Week 8 Socioemotional Development


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Socioemotional Development and Self Concept

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Week 8 Socioemotional Development

  1. 1. Prepared by: Madam Ng Pei Fern Education Department ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  2. 2. Outline : <ul><li>Erik Erikson’s Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of psychosocial theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s eight stages of human development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of self concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of self concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting self concept among children in classroom </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  3. 3. Tutorial Presentation Topic <ul><li>Describe one stage of Erikson’s Theory particular to primary school students and issues that teacher may encounter at this stage </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  4. 4. Group Discussion <ul><li>During adolescence , students may experience a crisis in personal identity . Discuss strategies a teacher can use to help students deal with identity problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how a teacher can help students to develop positive self-concept </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  5. 5. Why do we study the socioemotional development of a child? <ul><li>It influences both children’s motivation and learning in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers who understand these areas of development are able to promote learning & help students to grow into satisfied adults and capable citizens. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  6. 6. Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development <ul><li>This theory emphasized the importance of social relationship with individuals in the child environment. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Erikson, psychosocial development emphasized the emergence of self, the search for identity, individual’s relationships with others, and the role of culture throughout ones life. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 8 stages of psychosocial development over the lifespan. These stages are interdependent. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  7. 7. Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development <ul><li>Each stage focuses on one issue or crisis that is especially important at that particular time of life. </li></ul><ul><li>How the person resolves these issues is reflected in his or her personality and social relationship . </li></ul><ul><li>If an issue is resolved positively, this will be reflected in positive characteristics, such as trust, autonomy, initiative & industry. </li></ul><ul><li>If not, the person will be psychologically troubled & cope less effectively with subsequent crises. </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which the individual resolves each crisis will affect the person’s self image and views of the society. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  8. 8. 8 stages of Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Trust Vs Mistrust (Birth to 18 moths) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy Vs Shame/doubt (1 ½ months to 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative Vs guilt (3-6 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Vs Inferiority (6-12 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Vs Role Confusion (12-18 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy Vs Isolation (18-35 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity Vs Stagnation (35-65 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity Vs Despair (65 years above) </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  9. 9. Trust Vs Mistrust (Birth – 18 months) Demonstration Game Watch this Video and reflect ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  10. 10. Trust Vs Mistrust <ul><li>During this stage, a baby learns whether people are dependable or not, depending on whether or not the baby gets his or her needs met. </li></ul><ul><li>If the needs of the baby are not met, then mistrust develops, and that carries on through the rest of the seven stages. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue that one should gain in stage one is hope/faith . </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  11. 11. Implication <ul><li>When facing the children who have profound mistrust issues, teachers should set and constantly enforce safety routine rules in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are genuinely concerned with their best interest & classroom is safe and filled with love . </li></ul><ul><li>These children can be paired with a peer through buddy system with whom they can develop trusting relationship </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  12. 12. Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt <ul><li>At this stage, a child is becoming an individual . He is toilet training and building his muscles to walk. He is learning the control that he has. </li></ul><ul><li>If he does not get the support he needs from the people around him, then he will start feeling some shame and doubt . </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to let him experiment with his control, but be there to support him. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue he walks out of this stage with is willpower and determination . </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  13. 13. Implication <ul><li>Give opportunities & supports for the children to try new skills . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for children to practice being autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>Do not humiliate or punish the children physically or verbally that would lead to feeling of shame or doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Set up simple rules & routines that are easily understood and encourage self-discipline. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  14. 14. Initiative vs. Guilt <ul><li>A child in this stage is a lot more active . She plays a lot, and likes to explore. She will start developing a conscience, and an understanding between right and wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Support is a key issue in this stage as well. Without support, a sense of guilt can develop and follow through the rest of the stages until the conflict is dealt with. </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of purpose is the virtue she will gain when things go well in stage three. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  15. 15. Implication : <ul><li>Praise children for their initiative in trying new skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow developmentally appropriate practice . </li></ul><ul><li>Give the children plenty of opportunities to try new skills through play . </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive feedbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the children have a chance to experience success </li></ul><ul><li>Be tolerant of mistakes , especially when they are attempting to do something on their own. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  16. 16. Industry vs. Inferiority <ul><li>A child needs to feel a sense of achievement in the work he does, which makes school so important in these early years. </li></ul><ul><li>If this crisis of needing to find a sense of achievement fails, then he may be left feeling inferior . </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue he aims to achieve is competency . This, too, will carry through the rest of the stages. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  17. 17. Implication <ul><li>Provide the children with the academic tasks that are challenging yet within their ability </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulate & recognize their efforts even if they are small one. Teachers providing both verbal & written feedback can accomplish this. </li></ul><ul><li>Give children opportunities to share their new skill or expertise with other children. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to set reasonable goals . </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the different talents & gifts in the children </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  18. 18. Identity vs. Role confusion <ul><li>An adolescent is trying to figure out who she is and where she belongs in the world . She will begin to experiment with different aspects of her personality, and break away from her parents. </li></ul><ul><li>The experimentation is important. The more she experiments, the more she will learn about herself. </li></ul><ul><li>If the crisis is not met positively, and she does not gain a strong sense of self, she will experience some identity confusion and negative identity issues. These issues will carry on through the rest of her stages. </li></ul><ul><li>During this stage, she will learn the virtue of loyalty . </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  19. 19. Implication <ul><li>Provide opportunities for adolescents to explore their own ability & to try various activities according to their interest </li></ul><ul><li>Promote awareness of a variety of career opportunities that are suitable with their interest & capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Invite personalities to talk about different professions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for adolescents to work together in a project & share the same interest </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise communication & listening skills </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  20. 20. Intimacy Vs. Isolation <ul><li>This is the time frame when most people get married . </li></ul><ul><li>The major crisis is the development of a true & intimate relationship through marriage & starting their own family. </li></ul><ul><li>If his crisis goes unresolved, he may end up isolating himself & tend to avoid relationship with others. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue one learns in stage six is love . </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  21. 21. Generativity vs. Stagnation <ul><li>A person in stage seven works toward generating work and supporting the next generation . </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who fail will experience stagnation & become overly self occupied. </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue one learns in stage six is caring. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  22. 22. Ego-Integrity vs. Despair <ul><li>In this stage, one should begin feeling fulfilled with the life he has lead. He may review his lives with a sense of satisfaction & acceptance . </li></ul><ul><li>On the flipside, he can become bitter and, if he is closer to the despair side of the spectrum, may view their lives as unsuccessful & meaningless . </li></ul><ul><li>The virtue one gains in stage eight is wisdom (approach death without fear). </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  23. 23. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas <ul><li>Stage One: Trust Versus Mistrust (Birth-1): Children are completely dependent on others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust : Established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistrust : Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Two: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (1-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy: Doing things for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  24. 24. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) <ul><li>Stage Three: Initiative Versus Guilt (3-5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative : Parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt : May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Four: Industry Versus Inferiority (6-12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry : Occurs when child is praised for productive activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferiority : Occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  25. 25. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) <ul><li>Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity Versus Role Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity : For adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Confusion : Occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Six (Young adulthood): Intimacy Versus Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy : Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation : Feeling alone and uncared for in life </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  26. 26. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) <ul><li>Stage Seven (Middle adulthood): Generativity Versus Stagnation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity : Interest in guiding the next generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stagnation : When one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Eight (Late adulthood): Integrity Versus Despair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity : Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despair : Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse. </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  27. 27. What is self concept? ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  28. 28. Self Concept: Definition <ul><li>“The composite of ideas, feeling, and attitudes people have about themselves” </li></ul><ul><li>(Hilgard, Atkinson & Atkinson, 1979) </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  29. 29. <ul><li>How do you see yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel about yourself? </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  30. 30. How do you see yourself? How do you feel about yourself? ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  31. 31. Self concept <ul><li>An individual’s self-concept keeps changing as he tries to achieve what he wants </li></ul><ul><li>The development of self concept depends on acceptance & treatment from family, society & environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It also depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love & support from their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability & ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family & the society acceptance of them </li></ul></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  32. 32. Self concept Vs Self esteem <ul><li>Self-concept: Picture or perception of ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Self Esteem: Feelings we have about ourselves </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  33. 33. Self-Esteem…What’s it made of? <ul><li>Your self-esteem is made up of all the experiences and interpersonal relationships you’ve had in your life. Everyone you’ve ever met has added to or taken away from how you see yourself! </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  34. 34. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  35. 35. Self-Esteem Development Across the Lifespan ( Source: Robins & Trzesniewski, 2005). <ul><li>Young children : high self esteem due to unrealistically positive self views </li></ul><ul><li>Older children : declining self esteem due to external feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence: declining self esteem due to abstract thinking about body image & future </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood : increasing self esteem due to increased position of power & status; peak late 60s </li></ul><ul><li>Old Age : decline in self esteem due to changing roles, relationships & physical functioning; decline in narcissism & feel modest, humble, & balanced </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  36. 36. Types of Self-Concept <ul><li>Positive Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Where the individual is well adjusted personally & socially </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Where the individual has difficulty in accepting themselves and often make poor personal & social adjustments. </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  37. 37. Types of Self-Concept ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  38. 38. How is self-concept built & destroyed <ul><li>Build </li></ul><ul><li>Find a good role model </li></ul><ul><li>Praise & compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the positive </li></ul><ul><li>Keep criticism to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Set & achieve goals </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing yourself to others </li></ul><ul><li>Putting yourself down </li></ul><ul><li>Drug abuse </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  39. 39. Tips for building Self Esteem <ul><li>Identify with people, books, videos, television shows, etc., that build your self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Build others – give sincere compliments often </li></ul><ul><li>Think positively </li></ul><ul><li>Set and achieve goals </li></ul><ul><li>Do something challenging each day </li></ul><ul><li>Look your best </li></ul><ul><li>Eat correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Do something for someone else </li></ul><ul><li>Learn a new skill </li></ul><ul><li>“ Act as if” you possess traits you would like to have </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  40. 40. Tips for building Self Esteem <ul><li>Observe self-concept people </li></ul><ul><li>Handle things one at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Use criticism constructively </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help – take advantage of learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your personal living space </li></ul><ul><li>Allow personal growth time each day </li></ul><ul><li>Post self-improvement reminders in obvious places </li></ul><ul><li>Do not say negative things about yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Reward yourself often </li></ul><ul><li>List your accomplishments each evening </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer to share your skills with others </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  41. 41. Ways a Teacher can Help to form Positive Self-concept <ul><li>Accept student as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate a norm that all students are valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the idea that there are many valuable skills in everybody </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid setting up negative competition among students </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments to ability grouping students should be done flexibly </li></ul><ul><li>Never tell a student that he of she is “dumb” & avoid implying this by word or action </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unnecessary distinctions among students </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti
  42. 42. Ways a Teacher can Help to form Positive Self-concept <ul><li>Avoid unnecessary distinctions among students </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize progress rather than level of ability </li></ul><ul><li>Value all kinds of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Focus praise and evaluation on effort, not ability </li></ul><ul><li>Give your student a chance to express their feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for classroom interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure that rules are explicit and firmly established </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for each student to experience success </li></ul>ngpeifern/jip/ipti