Portuguese and Dutch Threats During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, the Filipinos dreamed to achieve independence from the harsh Spanish rule at that time. The Filipinos began to fight the Spaniards the moment they settled permanently in 1565 and continued this resistance to the end of their rule in 1898. The Philippine Revolt patterns must be treated holistically and not separately.
General Gonzalo Pereira in 1566 & 1568 asked Legazpi to leave. The Portuguese blockaded Cebu and bombarded the Spanish settlement (1570) They failed to dislodged their rivals. The incursions ceased only when Portugal became part of the Spanish Empire. (1580)
They revolted against Spain and proclaimed independence in 1579. Spain refused to recognize Dutch independence. Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 – led to the recognition of the Dutch independence. 1597– First Battle of Mariveles 1610- Second battle of Mariveles 1617- Battle of Playa Honda 1647- Dutch’s last attack against the Spanish. - They were finally driven off.
› Desire to regain the lost freedom of their ancestors› ( Political )› Religious intolerance of Spanish authorities ( Religious )› Abuses of the Spaniards ( Personal )› The hated tribute and oppressive forced labor› Loss of ancestral lands
Personal Motives Revolts arecategorized into Political Motives three Religious Motives
Uprising/ DATE PLACE CAUSE LEADER RESULTRevolt Lakandula 1574 Tondo, Failure of Gov. Lakandula Failed Lavezares to fulfill Navotas Legazpi’s promise to Lakandula Pampanga 1585 Pampanga Abuse of Failed. Spanish A woman Encomien- betrayed a deros revolt. Tondo 1587-1588 Tondo, Desire for Magat Salamat, Failed Cuyo, indepen- Agustin de a spy reported to Legazpi, Juan Spanish Calamianes dence authorities about Banal & Pedro Balingit the their plan. Leaders were executed.
Uprising/ DATE PLACE CAUSE LEADER RESULTRevoltMagalat 1596 Cagayan Abuses of the Failed ( Hired Tribute assassins Collectors killed the Magalat. )Ladia 1643 Malolos, Weariness Pedro Ladia Failed (leader Bulacan and from Spanish was captured) Southern oppression LuzonPangasinan / 1660- 1661 Binalato- Quarrel Andres FailedMalong ngan, between Fr. Malong and Pangasinan Gorospe and Pedro Malong Gumpaos
Uprising/ DATE PLACE CAUSE LEADER RESULTRevoltVisayan/ 1649- 1650 Eastern Visayas, Caused by Gov. Juan Ponce Failed ( Northern Fajardo’s order toSumuroy send Visayan SumoUroy Leaders were Mindanao, and Pedro captured and laborers to Cavite Zamboanga for shipbuilding Caamug were beheaded. )Pampanga 1585 Pampanga Abuses of Failed ( A Spanish woman Encomiender betrayed the os revolt. )Cagayan- 1589 Cagayan, Refusal to pay Failed ( easilyIlocos Ilocos Norte tributes, suppressed ) tyranny of tribute collectors
Uprising/ DATE PLACE CAUSE LEADER RESULTRevoltIgorot 1601 Northern Luzon Desire to Failed maintain their old religionCaraga 1629- 1631 Caraga, Dissatisfac-tion Failed Northern of townspeople Mindanao to Spanish ruleDagohoy 1744-1828 Bohol Refusal of Fr. Morales to give Dagohoy’s brother a Christian burialSilang 1762- 1763 Ilocos Desire to expel Diego silang Failed ( Diego the Spaniards and Gabriela was assasinated from Ilocos Silang )
The Spaniards Lukewarm spirit of possessed superior nationalism among weapons and were Filipinos able to employ native volunteers and Inadequate training and mercenary soldiers. preparation for warfare Lack of unity The absence of a national leader
“MORO“ – name given by theSpanish to the Muslims of theSouth.Most united groups were the Moro Wars in the South is the longest,Muslims. bloodiest, most frustrating attempt by the Spaniards to colonize the Southern Islands of MindanaoContinuous military expeditions bythe Spaniards failed to subduethem. They fought back by raidingthe coastal towns under Spain. It remained unconquered & unconverted until the end of Spanish rule.
Fierce resistanceof the peopleof the mountain or the “taongbundok”PROCESS: Expensive andfrustrating for the Spaniards butalso very dangerous.Ancient beliefs and way of lifeare less exposed to the outsideworld which made them moreresistant to the colonizationwhether Spanish or even laterincursions of other colonizers.