T12 g4


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  • Frequent interaction with studentBefore we can expect children to feel a sense of connectedness with the larger school community they must first develop an attachment with the teacher. Because teachers often spend more face-to-face time with children than any other person, by default they have become the most significant others in their students’ lives and an important source of security and stability. This is especially true for students already burdened by a sense of rejection.So, our group recognizes the fact of the important role of the teacher, in this instance, Miss Low, on how she can solve the issues faced by Jeremy.
  • Solutions (essentially to increase Jeremy’s lack of belongingness) SCT: Expose and educate teachers on the importance of inculcating sense of belongingness in students in the classrooms. Many teachers do not know antisocial behaviors exhibited by students like Jeremy is due to lack of sense of belonging in class. A profile video will help to identify students in their classroom with similar problems. Creating a sense of belongingness in students may promote engagement of these students in class and school settings. Incorporate a profile video on possible scenarios that fit Jeremy’s profile. It will: expose teachers to students’ behaviour in class like Jeremy. help teachers to identify students in their classroom with similar problems displayed by Jeremy. allows teachers to understand such similar students’ behaviour in class and how teachers can help such students in their learning.
  • Role: simple, but significantPromotes sense of belonging through bonding
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs suggests that Jeremy’s lack of belongingness affects his motivation for ‘Esteem’ and ‘Self-Actualization’ which include self-esteem, respect of others and spontaneity. Importance of sense of belonging, “human beings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant interpersonal relationships” . Failure to have belongingness needs met may lead to feelings of social isolation, alienation, and loneliness. This lack of belongingness translates into Jeremy’s behaviour the lack of belongingness experienced by Jeremy in class (being ostracized by his classmates) He feels detached, alienated, and isolated from others and from the educational process. When he feels rejected by others, he either internalize the rejection and learn to hate himself or externalize the rejection and learn to hate others.
  • “bonding occurs when an individual makes meaningful contributions to a group” (Beck and Malley, 1998)Individualised goal structure (McInerney and McInerney, 2006)Means students are judged and rewarded on the basis of their own performance irrespective of the performance of other students gives them a sense of
  • Encourage high level of participationAllows Jeremy to assimilate with his classmates  promotes interactionImproved acceptance from friends
  • Once relationship in the immediate family break down, no tools to explore mesosystem. Look for attention at inapporaite places.
  • Parental styles– autonomy vs. control influences students’ autonomous self- regulation of school work in turn affects their school achievement More autonomy supportive and involved– children more intrinsically motivated
  • T12 g4

    1. 1. QED528 PBL Presentation<br />Scenario 2<br />Rebecca ∙ Namira ∙ Li Rong ∙ Kendrick ∙ Glenn<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Problem Statement<br />Theories<br />Specific Solutions<br />Teacher’s Role<br />Parent’s Role <br />Conclusion<br />
    3. 3. Problem Scenario<br />
    4. 4. Problem Statement<br />In a bid to provide a conducive learning environment, both Jeremy’s parents and teacher overlookedother aspects of his development such as his physiological, belongingnessandesteemneeds.<br />
    5. 5. Theories<br /><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    6. 6. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
    7. 7. Self-Efficacy Theory
    8. 8. Value-Expectancy theory
    9. 9. Self-Determination Theory</li></li></ul><li>Problem<br />Jeremy’s teacher, Miss Low,<br />Is unaware of his lack of belongingness<br />Didn’t make an effort to understand him<br />Make constant reprimands on him<br />“You don’t even know your responsibilities...”<br />“You are the only one…”<br />“stand in front of the school assembly area as punishment…”<br />
    10. 10. The Importance of Teacher’s Role<br />According to Beck and Malley (1998), teachers<br />often spend more face-to-face time<br />the most significant person in students’ lives<br />an important source of security and stability<br />
    11. 11. Role of Miss Low as a Teacher<br />Understand that his lack of belongingness has an impact on his learning attitude<br /><ul><li>Why is he being ostracized by his friends?
    12. 12. Why is he quiet in class?</li></ul>Essentially, Ms Low has to <br />increase Jeremy’s lack of belongingness to improve his learning<br />
    13. 13. Solution<br />Profile Video<br /><ul><li>Possible scenarios that fit Jeremy’s profile
    14. 14. Educate teachers on the importance of sense of belongingness in students
    15. 15. Many teachers aren’t aware of antisocial behaviors is due to lack of belongingness (Beck and Malley, 1998)</li></li></ul><li>Solution<br />Participate in class decision-making<br /><ul><li>Assign a role to Jeremy, e.g. class monitor
    16. 16. Opportunity to bond and communicate with his classmates as he discharges his duties
    17. 17. “bonding occurs when an individual makes meaningful contributions to a group” (Beck and Malley, 1998)</li></li></ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy<br />Jeremy’s lack of belongingness affects his motivation for esteem and self-actualization<br />
    18. 18. Solution<br />Cooperative Learning in Class Activities<br /><ul><li>Work on class assignments as a group
    19. 19. Emphasize on the importance of common goals to create a shared effort</li></li></ul><li>Develops opportunities for Jeremy to interact and relate with his friends<br />Promotes a sense of belonging as “all members work together to achieve a common purpose” (Beck and Malley, 1998)<br />Cooperative Goal Structure(Johnson & Johnson, 1987)<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Problem<br />Parents responsibilities in taking care of Jeremy<br />Pushing of blame and responsibilities between each other<br />“can can you try to call Mr Chan?”<br /> “How can you put the blame on me?”<br />Pushing the blame to teachers<br /> “Can I see the subject teachers?...”<br />
    22. 22. Source: Ryan, D. P-J<br />
    23. 23. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory<br />Microsystem<br />layer closest to the child<br />contains the structures with which the child has direct contact<br />Bi-directional influence<br /> are strongest and greatest impact on child<br />
    24. 24. Source: Ryan, D. P-J<br />
    25. 25. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory<br />Mesosystem<br />connection between the structures of the child’s microsystem (Berk, 2000). <br />Examples: <br />connection between the child’s teacher and his parents<br />church and neighbourhood, etc <br />
    26. 26. Mesosystem<br />Attention at inappropriate places<br />Jeremy<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Role of Parents<br />Provide Jeremy with the means to have a wholesome microsystem<br />Solutions<br />Get Jeremy to talk to parents<br />Ensure frequent contact with parents<br />Quarterly newsletter<br />PTA<br />
    29. 29. Problem<br />Mrs Chan believes extra tuition classes is the way to help Jeremy’s slow learning abilities.<br />
    30. 30. Maslow’s Hierarchy<br />Jeremy’s lack of physiological needs affects his motivation for other needs like friendship and self-esteem<br />
    31. 31. Jeremy is forced to catch up in paper chase:<br />Neglected the basic necessity for life – rest<br />Lost time socializing with his friends<br />Ostracized<br />Lack of self-esteem<br />
    32. 32. Self Efficacy Theory<br />A function that a person believes that he can achieve a goal.<br />
    33. 33. Role of Parents<br />Manage expectations for Jeremy so he does not overwork.<br />Reduce Jeremy’s tuition so that he can catch up with his school work, rest and socializing.<br />Set realistic goals for Jeremy such as from grades D to C so that he can motivate himself through achievements.<br />
    34. 34. Problem<br />Mrs. Chan does not recognize and acknowledge Jeremy’s non-academic interests and achievements<br />“We will stop your swimming lessons… He enjoyed his swimming lessons a lot.”<br />“He failed everything except for Art?” <br />
    35. 35. Value- Expectancy Theory of Achievement Motivation<br />Adapted from Wigfield& Eccles (2000: 69)<br />Child’s Perception of… <br />Cultural Milieu<br />Socializer’s Beliefs and Behaviours<br />Child’s Goals and General Self- Schemata<br />Expectations of Success<br />Achievement- Related Choices<br />Differential Aptitudes of Child<br />Child’s Affective Memories<br />Child’s Interpretations of Experience<br />Previous Achievement- Related Experiences<br />Subjective Task Value<br />
    36. 36. Individual’s choice, persistence, and perfection are explained by their beliefs about how well they will do on the activity and the extent to which they value the activity (2000: 69). <br />
    37. 37. Structure of children’s ability-related beliefs and achievement values<br /><ul><li>Hartner (1983): children’s self-concept development
    38. 38. broad understandings  sense of competence for specific activities
    39. 39. Eccles &Wigfield (1995): assessed children’s ability beliefs and expectancies for success
    40. 40. distinct factors characterized by beliefs and expectancies for success</li></li></ul><li>Distinct beliefs about what they are good at and what they value in the achievement domain<br /><ul><li>Interpreting feedback
    41. 41. Social comparison
    42. 42. Changes in environment</li></ul>Ability-Related Beliefs and Subjective Task Values on Performance <br /><ul><li>Beliefs about one’s ability and expectancies for success
    43. 43. Subjective task values in relation to motivation </li></li></ul><li>Solution<br />Build on his interests and strengths<br />Swimming: as a motivation to encourage Jeremy to improve in his studies<br />Art: boost his confidence, which in turn can motivate him to also improve in his studies <br />
    44. 44. Self-Determination Theory<br />Investigation of people’s inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs that are the basis of their self- motivation and personality integration, as well as for the conditions that foster those positive processes (Deci et al.(1991); Ryan &Deci, 2000) <br />
    45. 45. Role of Parents<br /><ul><li>To appreciate Jeremy’s strength and provide encouragement in his achievements
    46. 46. Provide means to build on his talents</li></li></ul><li>Home context<br />Solutions<br />Competence needs<br />Knowledge of how to achieve goals and the skills for doing so<br /><ul><li>Art courses and swimming lessons</li></ul>Relationship needs<br />Relationships for secure and satisfying connections with parents<br /><ul><li>Parental styles: supportive and involved</li></ul>Autonomy needs<br />Jeremy’s ability to initiate and regulate his own actions<br /><ul><li>Request for art/swimming lessons
    47. 47. Strike a balance</li></li></ul><li>Learners will develop self-determination underlying such motivation only in a social milieu that supports competence and autonomy.<br />
    48. 48. Conclusion<br />Teacher and parents play an important role to improve Jeremy’s condition.<br />Teacher can be more inclusive:<br /><ul><li>Assign classroom responsibilities
    49. 49. Setting common goals </li></ul>Parents should be more engaging:<br /><ul><li>frequent contact
    50. 50. manage expectations
    51. 51. be more encouraging</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Beck, M and Malley, J. (1998). A pedagogy of belonging. Reclaiming Children and Youth, Vol.7 No.3, pp133-137.<br />Covington, M. V. (2000). Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation in Schools: A Reconciliation. Current directions in psychological science, Vol 9, No 1, pp22-25.<br />Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and Education: The Self- Determination Perspective. American Psychologist, 26, 3&4, 325- 346.<br />Eccles, J. S., &Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the achiever: The structure of adolescents’ academic achievement related beliefs and self- perceptions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215- 225.<br />Hartner, S. (1983). Developmental perspectives on the self- esteem. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 275- 385). New York: Wiley.<br />
    52. 52. References<br />Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1987). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.<br />Ryan, D. P-J. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Available [Online]:<br />http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf<br />Ryan, R. M., &Deci, E. L. (2000). Self- Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well- Being. American Psychologist, 55, 1, 68- 78. <br />Wigfield, A. (2000). Expectancy- Value Theory of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68- 81. <br />Tan, O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian Edition (2nded). Singapore: Thomson.<br />