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Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage

The Workshop on Thermochemical Solar Conversion was held in Seville on October 18-19 where the SOCRATCES project was presented.

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Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage

  1. 1. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. This presentation reflects only the author's view and that the INEA is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. SOCRATCES project Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage
  2. 2. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Outline • Introduction: project context • The SOCRATCES project • Technical approach • Expected results
  3. 3. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Workshop CSIC 20/11/2017 3 CSP PLANTS UNDER OPERATION AND CONSTRUCTION 20 plantas (1.7 GWe) 50 plantas (2.3 GWe) 2 plantas (180 MWe) 2 plantas (350 MWe) 3 plantas (300 MWe) 4 plantas (400 MWe) 3 plantas (225 MWe) 4 plantas (275 MWe) 23 plantas (1349 MWe) 2 plantas (200 MWe) 1 planta (100 MWe) 2 plantas (370 MWe) 2 plantas (93 MWe) 2 plantas (231 MWe) 1 planta (10 MWe) Operating Construction/ promotion Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  4. 4. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Operation (4939 MWe) Tower (623.7 MWe) PT (4130 MWe) With Storage (224.8 MWe) Without Storage (390.6 MWe) With Storage (1709.3 MWe) Without Storage (2251.1 MWe) With Storage (42%) Construction/ planed (10641 MWe) Tower (6132 MWe) PT (3683 MWe) With Storage (2447 MWe) Without Storage (625 MWe) With Storage (2129 MWe) Without Storage (307 MWe) With Storage (83%) CSP PLANTS UNDER OPERATION AND CONSTRUCTION Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  5. 5. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. • Solar photovoltaics (PV) plants are today a competitive alternative to power plants based on fossil fuels. • Cost reduction in PV modules, scalability (from kW to MW) and ease of installation IRENA (2016b), Renewable Capacity Statistics 2016 Power production in the world Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  6. 6. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. 6 Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  7. 7. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Daily power production. “Duck curve” by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). Conventional power generation technologies back-up. • Renewables dispatchability still remains as the major challenge to be overcome due to intrinsic variability of solar energy. • By 2030 the expected PV installed capacity will be nine times higher than in 2013. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  8. 8. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. 8 • Dispatchability • Integration with thermal energy storage • Potential for waste heat integration Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results CSP
  9. 9. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Research priority lines Increase efficiency and reduce generation, operation and maintenance costs Improve environmental profile Improve dispatchability • Improve design and component manufacturing processes • O&M costs reduction • Enhance overall plant efficiency • New heat transfer fluids (HTFs) • ENERGY STORAGE • Forecasting tools • Reduction of water consumption • Currently, over 40% of CSP plants in operation have energy storage systems. Among which are planned/ in development, roughly 80% • In most of the cases, energy storage based on molten salts systems Solar Thermal Electricity Strategic research agenda 2020-2025 (ESTELA, 2012)
  10. 10. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results • CSP already installed~ 5 GWe Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017 (IRENA 2017) Technology Roadmap Solar Thermal Electricity (IEA 2014) According to IEA scenarios 260 GWe by 2030 980 GWe by 2050 R&D High technology evolution potential
  11. 11. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Molten-salt based plants Mature technology Proper integration in both CCP and tower plants Acceptable efficiency Currently, up to 16 hours of storage Cost O&M issues (Corrosion, toxicity) Maximum temperature limitation Minimum temperature limitation Alternative energy storage systems? Thermochemical energy storage?
  12. 12. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. • Recently Tesla built a Li-ion battery (100MW/129MWh) as demonstrator of large scale penetration of RES in Australia. • However the technology is based on scarce raw materials and in direct competition for them with other applications as the electrical vehicle. • By 2030 the expected PV installed capacity will be nine times higher than in 2013. • In addition to resource scarcity, another major challenge of batteries is to prolong the lifetime of the system. Because of the variability of solar input, batteries are subjected to continuous charge and discharge cycles, which increases their complexity and cost for large scale facilities. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  13. 13. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. ¿Is there enough Lithium/ Cobalt for massive implementation of electricity systems? (power, automotive, houses, IT,...) Nature Reviews Materials • Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems (ECES), best positioned systems . High efficiencies: - 85-95% efficiency for Li-ion batteries to 60-65% efficiency for Polysufide bromide batteries. • Batteries lifetime. Because of the variability of solar input, batteries are subjected to continuous charge and discharge cycles, which increases their complexity and cost for large scale facilities. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  14. 14. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage DEVELOPING THE NEXT GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES OF RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY https://socratces.eu/
  15. 15. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Project Scope and Goals Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results The Ca-Looping (CaL) process based upon the reversible carbonation/calcination of CaO is one of the most promising technologies for thermochemical energy storage (TCES). ⟶ ∆ =+178 kJ/mol ⟶ ∆ =-178 kJ/mol calcination carbonation
  16. 16. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Global Objective Develop a prototype that will reduce the core risks of scaling up the technology and solve challenge R & D Engineering & Construction Scaling-Up Assessment Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  17. 17. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Project Scope and Goals Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results SOCRATCES is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of CSP-CaL integration by erecting a pilot-scale plant that uses cheap, abundant and non-toxic materials as well as mature technologies used in the industry, such as solid-gas reactors, cyclones or gas-solid heat exchangers. SOCRATCES global objective is to develop a prototype that will reduce the core risks of scaling up the technology and solve challenges; further understand and optimise the operating efficiencies that could be obtained; with the longer-term goal of enabling highly competitive and sustainable CSP plants.
  18. 18. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. SOCRATCES Technical Approach New materials Reactions (Ch/Ph) Power Systems technologies Systems integration & control Systems development Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  19. 19. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. SOCRATCES Consortium SOCRATCES is an integral and multidisciplinary approach where different knowledge areas are involved Multidisciplinary R&D groups SMEs Companies Associations and Stakeholders offer the opportunity for wide dissemination of the project and will link the consortia with the relevant industries in Europe Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  20. 20. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Related projects Solar calcination Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Energy storage High-temperature solar receivers Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium (ELEMENTS; DOE) Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power (ELEMENTS; DOE) Demonstration of High-Temperature Calcium-Based Thermochemical Storage System for use with Concentrating Solar Power Facilities (APOLLO; DOE) CSP2: Concentrated solar power in particles (H2020) TCSPower: Thermochemical Energy Storage for CSP Plants (H2020) SOLPART: High temperature Solar-Heated Reactors for Industrials Production of Reactive Particulates (H2020) NEXT-CSP: High Temperature concentrated solar thermal power plant with particle receiver and direct thermal storage (H2020) SOCRATCES: Solar calcium-looping integration for thermo-chemical energy storage (H2020)
  21. 21. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Why CaCO3/CaO? Group Example Hydrogen systems ∆ ↔ 2 ∆ ↔ Carbonate systems ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ Hydroxide systems ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ Redox systems ∆ ↔ 2 2 ∆ ↔ 2 2 ∆ ↔ 6 Ammonia systems 2 ∆ ↔ 3 Organic systems " ∆ ↔ 3 With a side reaction: " ↔ ∆ ∆ ↔ 2 2 With a side reaction: ∆ ↔ Sulfur systems ∆ ↔ 1 2 A proper TCES system for CSP storage should meet (Wentworth and Chen, 1976) • The reaction for storing the energy should occur with a high yield at T < 1000°C • The reverse reaction for generating heat should occur with a high yield at T >555°C • Large AH° to maximize storage capacity • Reaction should be completely reversible with no side reactions • The compounds should be commercially available. Low cost • Reactions should be fast enough
  22. 22. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Thermochemical energy storage candidates Group Example Hydrogen systems ∆ ↔ 2 ∆ ↔ Carbonate systems ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ Hydroxide systems ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ ∆ ↔ Redox systems ∆ ↔ 2 2 ∆ ↔ 2 2 ∆ ↔ 6 Ammonia systems 2 ∆ ↔ 3 Organic systems " ∆ ↔ 3 With a side reaction: " ↔ ∆ ∆ ↔ 2 2 With a side reaction: ∆ ↔ Sulfur systems ∆ ↔ 1 2 • Cheap • Widely available • Environmental friendly • Non corrosive. Non dangerous • High reaction temperatures Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  23. 23. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Calcium Carbonate for thermochemical energy storage ⟶ ∆ =+178 kJ/mol ⟶ ∆ =-178 kJ/mol calcinación carbonatación Calcium-Looping (CaL) Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  24. 24. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO Energy input storage Energy release Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  25. 25. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  26. 26. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO calcination reaction is the basis of the cement industry Dates back to 6500 B.C., when Syrians discovered lime as a building material Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  27. 27. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Previous studies about calcination under different atmospheres, etc. 27 Patent use of Ca compound for CO2 capture Williams, R. Hydrogen Production. U.S. Patent 1,938,202, 1933 1933 1999CO2 capture from CaO T. Shimizu, T. Hirama, H. Hosoda, K. Kitano, M. Inagaki and K. Tejima, A Twin Fluid-Bed Reactor for Removal of CO2 from Combustion Processes, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 1999, 77(1), 62–68 2016 CaL Pilot plants CCS CCS Project CaOling 1.7Mw prototype en la Pereda 2009 Calcium-looping on SCOPUS CaL R&D ⟶ ⟶ Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  28. 28. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 60s • CaCO3/CaO proposed as solar energy storage system 80s • Solar calciners 90s • CaL as post-combustionCO2 capture system 2010s • CSP-CaL integration schemes Flammant et al. (1980) CaOLING project (La Pereda)
  29. 29. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities NH3/N2 CH4/H2O SO3/SO2 CaO/H2O Li2/H2O NH4HSO4/NH3 CaO/CO2 SrO/CO2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 Volumentricenergydensity(MJ/m3) Turning temperature (°C) 1. High energy storage density 2. Products can be stored at ambient temperature Lower thermal losses Lower utilities consumption Possibility for storing energy in long-term Molten salts→ T minimum storage ~200ºC Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  30. 30. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. 3. Materials limestone, dolomite Neccesary conditions for the massive development of any thermal storage system Low Price Widely available throughout he world Non-toxic Non-corrosive Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  31. 31. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 4. High temperature for releasing energy Energy production at very high temperature (650-1000ºC) depending of CO2 partial presssure Integration of high-efficiency power cycles 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,1 400 600 800 1000 Reactionrate(1/s) T ºC P=3atm P=2atm P=1atm CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  32. 32. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 32 Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 g4 CaO storage CaCO3/CaO storage HE4 g5 s1 c1 g6 M-TURB g7 g8 g3 HE5 g9 HE3 g2 CO2 storage HE1 HE2 g1 I-TURB COMP g10 CARBONATOR Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 CaO storage CaCO3/CaO storage s1 c1 g4 g3 g2 CO2 storage HE1 HE2 g1 I-TURB CARBONATOR To storage Power block carbonationheat Direct (Brayton CO2) Indirecta 5. Direct and indirect integration of power cyles Design flexibility High temperatura of teactio CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  33. 33. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 33 30% 32% 34% 36% 38% 40% 2 2,3 2,6 2,9 3,2 3,5 3,8 4,1 4,4 4,7 5 overallplantefficiency PR case 1 case 3 (3 intercoolers) CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  34. 34. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 34 5. Materials and equipment already used at industrial scale - Closeness with the cement industry - Calciner (particles solar receiver) - Carbonator: Fluidized bed, entrained flow reactor, etc. - Closed Brayton cycle for power production - High-temperature solids handling - Cyclones - Storage vessels Arias et al. (2013) BAT for cement industry (2013) CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  35. 35. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. 1. High-temperatura solar receiver i) Enough residence time to calcination occurs ii) Adequate particles size for proper handling iii) The system has to be closed to avoid CO2 losses iv) Thermal gradient over the particles must be avoided v) Continuous operation Limestone calcination only occurs fast under high CO2 partial pressure for reaction temperatures around 930-950ºC. Technological challenge Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results CSP-CaL: Challenges
  36. 36. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Calcium-Looping: Challenges 2. Multicyclic CaO conversion CaO deactivation is highly dependent on the reactor conditions, CaO precursors and particles size Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  37. 37. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results • Prototype demonstration of capacity for energy storage. System tested at TRL5. • Validated kinetics models for both calcination and carbonation. • Successful calcination at prototype scale by means of flash calcination technology. • Successful carbonator design with possibility to scale-up. • Particles attrition, agglomeration and fouling analysis. • Successful solids conveying and control system management. • At commercial scale design, high CaL-power cycle efficiencies are expected (>45%) • At commercial scale, energy storage TCES cost expected are <12€/kWh
  38. 38. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. Prototipe constrcution in Seville (2019-2020) Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  39. 39. This Project has received funding from European Commission by means of Horizon 2020,the EU Framework Programme for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreement no.727348. CaO precursors: Low price wide availability harmlessness Reactants and products can be stored at ambient temperature Carbonation for generating heat ~650-100ºC High efficient generation of electricity High energy density to maximize storage capacity Materials and process equipment Ambient temperature Well-known in the cement industry SOCRATCES’ highlights
  40. 40. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION https://socratces.eu/
  41. 41. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage
  42. 42. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage

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