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SOCRATCES project: Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage

The SOCRATCES project wast presented in the 24th SolarPACES Conference which took place on October 2-5, 2018 in Casablanca (Morocco)

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SOCRATCES project: Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage

  1. 1. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. This presentation reflects only the author's view and that the INEA is not responsible for any use that m ay be m ade of the inform ation it contains. SOCRATCES project Solar Calcium-Looping Integration for Thermochemical Energy Storage Ricardo Chacartegui, Carlos Ortiz, Luis A. Pérez-Maqueda, Thomas Hills, Luis M. Romeo, Gerhard Schories, Antonia Lorenzo, Marco Grippa, Vittorio Verda, Angeliki Lemonidou and Jose Manuel Valverde
  2. 2. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Outline • Introduction: project context • The SOCRATCES project • Technical approach • Expected results
  3. 3. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results • CSP already installed~ 5 GWe Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017 (IRENA 2017) Technology Roadmap Solar Thermal Electricity (IEA 2014) According to IEA scenarios 260 GWe by 2030 980 GWe by 2050 R&D High technology evolution potential
  4. 4. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Research priority lines Ø Increase efficiency and reduce generation, operation and maintenance costs Ø Improve environmental profile Ø Improve dispatchability • Improve design and component manufacturing processes • O&M costs reduction • Enhance overall plant efficiency • New heat transfer fluids (HTFs) • ENERGY STORAGE • Forecasting tools • Reduction of water consumption • Currently, over 40% of CSP plants in operation have energy storage systems. Among which are planned/ in development, roughly 80% • In most of the cases, energy storage is based on molten salts systems Solar Thermal Electricity Strategic research agenda 2020-2025 (ESTELA, 2012)
  5. 5. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Molten-salt based plants Mature technology Proper integration in both PT and tower plants Acceptable efficiency Currently, up to 16 hours of storage Cost O&M issues (Corrosion, toxicity) Maximum temperature limitation Minimum temperature limitation Alternative energy storage systems? Thermochemical energy storage?
  6. 6. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage DEVELOPING THE NEXT GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES OF RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY https://socratces.eu/
  7. 7. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Project Scope and Goals Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results The Ca-Looping (CaL) process based upon the reversible carbonation/calcination of CaO is one of the most promising technologies for thermochemical energy storage (TCES). !"!#$ (&) ⟶ !"#(&) + !#* (+) ∆-.=+178 kJ/mol !"#(&) + !#* (+) ⟶ !"!#$ (&) ∆-.=-178 kJ/mol calcination carbonation
  8. 8. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Project Scope and Goals Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results SOCRATCES is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of CSP-CaL integration by erecting a pilot-scale (~10 kWth) plant that uses cheap, abundant and non-toxic materials as well as mature technologies used in the industry, such as solid-gas reactors, cyclones or gas-solid heat exchangers. SOCRATCES global objective is to develop a prototype that will reduce the core risks of scaling up the technology and solve challenges; further understand and optimise the operating efficiencies that could be obtained; with the longer-term goal of enabling highly competitive and sustainable CSP plants.
  9. 9. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Global Objective Develop a prototype that will reduce the core risks of scaling up the technology and solve challenge R & D Engineering & Construction Scaling-Up Assessment Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results New materials Reactions (Ch/Ph) Power Systems technologies Systems integration & control CSP systems
  10. 10. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. SOCRATCES Consortium SOCRATCES is an integral and multidisciplinary approach where different knowledge areas are involved ü Multidisciplinary R&D groups ü SMEs ü Companies Associations and Stakeholders offer the opportunity for wide dissemination of the project and will link the consortia with the relevant industries in Europe Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  11. 11. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Related projects Solar calcination Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Energy storage High-temperature solar receivers Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium (ELEMENTS; DOE) Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power (ELEMENTS; DOE) Demonstration of High-Temperature Calcium-Based Thermochemical Storage System for use with Concentrating Solar Power Facilities (APOLLO; DOE) CSP2: Concentrated solar power in particles (H2020) TCSPower: Thermochemical Energy Storage for CSP Plants (H2020) SOLPART: High temperature Solar-Heated Reactors for Industrials Production of Reactive Particulates (H2020) NEXT-CSP: High Temperature concentrated solar thermal power plant with particle receiver and direct thermal storage (H2020) SOCRATCES: Solar calcium-looping integration for thermo-chemical energy storage (H2020)
  12. 12. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results Why CaCO3/CaO? Group Example Hydrogen systems !"# + ∆"& ↔ ! + ( 2 "* !+"* ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ !+( - ) + "* ( / ) Carbonate systems !012 ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ !1( - ) + 01* ( / ) 03012 ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ 031( - ) + 01* ( / ) 45012 ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ 451( - ) + 01* ( / ) Hydroxide systems ! 1" * - + ∆"& ↔ !1( - ) + "* 1 ( / ) !+ 1" * - + ∆"& ↔ !+1( - ) + "* 1 ( / ) 03 1" * - + ∆"& ↔ 031( - ) + "* 1 ( / ) Redox systems !6 17 ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ 8!( - ) + 9 2 1* ( / ) 2:31* ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ 2:31( - ) + 1* ( / ) 20;2 1< ( - ) + ∆"& ↔ 60;1( - ) + 1* ( / ) Ammonia systems 2>"2 ( / ) + ∆"& ↔ >* ( / ) + 3"* ( / ) Organic systems 0"< ( / ) + "* 1( @ ) + ∆"& ↔ 01( / ) + 3"* ( / ) With a side reaction: 01( / ) + "* 1( @ ) ↔ 01* ( / ) + "* ( / ) + ∆"& 0"< ( / ) + 01* ( / ) + ∆"& ↔ 201( / ) + 2"* ( / ) With a side reaction: 01* ( / ) + "* ( / ) + ∆"& ↔ 01( / ) + "* 1 ( / ) Sulfur systems "* 41< ( / ) + ∆"& ↔ 41* ( / ) + "* 1 ( / ) + 1 2 1* ( / ) A proper TCES system for CSP storage should meet (Wentworth and Chen, 1976) • The reaction for storing the energy should occur with a high yield at T < 1000°C • The reverse reaction for generating heat should occur at T >550°C • Large ∆H° to maximize storage capacity • The compounds should be commercially available. Low cost • Reactions should be fast enough
  13. 13. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO calcination reaction is the basis of the cement industry Dates back to 6500 B.C., when Syrians discovered lime as a building material Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  14. 14. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 60s • CaCO3/CaO proposed as solar energy storage system 80s • Solar calciners 90s • CaL as post-combustionCO2 capture system 2010s • CSP-CaL integration schemes Flammant et al. (1980) CaOLING project (La Pereda)
  15. 15. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: CaCO3/CaO Energy input storage Energy release Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  16. 16. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. WP3 WP2 WP4 Research and design laboratory WP5: System Integration and Control WP1: Project Management WP6: Engineering and prototype construction WP7: Validation and test WP8: LCA, Risk analysis… WP9: Dissemination & Exploitation Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  17. 17. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities NH3/N2 CH4/H2O SO3/SO2 CaO/H2O Li2/H2O NH4HSO4/NH3 CaO/CO2 SrO/CO2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 100 300 500 700 900 1100 1300 Volumentricenergydensity(MJ/m 3 ) Turning tem perature (°C) 1. High energy storage density 2. Products can be stored at ambient temperature ü Lower thermal losses ü Lower utilities consumption ü Possibility for storing energy in long-term Molten salts→ T minimum storage ~200ºC Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  18. 18. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. 3. Materials à limestone, dolomite Necessary conditions for the massive development of any thermal storage system Low Price Widely available throughout the world Non-toxic Non-corrosive Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  19. 19. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 4. High temperature for releasing energy ü Energy production at very high temperature (650-1000ºC) depending of CO2 partial presssure ü Integration of high-efficiency power cycles 0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,1 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 00 Reactionrate(1/s) TºC P=3at m P=2at m P=1at m CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  20. 20. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 20 5. Materials and equipment already used at industrial scale - Closeness with the cement industry - Calciner (particles solar receiver) - Carbonator: Fluidized bed, entrained flow reactor, etc. - Closed Brayton cycle for power production - High-temperature solids handling - Cyclones - Storage vessels Arias et al. (2013) BAT for cement industry (2013) CSP-CaL: Advantages and opportunities
  21. 21. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. 1. High-temperature solar receiver i) Enough residence time to calcination occurs ii) Adequate particles size for proper handling iii) The system has to be closed to avoid CO2 losses iv) Thermal gradient over the particles must be avoided v) Continuous operation Limestone calcination only occurs fast under high CO2 partial pressure for reaction temperatures around 930-950ºC. Technological challenge Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results CSP-CaL: Challenges
  22. 22. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: challenges 2. Multicyclic CaO conversion CaO deactivation is highly dependent on the reactor conditions, CaO precursors and particles size Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  23. 23. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results • Prototype demonstration of capacity for energy storage. System tested at TRL5. • Validated kinetics models for both calcination and carbonation. • Successful calcination at prototype scale by means of flash calcination technology. • Successful carbonator design with possibility to scale-up. • Particles attrition, agglomeration and fouling analysis. • Successful solids conveying and control system management. • At commercial scale design, high CaL-power cycle efficiencies are expected (>45%) • At commercial scale, energy storage TCES cost expected are <12€/kWh
  24. 24. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Prototype construction in Seville (2019-2020) Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results
  25. 25. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. 1 2 3 5 4 CaO precursors: ü Low price ü wide availability ü harmlessness Reactants and products can be stored at ambient temperature Carbonation for generating heat ~650-1000ºC ü High efficient generation of electricity High energy density to maximize storage capacity Materials and process equipment Ambient temperature ü Well-known in the cement industry SOCRATCES’ highlights
  26. 26. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION https://socratces.eu/ cortiz7@us.es This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. This presentation reflects only the author's view and that the INEA is not responsible for any use that m ay be m ade of the inform ation it contains.
  27. 27. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage
  28. 28. Solar Calcium looping integRAtion for Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage
  29. 29. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: Ventajas y oportunidades Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 29 Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 g4 CaO storage CaCO3/CaO storage HE4 g5 s1 c1 g6 M-TURB g7 g8 g3 HE5 g9 HE3 g2 CO2 storage HE1 HE2 g1 I-TURB COMP g10 CARBONATOR Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 CaO storage CaCO3/CaO storage s1 c1 g4 g3 g2 CO2 storage HE1 HE2 g1 I-TURB CARBONATOR To storage Power block carbonationheat Directa (Brayton CO2 regenerativo) Indirecta 5. Integración directa o indirecta de ciclos de potencia ü Flexibilidad para el diseño ü Punto de partida: Alta temperatura de reacción ESTA DIAPOSITIVA LA PODRIA DEJAR PARA LA OTRA PRESENTACIÓN
  30. 30. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Calcium-Looping: Ventajas y oportunidades Introduction SOCRATCES project Technical approach Expected results 30 IDEM g1 Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 g8 Solar receiver calciner HRSG g2 steam v2 v3 ST cond v4 P1 v1 cooler-1 g3 g7a HXG g9 Carbonator s1 Active 8h/day (sun mode) Active 16h/day (night mode) Active 24h/day g4 g7b GS-HE1 s3 g1-1 GS-HE3 GS-HE2 s1-1 g8-1 g8-2 g9-1 g9-2 c1 s2 c2 CaO storage Lock hopper CO2 storage CO2 vessel g5-2 cooler-2 g5 heater HPS-COMP HPS-TURB g6 CO2 storage CO2 vessel g5-2 cooler-2 g5 heater HPS-COMP HPS-TURB g6 M-TURB g10 g11 g12 g13 cooler-3 s1-2 CaCO3/CaO storage M-COMP g1 Solids (CaCO3 /CaO) CaO CO2 g8 Solar receiver calciner HRSG g2 steam v2 v3 ST cond v4 P1 v1 cooler-1 g3 g7a HXG g9 Carbonator s1 Active 8h/day (sun mode) Active 16h/day (night mode) Active 24h/day g4 g7b GS-HE1 s3 g1-1 GS-HE3 GS-HE2 s1-1 g8-1 g8-2 g9-1 g9-2 c1 s2 c2 CaO storage Lock hopper CO2 storage CO2 vessel g5-2 cooler-2 g5 heater HPS-COMP HPS-TURB g6 M-TURB g10 g11 g12 g13 cooler-3 s1-2 CaCO3/CaO storage M-COMP 30% 32% 34% 36% 38% 40% 2 2, 3 2, 6 2, 9 3, 2 3, 5 3, 8 4, 1 4, 4 4, 7 5 overallplantefficiency PR case1 case3 ( 3i nt ercoo ler s)
  31. 31. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Retos 31 Calcinación solar: prototipos y resultados Receptor de partículas en caída Ho et al. (2013) • Prototipo a escala de MW • ResultadosàDT=300ºC con 80W/cm2 • Alta eficiencia térmica (>50%) • Sin experimentación con CaCO3 • Rotura/desgaste de partículas • Necesidad de incrementar el tiempo de residencia
  32. 32. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Retos 32 Calcinación solar: prototipos y resultados Receptor centrífugo • Tecnología muy desarrollada en cementeras • Tiempo de residencia ajustable • Buenos coeficientes de transferencia • Limitaciones geométrica para la integración • Amplia experimentación con CaCO3 Flam m ant et al. (1980) M eier et al. (2004) M eier et al. (2006). 2 kW t solar furnace reactor that presented a total absorptance about 0.9-1 - High relevance of radiative properties of the solar reactor. - A therm al efficiency of 0.1-0.3 was achieved - m axim um calcination degree of 0.6 - The residence tim e is only dependent on the rotation speed - m axim um particles outlet tem perature reached 1500ºC. 10 kW t solar rotary kiln reactor A therm al efficiency of 0.2 was achieved - Residence tim e 3-7 m in - Calcination tem perature 1050-1150ºC - m axim um calcination degree >95% indirect heating 10 kW t m ulti-tube rotary kiln A therm al efficiency of 0.3-0.35 was achieved - m axim um calcination degree >98% - particles outlet tem perature reached 1122ºC.
  33. 33. This Project has received funding from European Com m ission by m eans of Horizon 2020,the EU Fram ework Program m e for Research & Innovation, under Grant Agreem ent no.727348. Retos 33 Calcinación solar: prototipos y resultados Receptor de lecho fluidizado • Alta inercia térmica • Reducción gradientes térmicos • Buenos coeficientes de transferencia • Limitaciones geométrica para la integración • Integración tecnología beam-down • Experimentación con CaCO3 Flammant et al. (1980) Chirone et al. (2013)

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