Good Afternoon everyone, my group consists of me sean, Jeanne, Richard and Pei Ling.
Our group will show how teachers can employ the use of motivational theories and translate them into classroom applications to boost the motivation of their students. Our focus is on showing you the how instead of the what. We will support our examples based on motivational theories, some of which we might not have learnt yet.
Many factors of consideration to motivate students. We will be listing down the key and more practical and important applications. Usually an art lesson is 1 hour, whereas in this role play we are just going to make it 10 minutes to show the more important parts of the lesson. This class is Secondary one and they are rather well behave, however they have a mixed ability, and most of the students are very keen in arts.
Good afternoon class! Alright, so today we are going to touch on this topic called Perspective. So anyone has any idea what perspective is? Great! And there’s a very important element in perspective called Lines! Which you are going to use it later alright? Enthusiastic voice to start the lesson Simple introduction to a complicating lesson.
There is this golden phrase that we all have to remember today and forever, which is also called the law of perspective. Things further from the viewer look smaller. Anyone don’t understand this sentence? To make it clear, can I ask 4 students to stand up. Ask 3 students from different distance from you to stand up and link to the “golden phrase” Ask the students to stand up, know their name, give instruction what they have to do. Building rapport with student. Real life experience.
First line to take note of is the HORIZON LINE It runs across at the eye level of the viewer. Eye level is this. It can be simply put as the imaginary line that separates earth from sky.
I need each group to draw on a piece paper. The horizon line Done? Teacher draw on the board a square and draw the horizon line. Students to draw the same thing as a group.
Next, the vanishing point. When we say something vanish it means that the thing is…. Disappearing. And over here. Vanishing point is any point that is on the horizon.
So just put a dot on the line that you had just drawn.
Next, Orthogonal lines. Simply put as lines that connect to the vanishing point.
I need you al to draw a square on the piece of paper below the horizon line. Or a rectangle.
Next draw a line from the edge of the square or rectangle and connect to the vanishing point.
Draw a parallel line like this , draw a window and door here and tadah! You did a one point perspective building! COGNITIVE view of motivation Students’ success in achievement
Like the teacher, like the lesson and perhaps start to like the subject even more and eventually feel motivated towards the subject. This is an ideal case but possible to happen. Teachers who take the time develop positive relationships with their students will see improvement in their students both academically,behaviorally, and emotionally. Students who have positive relationships with their teachers tend to put forth more effort in class and as a result improve their academic achievement. Teachers also see improvement in their student’s behavior when they take the time to develop positive relationships with their students. Positive relationships between students and teachers have positive academic affects. According to Pianta, close relationships with teachers lead to higher levels of student engagement and achievement.” (Pianta,1999) In an article entitled Relationships Matter, Deborah Stipek reports that adolescents “work harder for teachers who treat them as individuals and express interest in their personal lives outside school.” (Stipek, 2006) By building positive relationships with students educators,”can provide the motivation, initiative, and engagement which are essential for success. (Pianta, Stuhlman, & Hamre, 2002) When teachers have positive relationships with their students, it affects the student’s behavior in relation to school. Students who perceive their teachers as highly supportive have better attendance and avoid problem behavior. (Rosenfeld, Richman, & Bowen, 2000) Positive student-teacher relationships involving students with high-incidence disabilities have a positive effect on conduct problems, delinquency, anxiety, and depression. (Murray, C. & Greenberg M. T., 2006) Positive relationships between children and mentors were related to reduced levels of teacher-reported externalizing behavior. (Pianta, Stuhlman, & Hamre, 2002) Other theories include attachment theory and self-system theory.
Remember their names, talk to them, have meals with them, engage them outside of class, try to understand them, E.g. Teacher can find out what each student’s interest, dreams or ambitions are. Also appear to be showing care and concern for student’s well-being. Create a resonant and conducive classroom climate-a motivational element for learning. If teacher is very stern and critical, students may not want to listen or get engaged for fear of being criticized. Smile at them, be sincere while listening to them. Teachers well liked in class often go the extra mile to improve student teacher relationship. Attend outing, shows support for school even, especially as a form teacher
Discuss about the recent incident of teachers having improper relationship with students and what are school’s stand on this? Equally important is to engage the parents in any problems. Underlying problem could be due to family problems Maslow Hierachy of needs. Maybe the condition at home is not conducive enough, or the student may be lacking in certain aspects.
Intrinsic motivation requires sustained effort, will not be possible to take place overnight. But in the long run, it is more sustainable because it is self regulated. Other ways to improve intrinsic motivation, will be covered by my friend. (use of interesting visuals) In comparison, extrinsic motivation is more of a one off effort, which can easily be improved over a one off incident. And of course, not forgetting the expectancy component of the theory. Will be covered by my friend. (use of appropriate assignments)
Regardless of what the subject is, there are always opportunities for teachers to provide non theoretical means to explain the concept of what needs to be taught. For science subjects, excursions to garden, water plant, for arts subject, excursions to art museum and plays. Where impossible, try to show how what they learn can be applied in real life. Hand’s on or experiments that can be conducted
Social learning theory (derived from work of Albert Bandura) proposed that observational learning can occur in relation to three models: Live model – in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behavior. (E.g. Observing ur peers, family, etc.) Verbal instruction – in which an individual describes the desired behavior in detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior. (Teacher-student rs) Symbolic – in which modeling occurs by means of the media, such as movies, television, Internet and radio.
Motivation can be greatly influenced by the ways students relate to their peers who are also involved in accomplishing a particular goal. When the task involves complex learning and problem skills, cooperation leads to higher achievement than competition, especially for students with low abilities/confidence. The interaction with peers that the students enjoy so much becomes a part of learning process. The need for belonging (part of output) described by Maslow is more likely to be met and motivation is increased.
Research has found that different tasks require different levels of arousal for optimal performance. For example, difficult or intellectually demanding tasks may require a lower level of arousal (to facilitate concentration), whereas tasks demanding stamina or persistence may be performed better with higher levels of arousal (to increase motivation). Because of task differences, the shape of the curve can be highly variable. For simple or well-learned tasks, the relationship can be considered linear with improvements in performance as arousal increases. For complex, unfamiliar, or difficult tasks, the relationship between arousal and performance becomes inverse, with declines in performance as arousal increases.
Make it real Create learning activities that are based on topics that are relevant to students’ lives/ everyday experiences Local examples Technology (youtube video, iphones) Connecting subject with students’ culture, outside interests (current movies, drama, facebook) The use of real-life exercises throughout that are varied in scope and field of
GOLDEN PHRASE Law of PerspectiveThings further from the viewer look smaller
Horizon Lines the imaginary line that separates earth from sky The horizon line runs across the canvas at the eye level of the viewer.
One – Point Perspective Convert 2D shapes to 3D formsHorizon line
Vanishing Point The single point on the horizon Disappearing The vanishing point should be located near the center of the horizon line. The vanishing point is where all parallel lines (orthogonals) that run towards the horizon line appear to come together like train tracks in the distance.
One – Point Perspective Convert 2D shapes to 3D formsVanishing point
Orthogonal Lines – converging lines Lines that connect to the vanishing point Orthogonal lines are "visual rays" helping the viewers eye to connect points around the edges of the canvas to the vanishing point.
One – Point Perspective Convert 2D shapes to 3D formsSquareshape
One – Point Perspective Convert 2D shapes to 3D formsOrthogonal lines
One – Point Perspective Convert 2D shapes to 3D formsComplete the cube
A Attachment ttachment Theory Emphasize close relationships with teachers Students feel comfortable in class Accept the challenges associated with learning Effort to not disappoint teacher’s expectation
P Attachment ositive Student – Teacher Relationship1. Get to know the students3. Learn how to respect and be respected5. Every little effort makes a difference
P Attachment ositive Student – Teacher RelationshipWhere is the boundary in maintaining a positive student-teacherrelationship?Who are the other stakeholders involved?
V Value alue & Expectancy Theory Students start to value the knowledge gained Increased value component in Value and Expectancy Theory The use of non-traditional methods can boost interest and curiosity Develop intrinsic motivation
V Value alue and Relevance Organizing of excursion or field trips Provide opportunities for hand’s on Explain the relevance of what was taught Assist students in seeing the link
S Social ocial learning theory Live model – in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behavior. Verbal instruction – in which an individual describes the desired behavior in detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior. Symbolic – in which modeling occurs by means of the media
C Social lassroom Applicaion Mixed ability student groups Pairing motivated students with non-motivated students Cooperative learning
A Arousalrousal Theory Arousal Experience: Low – during sleep Moderate – during normal activities High – excitement, emotion, panic Implications: Too low (bored) or too high (panicking) not comfortable People vary widely in their optimal level for arousal (Low need vs. High need) Possible due to personality differences
A Arousalrousal Theory Insights If our situation is easy & relaxed, and if people are warm and friendly, our natural tension unwinds. We might even feel bored and tired, for the environment is failing to challenge us. But, if we are in a high-stakes situation, the dynamic changes. We become motivated to act, and not waste any time.
A Arousal rousal – Yerkes-Dodson Law“ If a task is simple, it is best for arousal to be higher; if it is complex, lower levels of arousal provide for the best performance”
C Arousal lassroom applicationMake it Real Create learning activities or examples that are related to students’ lives/everyday experiences Examples: Hands on activity Media Influence Case Studies