thong mgm Can dau tim gan day da lam bac Co cam glee than nan, yeu dual va khong dm sue lye. Bac dang cam they than song vi bac chi c6 the nam tren gniang qua ngay thei. 14. Cgu be 15 tuei co b6 my thgeng xuyen cai nhau: Chau cam they than vi b6 me chat cai nhau suet ngay. Ho khong quan tarn den chau va em chau. Ho chi co thang trong cat nhau. Cau tra cam thong martn Chau buon vi chau khong cam they cha me chau cham lo cho cat chau. Ho &tang nhu chi quan tam den vice cai nhau. 15. Mgt phu ne 55 tuOi da kit hen 35 nam: Ch6ng toi 136 tei di voi nguai phu nu khac, tOi cam they tea da lam cti6u gi sae sot ghe gam. Cau tra led cam thong na6u• Khi thong bac bO bac di yea ngUai khacsau 35 nam chung sing, bac cam they bi suy sup ghe gam. Bac dae biet bankhoan vi bac nghi bac trai da 1)6 bee vi bac da lam gi sai. 16. MOt sinh vien 22 tit& co ban gal dang del chia tay: Em reittut co la. CO to cu nghi co to da qua tot vdi em. Khi e6 to di tham quan vg,ce to se biet tay em.44
  44. 44. Cau tra ldi cam thong Mau: Em dang tae gian vi ban gai coy dinhbe em. Khi ban gai em vg nha, em dang dinh lam cho co ta cam that to vida be em. Em se la mgi phign lon hon co ta tuang. 17. MOt ba goa 73 tuOi: Chau bao nhieu tugi? Bac khong bigt chauco da lcinh nghiem glop bac khong. Cau tra lai cam thong matt. Bac khong tin met ngtiai tre nInt chalkcó thg hieu chicle nhung digu Kay ra vdi bac va nhung cam nhAn ena bac.Bac dang nghi ngo ve kha nang ghat -) da bac caa chau. 18. Met thanh mien 19 tu6i: Em khong bigt em nen hoc met trUangcao clang hay di hoc dai hoc. Chi nghi sao? Cau tra Wi cam thong matt. Quygt dinh vg hoc tip the . nao lam embgi rOi va em muk quygt dinh de hem ha? nut hanh ki !fang quan tam tich cut 1. Mat phu nil 49 tugi dang li hon, chi a nob "TM khong bigt toicó the) bat &Au met cues song mai khong. Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cite mau: Tai bigt hien gia rat IMO nhungchi clang a day de cloa phO vdi the van dg cim chi, viec nay cho thgy chi có sacmanh va kha nang xac dinh clUOc dinh Inking cho cube clai cila chi. 2. Met Ong cu 76 tu6i. Cu nob "Thi rat co ddn t3 khi ba nha EM matdi, nhung tOi Ming vui vdi ding viec tinh nguyen". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cue maw DU Ong dau lOng vi mat banha, Ong van co can dam a gall) da ngkthi khac, clign do thAt tuyet. 3. Met thigu then. Chau be nob "Chau dang hoc khong tot lam,nhung chau thkic su da GO tang". Can tra Wi quan tam tich ette mfiu: Chau co the to hao vi chau dac6 gang va chalk nen cam thgy tot vi ellen clang lam nhung digit tot nhal. 4. Met ngtati nghien ma tug 36 tuOi. Anh ta n6i: "TM vaa mdi tainghien in dna 3, Mating lan nay VA can ski gitip do sOm hdn". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cite matt: TM thay may IA anh da c6 the nhan ra ski tai nghien va tim kigm su gitip da sam 5. Met ngtfai 46 tu6i co benh tam than phan lief. Anh ta"Tai da co the tra hgt cac hod don thang nay". 45
  45. 45. Cau tra Itli quan tam tich cite malt: DO qua la mat thanh tich dang kg. Anh nen cam thgy to hao. 6. Met phu nit 46 tudi ci, benh tram cam, chi ta n6i: "Toi khong the den an 6 cau lac ba phu nU, nhung tea c6 the den sem va gien da trang tri ban tiec". Cau tra Idi quan tam tich cite Mau: Toi they tiec IA chi khong the 6 10, Marne rgt tat la chi da giup bay ban va chi da &Mg ggp clang ke vao bea tiec. 7. Met thigu Men 16 tub em nod: "Em dang but can sa va em danglo la minh se bi nghiOn". Can tra WI quan tam tich ale mem: Toi thgy to hao la em có thechia se vgn de dO vdi tot 8. Met phu nit 62 tued chant sec bit me 85 tued, bac n6i: "Teadang cham sec me duoc 6 thang va tea thgy rgt met". Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cats mat: Chau vui la bac có the theanhan bac cam El* met. Va c6 mot digu quan trong la bac da nhan ra camgiac cua bac va co the xem xet mat each khach quan ve tinh hinh cham secngtfai than cea minh. 9. Met phu nit 28 tueii bi chfin doan benh rill loan hang clic(bipolar), chi ta MA: "Day la Ian dau ben tOi c6 the nhan ra benh tramcam caa Lai dang (lien ra, va vi vay t8i den day". Cau tra quan tam tich cite mau: Chi da lam chicle mat budsquan trong trong viec bat dau ca the kiem seat benh tat cua minh. Taimeng la chi da c6 the den day ham nay. 10. Met nmidi me dec than 36 Wei veil 3 data con mai: "Tai dang abilge during ding, toi khong the gig cho gia dinh tiep tue binh en dtgic. Cau tra ldi quan tam tich curc Tea thgy vui IA chi da co secmanh de xem xet tinh hinh gia dinh. 11. Met ngtidi me tre n6i: "TM cho rang dila be 2 ti& nha t6i bibenh ti ki, va tei rat so, khong biet phai lam gi. Cau tra Idi quan tam tich cite mdu• Tea cO the hien dude moi quantam thee se ciaa chi. Benh to ki la mot van de nghiem trong, Ara viec chi denday hoi la boric di dting dau tien.46.
  46. 46. 12. Mat ngag6 cha 32 toga Md.: "Chi se lam gi nett chi a vao vi tricfm tOi?" Cau tra IM quan tam tich tee Mau: Toi khong biet la viec gi clang xayra voi anh nhung có the chting to Ming nhau xem xet cac van de quan trong. 13. Mat bac cha me dang tec gian: Chi co ughi la met dita con gai16 tu& phai a nha Mc 10h tei trong cac ngay di hoc khOng?: Cau tra lai quart tam tich eye maw Moi gia dinh den co nhungquy tae khac nhau, Mating dieu quan trong la chting to có the xem xet quytae nao la quan trong trong gia dinh anh. 14. Mot ngtiai 42 tueii noi: "Bac si bao t6i toi phai di noi soi daitrang, nhung UM rat so". Tu: Cau tra lai quan tam tich cUc ma Viec do chang dang se lamdam anh se co kha nang va co hoi de xem xet tinh hinh sac khoe cith minh. 15. Mat co gai 18 tit& Mai: "B6 me chau muen chau li hen ngay khichau con choa c6 con, c6 nghi sao? Cau tra ldi quan tam tich cats maw DO Fa met cau hOi kho tra loiva co the chi co chau mdi tra lei chicle - nhung chang to c6 the noi M tinhtrang cua chau de chau co the xem xet tat ca cac loa chon met each hop 16. Mat not& me 39 tit& not: "Thang con 9 tuSi cua tot W lam nobi thMing khi cat vao canh tay bang con dao be tai, no rat ban rAu - toi lamet nguai me to qua. Cau tra 1di quan tam tich cite mau: Su ban Mu va viec RI lam biamong la rat khO hieu va nhieu cha me se phai noi vg nhung van de do. Chida the hien ca long dung cam va sil hieu Met khi chi den day r6i. 17. Cha me caa mat cau thigu Men 16 tu6i noi: "Con cna chUngtoi xa lanh moi ngoai trong nha va ban be Than trade no noi voi cluing CMno nghe thly Wing n6i vong den". Cau tra lai quart tam tich cite maw CO ve la cac bac da co metquan he tot voi con trai va no da chia se vdi cac bac M chuyen no nghe theycac tieng no). 18. Mat daa tre con nuoi 14 tuai: "Chuyen chau song a dau khongquan trong vi chang ai attic sO quan tam den chau. Chau chi cO met nglidime nuoi co- gang gitip chau". 47
  47. 47. Can tra ldi quan tam tich ciic ma. u: C6 le la khO khan khi phai song trong nhUng nha nth-A tre khan nhau, nhung quan trong IA chau co thd nhan ra c6 mot ngtioi me nuOi time su cggitip chat. Thvc hAnh ki nang cl4t eau hOi ma 1. Khach hang nam, buOi td van that hai, not: khong than thantoi c6 site manh nao khong. Cu8c song caa toi during nhu dang loan len". Caul hal ma mitu: Neu ban tgt nhat caa anh mo to sue manh cuaanh, ngUai do se noi gi vg anh? 2. Khach hang nil tram cam, buOi thus nhai noi: "Chang c8 1i giphai lap k6 hoach cho ttiOng lai. Ban kh8ng the kidm soat bat eft tha gi vamoi this c& din ra theo each no nhu thg". Cau hai ma maw Ban c6 thd and to met lan ban da lap kg hoach choWong lai ma moi vien bi rgi len killing? 3. Khach hang nam, buOi Tau tien , tham gia bat buOc trongmot tit van nhom cho nhdng nguti nghien noi: "Tot khong thy vienngai chung trong nhom thg nay thlic su c6 thay del dudc gi khong. NhUngngtibi nay cang gay r6i nhu toi, he lam sao c6 thg gitip (Woe lei?" Cau hat ma Sit: Hay gia sa met phtit IA ca nhom so him fob. NgunhOm hciu ich, ban mugn thay dgi digu gi? 4. Thanh vien nam trong rth6tn, buOi thit ba 1161: "Vi sao Sonchang noi gi trong nhom? CO phai anh to nghi anh to khOng co van dg ginh6m chi dank cho nhiing nguai con lai nhu chting to kh8ng? Cau hsai ma mgu: Dieu gi trong sa im lang caa Son khign anh quantam dgn? 5. Thanh vien net can dien tri nhom lam dung tre em"Phan, c6 khong bigt co dang Md. gi (Tau. Co den vdi nh6m nay W mat canhO dap, nhung co khong gig/rig vdi phan con lai ciia nhom". Cau hot ma man. Ban hay ban nao do c6 thd nghi dude nhfing didmChung ban cling có Arai Phan khong? 6. Cac thAnh vien cua nhOm hoc quan li can We gian noi: Lamsao cluing toi bigt rang ai do trong nhom khong bhp )(Op v6 nhCing digu honghe trong cac budi tit van? Toi khang bigt ho va khong bigt vi sao toi phaitin ho.48

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